• Title, Summary, Keyword: teats

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An Investigation on Milking Disturbances of Mammary System (젖소 필유계(泌乳係)의 착유장애(搾乳障碍)에 관한 조사(調査))

  • Cheong, Chang Kook;Nam, Tchi Chou;Shin, Tong Woo
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.151-159
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    • 1981
  • An investigation on various causes of milking disturbances resulting from injuries and abnormalities of mammary system were made in 2,179 Holstein cows. To perform this investigation, 69 dairy farms of the suburban area of Seoul city, Gyeonggi-do and Chungnam provinces were andomly selected and subjected. Diagnosis was made by means of inspection and palpation of teat, insertion of teat canula, checking milk machines, anamneses and farm records. This investigation was, actively done from March 1977 to February 1979, The results obtained were summerized as follows; 1. It was found that 446 cows, accounting for 20.48% of 2,179 cows inspected, had supernumerary teats. Among them 53.59% had one, 43.72% had two, 2.47% had three, and 0.22% had four supernumerary teats, respectively. 2. Dry off quarters were found in 158 quarters which turned out to be 1.8% of 8,716 quarters inspected. Among dry off quarters, 62.02% seemed to be caused by mastitis, 30.37% by acquired teat obstructions, and 7.59% by congenital blind teats and glands respectively. 3. Teat sphincter stenosis was found in 154 teats of 50 cows, which represents 1.76% of 8,716 teats and 2.29% of 2,179 cows inspected, respectively. Among 154 teats with teat sphincter stenosis, 138 teats (85.7%) of 33 cows were found to be congenital and revealed highest incidence. 4. Loose sphincter was found in 78 teats of 36 cows, which figure 0.89% of 8,7l6 teats and 1.69% of 2,179 cows inspected, respectively. Among 78 teats with loose sphincter, 52 teats (66.66%) of 13 cows were found to be congenital and revealed highest incidence. 5. Injured teat tip caused by over milking of milk machine, was found in 229 teats of 156 cows, which figure 2.63% of 8,716 teats and 7.15% of 2,179 cows observed, respectively. 6. Other miscellaneous injuries and congenital abnormalities of teats and udders were diagnosed as follows: The teat laceration was found in 34 teats (0.39% of 8,716 teats), fissure of teat skin in 24 teats (0.28% of 8,716 teats), stricture of teat cistern in 21 teats (0.24% of 8,716 teats), teat fistula in 12 teats (0.14% of 8,716 teats), papillomas on testes in 8 teats (0.09% of 8,716 teats). Knothole orifice in 7 teats (0.08% of 8,716 teats), subcutaneous abscess of udder in 5 quarters (0.05% of 8,716 teats), membraneous obstruction of teat cistern in 4 teats (0.05% of 8,716 teats), and congenital short teat in 8 teats (0.09% of 8,716 teats), respectively.

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Position Analysis of Cow Teats for Teat-cup Attachment System on Robotic Milking System (로봇 착유기의 착유컵 자동착탈을 위한 착유우의 유두위치 조사분석)

  • Kwon, D.J.;Kim, W.;Lee, D.W.
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.159-164
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    • 2002
  • The distance between teats of each head on twenty heads of holstein was measured in Nation Livestock Research Institute of Rural Development Administration to find design variables on the teat-cup attachment system of the auto-milking system before milking. The distance between teats was tested by the steps for milk producing in the morning and evening. The results from this study is summarized as follow. 1 The maximum and minimum length between front teats were 297mm and 112mm respectively, the maximum and minimum length between rear teats were 231mm and 36mm and the maximum and minimum length between left front and left rear were 220 and 84mm. And the maximum length of right front and right rear were 205mm and 90mm. A relative position of the each teats was asymmetric. 2. The size of teats, the length between front teats, and the length between rear teats by lactating period were very much changed for its milking. 3. The design variables on the teat-cup attachment system was found by the length between each teats tested. Since the position of teat-cup is changed by milking environment for a cow to milk, the design variables should be considered to be asymmetric area between four teat of COW.

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Studies on the udder characteristics of Korean Holstein cows (국내 젖소의 유방 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Jeong-chi;Lee, Chung-gil;Lee, Chai-yong
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.143-150
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    • 2004
  • This study was conducted to analyze the relationship between the occurrence of mastitis and the conformation of udders, teats, and teat tips of Holstein cows raised in Korea. Udders, teats, and teat tips were categorized by their conformation and the teat length, teat diameter and the distance from the tip of teat to the ground of 259 cows were measured. The most common shapes of udder, teats and teat tip were milking machine udder (27.4%), U-shaped teats (53.9%) and disk teat tip (53.8%), respectively. Mean teat length and diameters were 4.78 cm and 3.11 cm, respectively. The length and the diameter of front teats were significantly longer and wider than those of rear teats. However, the distance of the tip of teats to the ground was similar between front teats $(50.5{\pm}7.51cm)$ and rear teats $(50.7{\pm}8.83cm)$. The average daily milk yield was 26.4 kg/day, and the highest milk yield was observed from cows with large udder shape and above 4th lactation.

A Stereo-Vision System for 3D Position Recognition of Cow Teats on Robot Milking System (로봇 착유시스템의 3차원 유두위치인식을 위한 스테레오비젼 시스템)

  • Kim, Woong;Min, Byeong-Ro;Lee, Dea-Weon
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.44-49
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    • 2007
  • A stereo vision system was developed for robot milking system (RMS) using two monochromatic cameras. An algorithm for inverse perspective transformation was developed for the 3-D information acquisition of all teats. To verify performance of the algorithm in the stereo vision system, indoor tests were carried out using a test-board and model teats. A real cow and a model cow were used to measure distance errors. The maximum distance errors of test-board, model teats and real teats were 0.5 mm, 4.9 mm and 6 mm, respectively. The average distance errors of model teats and real teats were 2.9 mm and 4.43 mm, respectively. Therefore, it was concluded that this algorithm was sufficient for the RMS to be applied.

Image Processing for Recognition of Cow Teats and Selection of a NIR Filter for Robot Milking System (로봇 착유시스템을 위한 NIR 필터 선정 및 유두인식 영상처리)

  • Kim W.;Lee D. W.
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.30 no.5
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    • pp.299-305
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    • 2005
  • This study was developed image processing algorithm for recognition of few teats of a cow in the image using black and white camera attached with infrared filter. Spectroscopic analysis was used for selection of a NIR filter to separate teats from udder skin in the image captured. To verify the performance of image processing algorithm was developed and NIR filter was selected, carried out an experiment with cows. NIR band-pass filter was used to pass the 975nm band of light spectrum. The image processing algorithm was developed could recognize all teats and the process time was 0.9 second to recognize the all teats and to acquire end position of teats.

Bovine papillomavirus detection from bovine teats using immunohistochemistry and electronmicroscopy (면역조직화학염색 및 전자현미경검사를 이용한 소 유두로부터 소유두종바이러스 검출)

  • Bae, You-Chan;Yoon, Soon-Seek;Park, Jung-Won;Lee, Cheong-San;Jean, Yong-Hwa;Kang, Mun-Il
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.233-238
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    • 2005
  • We examined the teats of slaughtered cattles to investigate the prevalence of papilloma and to detect bovine papilloma virus (BPV) from those samples. Among 880 heads, 432 (49.0%) was Holstein and 448 (51.0%) was Korean native cattle. Grossly, out of 432 heads (Holstein), 263 (60.8%) had papilloma lesions on teats. However, out of 448 heads (Korean native cattle), only 33 (7.4%) had papilloma lesions on teats. Immunohistochemically, BPV antigen was detected in 35 heads (22.9%) of 153 (Holstein) which had papilloma lesions. But, in Korean native cattle, BPV antigen was detected in 1 head (3.8%) of 26. Electronmicroscopically, in Holstein papilloma cases, BPV particles was detected in 31 heads (39.2%) of 79. This study revealed that papilloma was very prevalent in holstein teats, Korea and the prevalence of papilloma in Holstein was 8 times higher than that of Korean native cattle. Moreover, it was needed to consider gross and histopathological lesions to confirm BPV infection on teats because the sensitivity of immunohistochemistry and electronmicroscopy was not high.

Study on the Anatomy and Histology of Bovine Teat and Leaking Teat Surgery (유두(乳頭)의 해부(解剖) 및 조직학적(組織學的) 관찰(觀察)과 Leaking teat의 수술적(手術的) 교정법(矯正法)에 관(關)하여)

  • Jang, In Ho;Cheong, Chang Kook
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 1963
  • 1. Anatomical and histological study on the bovine teat have been described. 2. Two different types of suture methods were applied to the artificial leaking teats experimentally produced in laboratory and the accuracy between the two methods have been compared. 3. The instruments, anesthesia, restraint of animal and surgical technic used in the surgical correction of leaking teats in writers hand have been described. 4. Of the eleven cases of leaking teats operated in the field, seven cases healed perfectly and the rest of cases failed to heal due to the faulty postoperative care in owner's hands and or writer's surgical error.

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Basic Study Measuring Cow Body Parameters and Adjusting Her Postures for an Robotic Milking System (로봇 착유기를 위한 젖소 체위측정 및 자세조정의 기초 연구)

  • Kwon, D.J.;Kim, W.;Lee, D.W.
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.171-176
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    • 2002
  • Physical parameters of milk cow were measured to design and build RMS(Robotic Milking System) with a tape-measurer and body parameter measurer. The parameters are very important variables to design an RMS. For the working zone space of an RMS manipulator and the movement blunting of milk cow, an interval frame was installed on the stall bottom, and then cow's behavioral reactions were tested. The results from this study is summarized as follow. 1. On the general physical condition measurement, the maximum, minimum and average body length of cow which is related to the space that the manipulator could work into the RMS were 175cm, 144cm, and 163cm respectively. It appeared that the average distance between bottom and chest was 60cm. 2. The average length between fore teats, fore and hind teats and hind teats were 178mm, 150mm and 95mm respectively. It appeared that the average length between bottom and teat attachments was 544mm, and the average length between fore teats and tail-end was 331mm. 3. Although a cow kept a some extent length between hind legs for milking, it looked a stable pose. However, the cow kept a some extent distance between front legs for milking, it looked a unstable pose. Based on results of this test, an interval frame of stall bottom should be installed around the position which was located at its hind legs.

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The Influence of Dam Weight, Body Condition and Udder Scores on Calf Birth Weight and Preweaning Growth Rates in Beef Cattle

  • Paputungan, U.;Makarechian, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.435-439
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    • 2000
  • Records of weight, age, body condition at calving and udder characteristics scores of 425 beef cows and birth weights and periodical weights of their offspring from birth to weaning were analyzed to study the effect of body weight, condition and udder characteristic scores of dams on birth weight and Preweaning growth of their offspring. Dam's body condition (fat reserve) at calving were scored on a scale of 1 to 5 (1=extremely thin and 5=extremely fat) and dam's udder characteristics were scored on a scale of 1 to 7 (l=udder well attached with small teats and 7=at least one quarters not functional). Dams were from three distinct breed groups and were mated in single sire mating groups within each breed group for 45 days. Within each breed group and year, the dams were classified into high, medium and low based on their weights at the time of parturition. The data were analysed using covariance analysis. In general, calves born to heavier dams were heavier at birth and had higher rate of Preweaning growth. The effect of dam's body condition score on the calf birth weight was not significant. However, cows with average body condition score of 2.5 or 3.0 gave birth to calves that had higher pre weaning growth rates up to weaning than those born to calves with higher body condition score. The udder characteristics score did not affect calf birth weight as expected; however, cows with udder score of 3 (udder well attached with large teats) produced calves with higher preweaning growth rate than those with smaller teats. Based on the results, it can be concluded that maintaining animals with average body condition and weight would result in more efficient calf production. In addition, cows with well attached udder and large teats would provide a better maternal environment for Preweaning growth rates of their calves.

A Study on The Lesions of The Mammary Glands of Slaughtered Holstein Cows in Gwangju Area (광주지역에서 도태되는 홀스타인 소 유방의 병변 조사)

  • Lee, Chai-yong;Kim, Hye-ra;Lee, Jeong-chi;Kim, Sang-ki;Lee, Chung-gil;Kim, Jong-taek
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.295-299
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    • 2003
  • Macroscopic investigations were made on the lesions of a total of 101 udders from slaughtered Holstein cows in Gwangju area. Incidence of supernumerary teats was 9.9%. Gross lesions were found in the surface of teats of 29.4% of cows; these lesions comprised papilomatosis (16.0%), fronds (8.9%) and injury at the tip (3.2%). Approximately 95% of the cows had slight to severe teat orifice keratosis. On the mucous membranes of the teat cisterns, fibrosis (22.7%) and congestion (8.9%) were observed. Gross lesions were found in the mammary glands of 68% of cows; these lesions comprised fibrosis (18.8%), serous exudate (4.9%), fatty tissue (4.9%), pus (4.0%), congestion (2.0%).