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Differential Expression of Taste Receptors in Tongue Papillae of DBA Mouse

  • Choi, Ha-Jung;Cho, Young-Kyung;Chung, Ki-Myung;Kim, Kyung-Nyun
    • International Journal of Oral Biology
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.25-32
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    • 2016
  • The tongue has 4 kinds of papillae, which are filiform, fungiform (FU), foliate (FO) and circumvallate papilla (CV). Tongue papillae except filiform papilla include taste buds. The papillae differ in taste sensitivities, likely due to differential expression of taste receptors. In this study, we evaluated differences in the expression levels of taste receptors in FU, FO and CV. Male DBA2 mice, 42-60 days old, were used in the study. Messenger RNAs were extracted from the murine epithelial tissues including FU, FO and CV. Cloned DNAs were synthesized by reverse transcription. Quantitative PCRs (qPCRs) were performed to determine mRNA expression levels of taste receptors. Results of qPCR revealed that the relative expression levels and patterns were different among FU, FO and CV. All three type 1 taste receptors were expressed FU, FO and CV at varying relative expression levels. All 35 kinds of type 2 taste receptors showed higher expression in FO and CV than in FU. Tas2r108 and Tas2r137 showed the two highest expression levels in all tested papillae. The differential expression levels and patterns of taste receptors among the three papillae could contribute to the different physiological sensitivities by tongue areas. Additional studies such as in situ hybridization or taste receptor cell activity recording is necessary to elucidate the functional relationship between expression levels of taste receptors and taste sensitivity.

The Taste Components of Ordinary Korean Soy sauce (한국재래식(韓國在來式) 간장의 맛 성분(成分)에 관한 연구(硏究))

  • Kim, Jong-Kyu;Kim, Chang-Sik
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.89-105
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    • 1980
  • Soysauce was made in the salt concentrations of 22.0% and 28.5%, and the changing aspects in nucleotides and their related compounds, free amino acids, free sugars and non-volatile amines which are related to the taste components during the fermentation process with a view to examining the taste components in the ordinary Korean soysauce were studied. And then artificial soysauce was prepared by applying the values derived from the analysis and measurement, and its sensory evaluation was performed. As the result of the sensory evaluation of artificial soysauce prepared according to the value of components analyzed from soysauce which had been fermented for fourty days in the salt concentration of 22.0%, it has been found that artificial soysauce was similar in taste to ordinary Korean soysauce. So, the following facts have been found: glutamic acid and aspartic acid have MSG-like taste, and IMP has a synergistic effect with these acids, which play great roles in ordinary Korean soysauce; both free sugars such as galactose and amino acids such as glycine, alanine and lysine have sweet taste; both amines such as tyramine and histamine, and amino acids such as valine, leucine, isoleucine, and phenylalanine have bitter taste; these components, combined with saline taste of salt and sour taste of organic acids, are assumed to form the unique taste in the ordinary Korean soysauce.

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Effective Components on the Taste of Ordinary Korean Soy Sauce (한국재래식 간장의 맛에 영향을 미치는 성분)

  • 김종규;정영건;양성호
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.285-287
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    • 1985
  • To investigate effective constituents of the many taste components in ordinary Korean soy sauce, we analyzed free amino acids, organic acids, free sugars and saline as taste components in ordinary Korean soy sauce, and determined sensory score of the ordinary Korean soy sauce taste with 45 persons of the trained pannels. The relationships between original data transformed with variables and sensory score of the ordinary Korean soy sauce were analyzed by stepwise multiple regression analysis. Eighty five percents of the ordinary Korean soy sauce taste is affected by twenty one kinds (Isoleucine, Leucine, Valine, NaCl, Lactic acid, Alanine, Phenylalanine, Tartaric acid, Sugar(\ulcorner), Proline, Malic acid, Glycine, Tryptophan, Arginine, Glutaric acid, Maltose, Histidine, Glucose, Fructose and Serine) of the taste components by stepwise multiple regression analysis of original data. Eighty one percents of the ordinary Korean soy sance taste is affected by sixteen kinds (Lactic acid, NaCl, Fumaric.Succinic acid, Tyrosine, Tartaric acid, Glycine, Malonic acid, Malic acid, Tryptophan, Glutaric acid, Methionine, Histidine, Cysteine, Maltose, Fructose and (Glutamic acid) of the taste components by stepwise multiple frgression analysis of original data transformed with square root. Eighty five percents of the ordinary Korean soy sauce taste is affected by nineteen kinds (Fumaric.Succinic acid, Lactic acid, Phenylalanine, NaCl, Tyrosine, Sugar(\ulcorner), Tartaric acid, Leucine, Glutaric acid, Methionine, Glycine, Tryptophan, Histidine, Proline, Cysteine, Glutamic acid, Maltose, Threonine and Oxalic acid) of the taste components by stepwise multiple regression analysis of original data transformed with logarithm.

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Studies On Whole Chinese Cabbage Kimchi -An Investigation on the Method of Making Kimchi and a Taste in the Taegu Area- (통배추김치에 관한 연구 -대구지역을 중심으로 담그는 방법과 기호에 관한 실태조사-)

  • 김명선;한재숙
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.13-19
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    • 1995
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the method of making whole Chinese cabbage Kimchi, the family's taste in Kimchi and the reason for disliking the taste of Kimchi in the Taegu area. The results were as follows; 1) Most housewives learned the method of making the Kimchi from their mothers. Method was as follows; First, scatter salt on the whole Chinese cabbage and soak that for 3∼6 hours. After, wash the whole Chinese cabbage 3 times. Then, add red pepper powder, garlic, ginger and salted fermented anchovy as basic seasoning. Be sure to, mix the red pepper powder and salted fermented anchovy until they taste hot and salty. Store the whole Chinese cabbage until they ferment. Afterwards store the whole Chinese cabbage in the refrigerator. 2) It was the whole Chinese cabbage Kimchi that most family members preferred. 3) Among the family members, the old age group preferred newly made Kimchi because of the cool and fresh taste. The adult group preferred fresh taste, also smell and peculiar taste of the seasoning were important. The adolescent group preferred fresh taste and sour taste. 4) It shows that most of the family likes Kimchi, and among the family members, about 25% of the sons and daughters dislike Kimchi. And it shows that all family members dislike salty taste. 5) The older housewives’ Kimchi was preferred over the younger housewives’ Kimchi.

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Bitter Taste, Rising New Functions and Significance of Extra-oral Expressions

  • Ki, Su-Young;Kim, Kyung-Nyun
    • International Journal of Oral Biology
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    • v.43 no.3
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    • pp.113-121
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    • 2018
  • Taste is closely related to intake of food. Taste perception is also influenced by type of food ingested, and nutrition and health status. Bitter taste plays an important role in the survival of human and animals to avoid probable toxic and harmful substances. Vertebrate animals recognize bitter taste through type 2 taste receptors (T2Rs). Several T2Rs have been expressed extra-oral such as the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, urogenital tract, brain and immune cells, and parts of their functions are being revealed. This review will discuss physiological roles of T2Rs in relation to innate immunity, secretion and smooth muscle contraction expressed in extra-oral cells and tissues, and we summarize relationships between polymorphisms in T2Rs and general or oral diseases. It is not a coincidence that animals pay much genetic costs for taste and smell during evolution.

Effect on Taste Correction of Jujube Water Extract Concentrate (대추 물추출 농축물의교미(嬌味)효과)

  • 김소연;김미경;장경숙;김순동
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.87-94
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    • 1994
  • The conditions of water extraction form the dried jujube (Zizyphus jujuba) were examined. The general components, taste, and effect of taste correction of jujube water extract concentrate (JWEC) were investigated. desirable condition for extraction was that 100g of dried jujube was added to 750$m\ell$ of water and heated for 80 minutes at 100$^{\circ}C$. The yield of JWEC was 50% and the manin component of it was sugar (90%). The major taste of JWEC was sweetness, and it had astringent, bitter, sour and salty tastes as incidental taste. The taste was changed to desirable taste when 15% of JWEC was added to coffee, 10% of JWEC was added to fermented soy sauce, thick soypaste mixed with red pepper, and vinegar, respectively.

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Detection, modulation, and transmission of sweet taste in regulation for energy homeostasis

  • Jyotaki, Masafumi;Ninomiya, Yuzo
    • International Journal of Oral Biology
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.49-52
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    • 2009
  • Perception of sweet compounds is important for animals to detect external carbohydrate source of calories and plays a crucial role in feeding behavior of animals. Recent progress in molecular genetic studies provides evidence for a candidate receptor (heterodimers with taste receptor type 1 member 2 and 3: T1R2/T1R3), and major downstream transduction molecules required for sweet taste signaling. Several studies demonstrated that the sweet taste signal can be modulated by a satiety hormone, leptin, through its receptors expressed in a subset of sweet-sensitive taste cells. Increase of internal energy storage in the adipose tissue leads to increase in the plasma leptin level which can reduce activities of sweet-sensitive cells. In human, thus, diurnal variation of plasma leptin level parallels variation of taste recognition thresholds for sweet compounds. This leptin modulation of sweet taste sensitivity may influence individuals' preference, ingestive behavior, and absorption of nutrients, thereby plays important roles in regulation of energy homeostasis.

Impaired Taste Associative Memory and Memory Enhancement by Feeding Omija in Parkinson's Disease Fly Model

  • Poudel, Seeta;Lee, Youngseok
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.41 no.7
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    • pp.646-652
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    • 2018
  • Neurodegeneration can result in memory loss in the central nervous system (CNS) and impairment of taste and smell in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). The neurodegeneration seen in Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by functional loss of dopaminergic neurons. Recent studies have also found a role for dopaminergic neurons in regulating taste memory rewards in insects. To investigate how taste memories and sugar sensitivity can be affected in PD, we utilized the $DJ-1{\beta}$ mutant fruit fly, $DJ-1{\beta}^{ex54}$, as a PD model. We performed binary choice feeding assays, electrophysiology and taste-mediated memory tests to explore the function of the $DJ-1{\beta}$ gene in terms of sugar sensitivity as well as associative taste memory. We found that PD flies exhibited an impaired ability to discriminate sucrose across a range of sugar concentrations, with normal responses at only very high concentrations of sugar. They also showed an impairment in associative taste memory. We highlight that the taste impairment and memory defect in $DJ-1{\beta}^{ex54}$ can be recovered by the expression of wild-type $DJ-1{\beta}$ gene in the dopaminergic neurons. We also emphasized the role of dopaminergic neurons in restoring taste memory function. This impaired memory property of $DJ-1{\beta}^{ex54}$ flies also allows them to be used as a model system for finding supplementary dietary foods that can improve memory function. Here we provide evidence that the associative taste memory of both control and $DJ-1{\beta}^{ex54}$ flies can be enhanced with dietary supplementation of the medicinal plant, omija.

Analysis of Significant Factor in the Flavor of Traditional Korean Soy Sauce (II) - Analysis of Nitrogen Compounds, Free Amino Acids and Nucleotides and Their Related Compounds - (한국전통간장의 맛과 향에 관여하는 주요 향미인자의 분석(II) - 질소 화합물, 유리아미노산 및 핵산관련물질 분석 -)

  • Park, Hyun-Kyung;Sohn, Kyung-Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.63-69
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    • 1997
  • This study was carried out in order to analyzed the changes in nitrogen containing taste compounds of three different types of traditional Korean soy sauce with varing ripening period, and to investigates correlation between sensory characteristics and taste compounds contents via contents assay and sensory evaluation of soy sauce samples. Total nitrogen, ammonia type nitrogen and amino type nitrogen contents showed the highest value in Kyupjang. 17 kinds of free amino acid was detected in Chungjangs and 16 kinds of free amino acid was detected in Kyupjang. Nucleotides and their related compounds detected were hypoxanthin, xanthin, IMP, AMP, Inosine, ADP. Free amino acid and nucleotides and their related compounds contents were highest in Kyupjang. Nitrogen related compounds content of high concentration soy sauce ripened over 150 days increased similarly with Kyupjang. In the sensory evaluation of soy sauce taste, Chungjang samples acquired the highest score in the offensive taste test while Kyupjang marked highest score for sweet taste, nutty taste, taste preference. High concentration soy sauce ripend over 150 days yielded the result similar to that of Kyupjang. Sweet taste showed positive correlation with nitrogen compounds. The materials that showed positive correlation with nutty and traditional soy sauce taste and taste preference were nitrogen compound, IMP, AMP. Except for tryptophan, all free amino acid showed positive correlation with nutty and traditional soy sauce taste. Particulary, taste preference correlated to lysine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid.

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The Effect of Zinc Status on Salty Taste Acuity, Salty Taste Preference, Sodium Intake and Blood Pressure in Korean Young Adults (한국 젊은 성인의 아연 영양 상태가 짠맛 인지와 기호도, 나트륨 섭취 및 혈압에 미치는 영향)

  • Ahn, Eun-Jung;Noh, Hwa-Young;Chung, Ja-Yong;Paik, Hee-Young
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.132-140
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    • 2010
  • High sodium intake is one of the risk factors for the development of hypertension. According to 2007 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, sodium intake of Korean was three times higher than adequate intake (1.5 g/day) recommended by Korean Dietary Reference Intakes. High sodium intake is related to high threshold and preference of salty taste. And zinc status is known to affect taste acuity. The hypothesis of this study is that zinc status is associated with salty taste acuity, preference, sodium intake and blood pressure. The subjects included in this study were 50 men and 41 women aged 20-29 y who did not smoke and not take supplements or medications regularly. Dietary intake data for 3 days were collected by 24-h recall for 1 day and dietary record for 2-days. Salty taste acuity and preference were determined by sensory test. Fasting serum concentration of zinc, height, weight, body composition and blood pressure data were collected. Salt taste preference in high zinc intake group ($\geq$ estimated average requirement, EAR; men-8.1 mg/day, women-7 mg/day) was higher than that in low zinc intake group (< EAR). Salty taste preference was inversely correlated with serum zinc concentration in people with low concentration of serum zinc (${\leqq}\;81\;{\mu}g/dL$)(r = -0.3520, p < 0.05). Diastolic blood pressure was higher in high sodium intake group than in low sodium intake group (p < 0.05), positively correlated with salty taste preference (r = 0.3866, p < 0.05) in subjects with daily zinc intake below the EAR. We conclude that low zinc status may be related to high salty taste preference and high blood pressure in Korean young adults.