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The Estimation Analysis Method of the Annual Operation Cost of Korean High-rise Condominiums

  • Ko, Eun Hyung;Choi, Jun Young
    • Architectural research
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.11-18
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    • 2005
  • In today's building industry the emphasis has been geared more towards construction, thus building maintenance and life cycle have been neglected until now. A direct result of this neglect is the rapid aging of building, which leads to more cost-effective decision making methods for the prolongation of building life span. The following study is conducted in the area of Daegu and Seoul in order to develop the estimation analysis method of the annual operation cost of the Korean high-rise condominiums for the cost-effective decision making support through mathematical and statistical analyses including the present value and standardized measurement corrections. Based on the assumption that the life expectancy of the high rise condominium is 50 years, initial cost is ₩421,212/$m^2$, and a total sum of yearly operation cost during life expectancy is ₩2,154,499//$m^2$), yearly accumulated operation cost is shown as below: $AOC=0.7097t^4-38.803t^3+806.95t^2+11045t-496.52$ ($R^2=0.98$) (Here, AOC = Accumulated Operation Cost, t = given years)

Maximum Efficiency Operation of Three-Level T-type Inverter for Low-Voltage and Low-Power Home Appliances

  • Shin, Seung-Min;Ahn, Jung-Hoon;Lee, Byoung-Kuk
    • Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.586-594
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    • 2015
  • This paper proposes a maximum efficiency operation strategy for three-level T-type inverter in entire operation areas. The three-level T-type inverter has higher and lower efficiency areas compared with two-level inverter. The proposed strategy aims to operate in the maximum efficiency point for the low-voltage and low-power home appliances. The three-level T-type inverter is analyzed in detail, and the two operation mode selection strategy is developed. The proposed algorithm is verified by theoretical analysis and experimental results.

The Change of Pollution Loads flowing into Mokpo Harbour Due to the Operation of Mokpo Municipal Sewage Treatment Plant (목포하수처리장 가동에 따른 목포항 유입 오염부하량의 변화)

  • 김광수
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.39-44
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    • 2002
  • In order to study the change of pollution loads flowing into Mokpo harbour after the operation of Mokpo Municipal Sewage Treatment Plant (MMSTP) and to evaluate the contribution of MMSTP operation to the improvement of marine water quality of Mokpo harbour, the pollution loads flowing into Mokpo harbour from land in dry weather were surveyed and estimated on the bases of the seasonal flow rates and the seasonal water qualities of streams and effluents located around Mokpo harbour from summer, 1997 to spring, 1998 before the operation of MMSTP, and the pollution loads of the inflow and the effluent of MMSTP were also surveyed and estimated from winter, 1998 to spring, 1999 after the operation of MMSTP. The treatment rates of MMSTP were shown to be about 49% in COD, 76% in TSS, 79% in VSS, 3% in T-N, 7% in DIP, 29% in T-P and -32% in DIN. The change rates of pollution loads flowing into the inner harbour of Mokpo due to the operation of MMSTP were shown to be about 56% In COD, 78% in TSS, 84% in VSS, 45% in DIN, 22% in T-N, 34% in T-P and -14% in DIP. The contribution rates of MMSTP operation to the reduction of total pollution loads flowing into the entire Mokpo harbour were found to be about 3% in COD, 3% in 755,5% in VSS,1% in DIP, 3% in T-P and -1% in DIN.

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Influence of Propofol, Isoflurane and Enflurance on Levels of Serum Interleukin-8 and Interleukin-10 in Cancer Patients

  • Liu, Tie-Cheng
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.16
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    • pp.6703-6707
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    • 2014
  • Objective: To observe the influence of propofol, isoflurane and enflurance on interleukin-8 (IL-8) and IL-10 levels in cancer patients. Methods: Ninety cancer patients with selective operation from March 2011 to May 2014 were randomly divided into group A (34 cases), group B (28 cases) and group C (28 cases). Intramuscular injections of scopine hydrochloride and phenobarbital sodium were routinely conducted to 3 groups. After general anesthesia was induced, tracheal intubations were given. During the maintenance of anesthesia, 0.5~1.0 mg/kg propofol was intravenously injected to group A discontinuously, while continuous suctions of isoflurane and enflurance were subsequently performed to group B and C correspondingly. Clinical outcomes, postoperative complications as well as serum IL-8 and IL-10 levels before operation (T0), at the time of skin incision (T1), 3 h after the beginning of the operation (T2) and 24 h (T3) and 72 h (T4) after the operation were observed among 3 groups. Results: Operations in all groups were successfully completed. The rates of surgery associated complications were 8.82% (3/34), 7.14% (2/28) and 7.14% (2/28) in group A, B and C, respectively, and there were no significant differences (P>0.05). Serum IL-8 and IL-10 levels increased gradually from the beginning of the operation and reached the peak at T3, and were evidently higher at each time point than at T0 (P<0.01). At T1, serum IL-8 and IL-10 levels had no significant differences among 3 groups (P>0.05), but the differences were significant at T2, T3 and T4 (P<0.05). Moreover, correlation analysis suggested that serum IL-8 level was in positive relation with IL-10 level (r=0.952, P<0.01). Conclusions: Propofol, which is better in inhibiting serum IL-8 secretion and improving IL-10 secretion than isoflurane and enflurance, can be regarded as a preferable anesthetic agent in inhibiting traumatic inflammatory responses.

Study on the optimum operation system of Sequencing Batch Reactor (연속 회분식 반응조의 최적 운전시스템에 관한 연구)

  • Eom, Tae Kyu;Ko, Eun Joo
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.54-61
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    • 1999
  • SBR process used to evaluate the removal of organics, nitrogen and phosphorus on the basis of a report of research on a precedence at various operation cycle and condition change. Effluent concentration of COD were 50mg/l, 50mg/l, 90mg/l respectively, The removal rates of COD were nearly over 95% at Run 1, 2 and 4. But at Run 3, Effluent concentration of COD was 255.0mg/l, The removal rate of COD was 87% at Run 3. As Oxic/Anoxic rate was fixed and operating cycle of Oxic/Anoxic was changed, the removal rates of T-N were 74.7%, 46.9%, 28.5%, 63.3% respectively at Run 1~4. The case of Run 1 was best result. The removal rates of T-P was appeared in proportion to T-N removal rates and rest of $NO_2-N$. The removal rates of T-P were 51.2%, 35.5%, 41.5%, 51.9% respectively. The removal rates of COD, T-N, T-P were influenced on the change of SBR operation cycle. As organic loading rate was $1.43kgCOD/m^3day$ and C/N ratio was 3.0, operation cycle of Run 1 was best condition of T-N removal rates and T-P removal.

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Changes in Lymphocyte Subsets following Open-Heart Surgery ; A Study for Changes in Lymphocyte Subsets (개심술 환자에서의 면역기능의 변화;T lymphocyte subset의 변화에 대한 고찰)

  • 황재준
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.25 no.11
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    • pp.1185-1191
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    • 1992
  • Cell mediated immunity is depressed following surgical procedure and the degree of immunosuppression is directly related to the magintude of the procedure, blood transfusion, and length of operation. So we would expect cardiac operations to be highly immunosuppressive, although little is konwn about their immunosuppressive effect. The nearly complete consumption of complement factors and decreased levels of IgM and IgG resulting in an impaired opsonizing capacity. Additionally, peripheral blood mononuclear cell counts including T-and B-lymphocytes and T-cell subsets are reduced. Depression of cell-mediated immunity following open-heart surgery is potentially detrimental because it could increase the susceptability of patients to viral and bacterial infection. We reviewed 20 patients after cardiac operation to search for changes in peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets. Lymphocyte subsets were measured by flow cytometer and the preoperative values of lymphocyte subsets were compared with those from the first, fourth, and seventh days after operation. After cardiac operation, total mumbers of T lymphocyte was severely depressed on the first postoperative day and returned to the preoperative level by the seventh day after operation. CD3, CD4, and CD8 lymphocytes were decreased on the first postoperative day and returned to the preoperative level by the seventh day also. There was four cases of wound infection and these patients had increased CD4 lympocyte and more decreased CD19 lymphocyte compared with the non-infected group. It is concluded from these data that cell-mediated immunity is significantly depressed for at least one week following open-heart surgery and this result was closely related to the postoperative infection.

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Effect of Intraoperative Glucose Fluctuation and Postoperative IL-6, TNF-α, CRP Levels on the Short-term Prognosis of Patients with Intracranial Supratentorial Neoplasms

  • Liu, Tie-Cheng;Liu, Qi-Ran;Huang, Ying
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.24
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    • pp.10879-10882
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    • 2015
  • Objective: To investigate the effect of intraoperative glucose fluctuation and postoperative interlukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-${\alpha}$ (TNF-${\alpha}$), C-reactive protein (CRP) levels on the short-term prognosis of patients with intracranial supratentorial neoplasms. Materials and Methods: Eighty-six patients undergoing intracranial excision were selected in The Second Hospital of Jilin University. According to the condition of glucose fluctuation, the patients were divided into group A (glucose fluctuation <2.2 mmol/L, n=57) and group B (glucose fluctuation ${\geq}2.2mmol/L$, n=29). Glucose was assessed by drawing 2 mL blood from internal jugular vein in two groups in the following time points, namely fasting blood glucose 1 d before operation ($T_0$), 5 min after anesthesia induction ($T_1$), intraoperative peak glucose ($T_2$), intraoperative lowest glucose ($T_3$), 5 min after closing the skull ($T_4$), immediately after returning to intensive care unit (ICU) ($T_5$) and 2 h after returning to ICU ($T_6$). 1 d before operation and 1, 3 and 6 d after operation, serum IL-6 and TNF-${\alpha}$ levels were detected with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and CRP level with immunoturbidimetry. Additionally, postoperative adverse reactions were monitored. Results: There was no statistical significance between two groups regarding the operation time, anesthesia time, amount of intraoperative bleeding and blood transfusion (P>0.05). The glucose levels in both groups at $T_1{\sim}T_6$ went up conspicuously compared with that at $T_0$ (P<0.01), and those in group B at $T_2$, $T_4$, $T_5$ and $T_6$ were significantly higher than in group A (P<0.01). Serum IL-6, TNF-${\alpha}$ and CRP levels in both groups 1, 3 and 6 d after operation increased markedly compared with 1 d before operation (P<0.01), but the increased range in group A was notably lower than in group B (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Postoperative incidences of hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia and myocardial ischemia in group A were significantly lower than in group B (P<0.05), and respiratory support time obviously shorter than in group B (P<0.01). Conclusions: The glucose fluctuation of patients undergoing intracranial excision is related to postoperative IL-6, TNF-${\alpha}$ and CRP levels and those with small range of glucose fluctuation have better prognosis.

The Mean Transit Time of the CBD and the Afferent Loop Using $^{99m}Tc-DISIDA$ Scintigram in Truncal Vagotomy (미주신경간절제술에 있어서 $^{99m}Tc-DISIDA$ 신티그램을 이용한 총수담관 및 Afferent loop의 평균지연시간)

  • Moon, Tae-Yong;Kim, Dong-Soo
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.199-203
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    • 1988
  • The authors observed functional change of the CBD and the afferent loop with the transit time of $^{99m}Tc-DISIDA$ scintigram in patients treated by the surgical operation of gastric ulcers and cancer at Busan National University Hospital from June, 1987 to April, 1988. So authors estimated the time between the peak activity of the CBD and the afferent loop (TCA), the half transit time of the CBD activity (t 1/2 CBD) and the half transit time of the afferent loop activity (t 1/2 A-loop) in 9 patients undergone truncal vagotomy, who have no specific symptoms at 2 to 6 months after the operation, 5 patients undergone the operation without truncal vagotomy, and 7 persons as a control group. The results were as follows: I) In control group, the mean TCA, t 1/2 CBD and t 1/2 duodenum were $8.6{\pm}9.0$ min, $38.7{\pm}17.3$ min. and $28.6{\pm}10.9$ min, respectively. 2) In the operation group without truncal vagotomy, the mean TCA, t 1/2 CBD and t 1/2 A-loop were $10.0{\pm}7.1$ min. $48.2{\pm}22.3$ min. and $39.4{\pm}26.7$ min. respectively. 3) In the operation group with truncal vagotomy, the mean TCA, t 1/2 CBD and t 1/2 A-loop were $15.0{\pm}8.7$ min., $36.1{\pm}16.5$ min. and $42.6{\pm}24.4$ min, respectively. From the above results, we concluded that the transit time of the CBD and the afferent loop is not affected by truncal vagotomy.

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3-Level T-type Inverter Operation Method Using Level Change

  • Kim, Tae-Hun;Lee, Woo-Cheol
    • Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.263-269
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    • 2018
  • In this study, a selective inverter operation between a 2-level voltage source converter (VSC) and a 3-level T-type VSC (3LT VSC) is proposed to improve the efficiency of a 3LT VSC. The 3LT VSC topology, except for its neutral-point switches, has similar operations as that of the 2-level VSC. If an operation mode is changed according to efficiency, the efficiency can be improved because efficiencies of each methods are depending on current and MI (Modulation Index). The proposed method calculates the power losses of the two topologies and operates as the having lower losses. To calculate the losses, the switching and conduction losses based on the operation mode of each topology were analyzed. The controller determined the operation mode of the 2- or 3-level VSC based on the power loss calculated during every cycle. The validity of the proposed control scheme was investigated through simulation and experiments. The waveform and average efficiency of each method were compared.

The Estimation of the contribution rate of Mokpo Municipal Sewage Treatment Plant to the Improvement of Marine Water Quality in Mokpo Harbour (목포항 수질개선에 대한 목포하수처리장의 기여율 산정)

  • Kim Kwang-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environment & Energy
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.37-44
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    • 2003
  • In order to evaluate the contribution of MMSTP operation to the improvement of marine water quality of Mokpo harbour and to estimate the change of pollution loads flowing into Mokpo harbour after the operation of Mokpo Municipal Sewage Treatment Plant (MMSTP), the pollution loads flowing into Mokpo harbour from land in dry weather were surveyed and estimated on the bases of the seasonal flow rates and the seasonal water qualities of streams and effluents located around Mokpo harbour from summer, 1997 to spring, 1998 before the operation of MMSTP, and the pollution loads of the inflow and the effluent of MMSTP were also surveyed and estimated from winter, 1998 to spring, 1999 after the operation of MMSTP. The treatment rates of MMSTP were shown to be about 49% in COD, 76% in TSS, 79% in VSS, 3% in T-N, 7% in DIP, 29% In T-P and -32% in DIN. The change rates of pollution loads flowing into the inner harbour of Mokpo due to the operation of MMSTP were shown to be about 56% in COD, 78% in TSS, 84% in VSS, 45% in DIN, 22% in T-N, 34% in T-P and -14% in DIP The contribution rates of MMSTP operation to the reduction of total pollution loads flowing into the entire Mokpo harbour were found to be about 3% in COD, 3% in TSS, 5% in VSS, 1% in DIP, 3% in T-P and -1% in DIN.

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