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Studies on the udder characteristics of Korean Holstein cows (국내 젖소의 유방 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Jeong-chi;Lee, Chung-gil;Lee, Chai-yong
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.143-150
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    • 2004
  • This study was conducted to analyze the relationship between the occurrence of mastitis and the conformation of udders, teats, and teat tips of Holstein cows raised in Korea. Udders, teats, and teat tips were categorized by their conformation and the teat length, teat diameter and the distance from the tip of teat to the ground of 259 cows were measured. The most common shapes of udder, teats and teat tip were milking machine udder (27.4%), U-shaped teats (53.9%) and disk teat tip (53.8%), respectively. Mean teat length and diameters were 4.78 cm and 3.11 cm, respectively. The length and the diameter of front teats were significantly longer and wider than those of rear teats. However, the distance of the tip of teats to the ground was similar between front teats $(50.5{\pm}7.51cm)$ and rear teats $(50.7{\pm}8.83cm)$. The average daily milk yield was 26.4 kg/day, and the highest milk yield was observed from cows with large udder shape and above 4th lactation.

Study on the Relationship between Udder and Teat Characteristics and Somatic Cell Count (유방과 유두의 형태와 체세포수에 대한 연구)

  • Lee, Jeong-Chi;Lee, Chai-Yong
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.172-176
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    • 2007
  • The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between udder and teat characteristics and somatic cell count (SCC). A total of 749 (73.1%) milk samples from 1,024 quarters of 259 Holstein cows contained less than 200,000 somatic cells/ml, while 132 (12.9%) quarters contained more than 500,000 somatic cells/ml. Prior to data analysis, somatic cell counts were transformed to natural logarithm. The mean SCS {$log_e(SCS/10^3)$} of milk samples from the front quarters was lower than milk samples from the rear quarters. The highest SCS was observed from cows with the step-shaped udder and the pear-shaped teats, respectively. Increased SCS was observed from cows with large teat diameter, short teat length, short distance between the teat tip to floor (p<0.05) and with increase in parity, respectively.

An Investigation on Milking Disturbances of Mammary System (젖소 필유계(泌乳係)의 착유장애(搾乳障碍)에 관한 조사(調査))

  • Cheong, Chang Kook;Nam, Tchi Chou;Shin, Tong Woo
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.151-159
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    • 1981
  • An investigation on various causes of milking disturbances resulting from injuries and abnormalities of mammary system were made in 2,179 Holstein cows. To perform this investigation, 69 dairy farms of the suburban area of Seoul city, Gyeonggi-do and Chungnam provinces were andomly selected and subjected. Diagnosis was made by means of inspection and palpation of teat, insertion of teat canula, checking milk machines, anamneses and farm records. This investigation was, actively done from March 1977 to February 1979, The results obtained were summerized as follows; 1. It was found that 446 cows, accounting for 20.48% of 2,179 cows inspected, had supernumerary teats. Among them 53.59% had one, 43.72% had two, 2.47% had three, and 0.22% had four supernumerary teats, respectively. 2. Dry off quarters were found in 158 quarters which turned out to be 1.8% of 8,716 quarters inspected. Among dry off quarters, 62.02% seemed to be caused by mastitis, 30.37% by acquired teat obstructions, and 7.59% by congenital blind teats and glands respectively. 3. Teat sphincter stenosis was found in 154 teats of 50 cows, which represents 1.76% of 8,716 teats and 2.29% of 2,179 cows inspected, respectively. Among 154 teats with teat sphincter stenosis, 138 teats (85.7%) of 33 cows were found to be congenital and revealed highest incidence. 4. Loose sphincter was found in 78 teats of 36 cows, which figure 0.89% of 8,7l6 teats and 1.69% of 2,179 cows inspected, respectively. Among 78 teats with loose sphincter, 52 teats (66.66%) of 13 cows were found to be congenital and revealed highest incidence. 5. Injured teat tip caused by over milking of milk machine, was found in 229 teats of 156 cows, which figure 2.63% of 8,716 teats and 7.15% of 2,179 cows observed, respectively. 6. Other miscellaneous injuries and congenital abnormalities of teats and udders were diagnosed as follows: The teat laceration was found in 34 teats (0.39% of 8,716 teats), fissure of teat skin in 24 teats (0.28% of 8,716 teats), stricture of teat cistern in 21 teats (0.24% of 8,716 teats), teat fistula in 12 teats (0.14% of 8,716 teats), papillomas on testes in 8 teats (0.09% of 8,716 teats). Knothole orifice in 7 teats (0.08% of 8,716 teats), subcutaneous abscess of udder in 5 quarters (0.05% of 8,716 teats), membraneous obstruction of teat cistern in 4 teats (0.05% of 8,716 teats), and congenital short teat in 8 teats (0.09% of 8,716 teats), respectively.

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A Study on The Lesions of The Mammary Glands of Slaughtered Holstein Cows in Gwangju Area (광주지역에서 도태되는 홀스타인 소 유방의 병변 조사)

  • Lee, Chai-yong;Kim, Hye-ra;Lee, Jeong-chi;Kim, Sang-ki;Lee, Chung-gil;Kim, Jong-taek
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.295-299
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    • 2003
  • Macroscopic investigations were made on the lesions of a total of 101 udders from slaughtered Holstein cows in Gwangju area. Incidence of supernumerary teats was 9.9%. Gross lesions were found in the surface of teats of 29.4% of cows; these lesions comprised papilomatosis (16.0%), fronds (8.9%) and injury at the tip (3.2%). Approximately 95% of the cows had slight to severe teat orifice keratosis. On the mucous membranes of the teat cisterns, fibrosis (22.7%) and congestion (8.9%) were observed. Gross lesions were found in the mammary glands of 68% of cows; these lesions comprised fibrosis (18.8%), serous exudate (4.9%), fatty tissue (4.9%), pus (4.0%), congestion (2.0%).

Increases of Antibiotic Resistance in Excessive Use of Antibiotics in Smallholder Dairy Farms in Northern Thailand

  • Suriyasathaporn, W.;Chupia, V.;Sing-Lah, T.;Wongsawan, K.;Mektrirat, R.;Chaisri, W.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.25 no.9
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    • pp.1322-1328
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    • 2012
  • Antibiotic resistance patterns of bacterial isolates from both quarter teat-tip swabs and their quarter milk samples were evaluated in smallholder dairy farms in northern Thailand with excessive use of antibiotics (HIGH) compared with normal use (NORM). Results from teat-tip swab samples showed that the percentage of Bacillus spp. resistance to overall antibiotics was significantly lower in the NORM group than that of the HIGH group, whereas, the resistance percentage of coagulase-negative staphylococci in the NORM group was higher than that of the HIGH one. The overall mastitis-causing bacteria isolated from milk samples were environmental streptococci (13.8%), coagulase-negative staphylococci (9.9%), Staphylococcus aureus (5.4%), and Corynebacterium bovis (4.5%). Both staphylococci and streptococci had significantly higher percentages of resistance to cloxacillin and oxacillin in the HIGH group when compared to the NORM one. An occurrence of vancomycin-resistant bacteria was also observed in the HIGH group. In conclusion, the smallholder dairy farms with excessive use of antibiotics had a higher probability of antibiotic-resistant pattern than the farms with normal use.