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Characteristics of the Taste in Traditional Korean Soybean Paste (한국 재래식 된장 맛의 특징)

  • 양성호;최명락;김종규;정영건
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.443-448
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    • 1992
  • We investigated characteristics of the taste components in traditional Korean soybean paste. The taste components in forty samples of the soybean paste were analyzed by gas chromatography, high pressure liquid chromatography and amino acid autoanalyzer and the taste of the soybean paste was investigated by sen-sory evaluation. The relationship between the taste components and sensory score was analyzed by the method of principal component analysis and stepwise multiple regression analysis. Characteristics of the traditional Korean soybean paste appeared to consist of sweet taste, palatable taste, saline taste, bitter taste and sour taste. They contribute to the characteristic taste with the contributing proportion of 25.97%, 17.84%, 8.58%, 7.79% and 3.12%, respectively.

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Salt Intake Behavior and Blood Pressure: the effect of taste sensitivity and preference (소금 섭취 행태와 혈압: 맛에 대한 민감도와 선호도의 영향)

  • Kim, Jin-Hee;Choi, Man-Kyu
    • Korean Journal of Human Ecology
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.837-848
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    • 2007
  • The literature suggested that a small reduction in overall blood pressure can have a large effect on overall prevalence of hypertension, and therefore, the affect of taste preferences of the population on salt intake should be considered for long-term blood pressure intervention programs. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of salt taste preference and salt taste sensitivity on salt intake behavior as risk factors for high blood pressure. We collected information on blood pressure, diet and lifestyle behaviors, salt taste preference and salt taste sensitivity from 540 respondents from Suseo-dong, Seoul. Salt taste sensitivity was assessed by administering a 1% NaCl solution to the subject's tongue and measuring the perceived intensity on 10 level scale. Salt intake behavior was classified into 3 categories: frequency of high-sodium foods, practice of salt-reducing behavior and frequency of vegetable and fruit intake. Salt taste preference showed a significant relation to the subjects' blood pressure, i.e. subjects with a higher salt preference had higher blood pressure. Salt taste sensitivity did not show a significant relation to blood pressure. However, there was a positive correlation between salt taste preference and salt taste sensitivity. Among the 3 indicators used to measure salt intake behavior, the practice of salt-reducing behavior remained significantly correlated to blood pressure. Moreover, salt-reducing behavior and salt taste preference showed a significant correlation, i.e. people who do not like salty foods tend to practice more salt-reducing behavior, leading to reduced levels in blood pressure. In a population, a small reduction in overall blood pressure can have large effects in overall prevalence of hypertension, in contrast to clinical studies where achievement of an individual's normal blood pressure is emphasized. Therefore, taste preference of the population should be considered for long-term blood pressure intervention programs.

Brief Review on the Standard of the Taste and Property -centered on the Mahwang(麻黃), Gyeji(桂枝), Jagyak(芍藥)- (기미론(氣味論)의 기준(基準)에 대(對)한 소고(小考) -마황(麻黃), 계지(桂枝), 작약(芍藥)을 중심(中心)으로-)

  • Lee, Tae Hee
    • Herbal Formula Science
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.123-127
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    • 2018
  • Objective : This research was performed In order to establish the standard of the proper and taste in Korean Medicine. Methods : The change of the proper and taste of Mahwang(麻黃), Gyeji(桂枝), Jagyak(芍藥) and the change of the interpretation of the effect was investigated literally. Results : The hypotheses could be induced as follows. The pungent taste of Mahwang(麻黃) and the sweet taste of Gyeji(桂枝) was inserted by Bonchogyeongso(本草經疏) in Ming Dynasty. In case of Jagyak(芍藥), the proper and taste was changed into sour and cold at Myeonguibyeollok(名醫別錄). It can be proposed that bitter, warm of Mahwang(麻黃), the pungent and warm of Gyeji(桂枝) and the bitter and neutral of Jagyak(芍藥) in Sinnongbonchogyeong(神農本草經) is the adequate proper and taste Conclusions : Therefore it can be hypothesized that the taste and property of Sinnongbonchogyeong(神農本草經) can be established as the standard of the taste and property of Korean Medicine. But in the case of Baekduong(白頭翁), there is the fault of transcribing. So the caution is needed to decide the adequate taste and property.

Taste Perceptions of Middle-aged and Elderly People Living in Rural Areas: Relationships among Threshold, Taste Preference and Physical Activity (농촌지역 중.노년의 맛 감지도: 인식한계값, 맛 기호도와 육체적 활동과의 관계)

  • Lee, Mee-Sook
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.670-678
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    • 2010
  • Recognition thresholds for NaCl, sucrose, citric acid, and caffeine, as well as the pleasant concentration of NaCl were assessed in 176 males and 312 females aged 50-88 years. Furthermore, relationships among taste sensitivities, taste preferences, and lifestyles were examined. The taste solutions were presented one after the other in ascending order using the sip-and-spit method. For the recognition thresholds of the 4 basic tastes, women perceived significantly lower concentrations than the men. However, the pleasant concentration of NaCl did not show a gender difference. Sensitivities for the 4 basic tastes did not decrease with age in the men, but they did significantly decrease with age for the women, especially for those above 70 years. For men, regular exercise was positively correlated with sensitivities for sour taste and bitter taste, and physical activity was negatively correlated with the pleasant concentrations of NaCl. For women, who had more physical activity, sensitivities for sweet taste and sour taste were lower compared to the others. This study indicates that the sensitivities for 4 basic tastes in water diminished with age, but pleasant salt concentration did not change with age. Further research on pleasant NaCl concentration is required to determine factors affecting salt preference, in order to decrease salt intake in the elderly.

A study on the perception of Korean traditional food by middle school students in Seoul (서울지역 중학생의 한국전통음식에 대한 인식도)

  • Oh, Na-Young;Han, Myung-Joo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.359-365
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    • 2009
  • The objective of this study was to investigate a method to improve and to increase the utilization of Korean traditional food in middle school students by examining preferences and perceptions. Middle school students in Seoul area were surveyed from 29 November to 6 December 2007. The results are summarized as follows: 83.9% students ate Korean food as breakfast. The reasons for the success of Korean food were 'Nation's traditional food' (29.2%), 'fit in taste' (27.4%), and 'suitable match of nutrients' (24.8%). Students responded that the following needed to be changed in order to improve Korean food: 'alleviation of strong taste' (30.3%), 'various cooking methods' (23.9%), and 'convenience of eating the food' (22.1%). Meal preferences in this survey of middle school students were 'Korean food' (4.09), 'Western food' (4.08), 'Japanese food' (4.00), 'Chinese food' (3.91) and 'Fast food' (3.55). Perceptions in the taste of Korean food were 'spicy taste' (3.28), 'hot taste' (3.22), and 'salty taste' (3.15). Male students (3.23) perceived a higher salty taste than female students (3.05). Expectations for the taste of Korean food included 'spicy taste' (3.16) and hot taste (3.03). Male students (3.25) anticipated the spicier taste more than female students (3.05).

A Case Report on the Taste Threshold Tests in Two Patients with Taste Disorder (미각 이상 환자의 미각 역치 검사에 관한 증례 보고)

  • Hong, Ju-Hee;Oh, Jeong-Kyu;Kho, Hong-Seop
    • Journal of Oral Medicine and Pain
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.127-131
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    • 2001
  • The authors performed the taste threshold tests in two patients complaining taste problem who visited the Department of Oral Diagnosis, Seoul National University Dental Hospital. The taste thresholds were determined using a concentration series of five tastants, sucrose ( sweet ), NaCl ( salty ), citric acid ( sour ), quinine hydrochloride ( bitter ) and monosodium glutamate ( umami ). The taste solutions were diluted by half quarter logarithmic steps. The two patients showed higher taste thresholds level than normal but the taste threshold results did not coincide with the patients appeal. Further researches are needed for developing simple and precise diagnostic methods which can be applied to the patients with taste disorder.

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Optimization of the Taste Components Composition in Traditional Korean Soybean Paste (한국 재래식 된장의 맛성분 조성의 최적화)

  • 양성호;최명락;김종규;정영건
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.449-453
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    • 1992
  • We investigated main effective taste components and optimization of taste component composition in traditional Korean soybean paste. In optimization of taste components the original data with 19 kinds of taste components which is consisted of bitter taste transformed with square root could explain the taste up to 78% (contributing proportion of leucine was 14.7%, isoleucine 12.7%, methionine 5.0%, higtidine 4.7% and arginine 1.1%), palatable taste (cysteine 8.4%, aspartic acid 2.0% and glutamic acid 0.7%), sweet taste (threonine 6.3%, serine 5.6%, sucrose 4.7%, glycine 1.6%, lysine 1.2%, fructose 0.6%, alanine 0.4% and glucose 0.3%), sour taste (oxalic acid 3.9% and succinic-fumaric-citric acid 3.6%) and saline taste (ash 0. 3%). In order to optimize the taste of traditional soybean paste, the constitution of taste components was analysed by multiple regression between the original data transformed with square root sensory scores of the soybean paste. This way explained the sensory evaluation best score.

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Comparison of salty taste acuity and salty taste preference with sodium intake and blood pressure based on zinc nutritional status in two rural populations in Korea

  • Choe, Jeong-Sook;Kim, Eun-Kyung;Kim, Eun-Kyung
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.6 no.6
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    • pp.534-541
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    • 2012
  • This study examined salty taste acuity and salty taste preference and sodium intake in relation to zinc nutritional status in 2 rural populations in Korea. And we also examined the main food contributors of their sodium intakes. We enrolled 218 adults (66 men and 152 women) from the Kangneung and Samcheok regions in Korea's Kangwon province in our study conducted from December 2011 to February 2012. Participants from each region were divided into 3 groups based on their serum zinc level (T1: lowest, T2: intermediate, T3: highest). We compared the salty taste acuity and preference, Na index (Dish Frequency Questionnaire for estimation of habitual sodium intake), blood pressure, and intakes of nutrients including sodium by 3 groups of serum zinc level. The results were as follows: a higher serum zinc level indicated a lower sodium intake and Na index (P<0.05). The salty taste acuity was considerably higher for participants from the Kangneung region than those from the Samcheok region (P<0.05). And the serum zinc level was significantly higher in participants from the Kangneung region than those from the Samcheok region (P<0.05). We further divided the participants into 2 groups: those who consumed more zinc than the recommended intake (RI) and the others. We compared salty taste acuity and salty taste preference in the 2 groups. The salty taste threshold and palatable salty taste concentrations were lower for the group with a zinc intake above RI than for the group with zinc intake below the RI. However, the difference was not significant. This study confirms that taste function differs depending on zinc nutritional status. In future, it is required to a large-scale, long-term, prospective study on the correlation between zinc intake, serum zinc levels, and taste perception function and blood pressure.

Association between taste perception, nutrient intake, and mental health in young Japanese women

  • Okayama, Tomoko;Watanabe, Hiroko
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.41-46
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    • 2019
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Taste perception is influenced by both nutritional factors and psychological factors. This study was undertaken to measure the 4 basic taste perceptions, nutrient intake, and mental health, and to examine the factors that affect insensitive taste perception in young Japanese women. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Young women in their late teens and twenties were enrolled as subjects. Taste perception was measured by applying the filter-paper disc method over areas of the chorda tympani nerve. Nutritional status was evaluated using brief, self-administered diet history questionnaires. The index of nutritional status was based on the 2015 Japanese dietary reference intakes. Mental health was assessed using the Japanese translation of the Profile of Mood States short version. This study was approved by the ethical committee at Osaka University. RESULTS: The normal taste perception group (four basic tastes [sweet, salty, sour, and bitter] identified as normal taste perception) comprised 55.4% of the subjects, while the abnormal taste perception group (more than 1 abnormal taste perception was perceived, regardless of flavor) comprised 44.6% of the subjects. There were no significant differences in nutrient intake (except manganese) and mental health between the normal and abnormal taste perception groups. Subjects who took 5 mg to less than 7.1 mg zinc per day were at significantly decreased risk of insensitive taste perception compared to subjects who consumed less than 5 mg zinc per day [Regression coefficient 0.831, 95% confidence interval 0.694-0.996]. CONCLUSION: The present results suggest that insensitive taste perception could be associated with zinc deficiency in young women in their late teens and twenties.

Study on the Development and Evaluation of Validity of Salty Taste Assessment Tool (짠맛 미각 판정 도구 개발 및 타당성 검증에 관한 연구)

  • Shin, Eun-Kyung;Lee, Hye-Jin;Ahn, Moon-Young;Lee, Yeon-Kyung
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.41 no.2
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    • pp.184-191
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    • 2008
  • The purpose of this study was to assess and evaluate salty taste preferences. Samples for the salty taste test were made by adding sodium chloride to soybean sprout soup at five different concentrations: 0.08% (unsalty) ; 0.16% (slightly unsalty) ; 0.31% (neither unsalty nor salty) ; 0.63% (slightly salty) ; and 1.25% (salty). Over 4,210 subjects were randomly selected and tested over a three-year period from 2005 to 2007 in Daegu. The results of the taste test were as follows: Forty-five percent of the subjects preferred soup with a salty taste and slightly salty taste. Most subjects preferred soup with a 0.31% concentration of sodium chloride. There were positive relationships between intensity and preference in 0.08%, 0.16%, and 0.31% concentrations, but there were negative relationships between intensity and preference in 0.63% and 1.25% concentrations (p<0.01). Upon examining a relationship between the taste assessment results and salty eating attitude scores, it was found that the subjects who preferred slightly salty and salty taste showed higher total scores in terms of habitual preference for/enjoyment of eating salty foods than the other groups. Comparing the taste test results with the subjects' stated preference, it was found that 70.3% of the subjects who were classified as preferring salty taste recognized this preference and 53.3% of the subjects who were classified into the population than tends to eat slightly salty food responded that they also tend to prefer a salty taste. Based on these results, this salty taste assessment study can be used as a practical and useful nutrition education tool for assessing and possibly reducing salt intake.