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A High Accuracy and Fast Hybrid On-Chip Temperature Sensor (고정밀 고속 하이브리드 온 칩 온도센서)

  • Kim, Tae-Woo;Yun, Jin-Guk;Woo, Ki-Chan;Hwang, Seon-Kwang;Yang, Byung-Do
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering
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    • v.20 no.9
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    • pp.1747-1754
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    • 2016
  • This paper presents a high accuracy and fast hybrid on-chip temperature sensor. The proposed temperature sensor combines a SAR type temperature sensor with a ${\Sigma}{\Delta}$ type temperature sensor. The SAR type temperature sensor has fast temperature searching time but it has more error than the ${\Sigma}{\Delta}$ type temperature sensor. The ${\Sigma}{\Delta}$ type temperature sensor is accurate but it is slower than the SAR type temperature sensor. The proposed temperature sensor uses both the SAR and ${\Sigma}{\Delta}$ type temperature sensors, so that the proposed temperature sensor has high accuracy and fast temperature searching. Also, the proposed temperature sensor includes a temperature error compensating circuit by storing the temperature errors in a memory circuit after chip fabrication. The proposed temperature sensor was fabricated in 3.3V CMOS $0.35{\mu}m$ process. Its temperature resolution, power consumption, and area are $0.15^{\circ}C$, $540{\mu}W$, and $1.2mm^2$, respectively.

Indoor Neutral Temperature Range using Temperature and Humidity Perception Assessment

  • Yang, Wonyoung
    • KIEAE Journal
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.29-37
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: Indoor thermal comfort can be identified by combination of temperature, humidity, and air flow, etc. However, most thermal indexes in regard to thermal comfort are temperature dominant since it has been considered as a significant factor affecting to indoor thermal comfort The purposes of this study are to investigate indoor neutral temperature range of young Koreans with humidity perception, and to introduce a neutral temperature for temperature preference as well as temperature sensation in order to define the neutral temperature range chosen by occupants. It could be used as basic data for heating and cooling. Method: 26 research participants volunteered in 7 thermal conditions ($18^{\circ}C$ RH 30%, $18^{\circ}C$ RH 60%, $24^{\circ}C$ RH 30%, $24^{\circ}C$ RH 40%, $24^{\circ}C$ RH 60%, $30^{\circ}C$ RH 30%, $30^{\circ}C$ RH 60%) and completed subjective assessment in regard to temperature/humidity sensation and preference twice per condition in an indoor environmental chamber. Result: In RH 30%, sensation neutral temperature was $25.1^{\circ}C$ for men and $27.0^{\circ}C$ for women, and preference neutral temperature was $25.5^{\circ}C$ for men and $27.8^{\circ}C$ for women. In RH 60%, sensation neutral temperature was $23.6^{\circ}C$ for men and $25.9^{\circ}C$ for women, and preference neutral temperature was $23.4^{\circ}C$ for men and $26.3^{\circ}C$ for women. Neutral temperature increased with increasing relative humidity. Women were sensitive to humidity changes. Men expressed humidity changes as temperature variations. In most conditions, preference neutral temperatures were higher than sensation neutral temperatures, however, the preference neutral temperature for men in humid condition was lower than the sensation neutral temperature.

Particle Size of Aerosol from 0.25% Cadmium Chloride Nebulizing Solution for Inhalation Toxicology Study (흡입독성 연구에 이용될 0.25% 염화카드뮴 네뷸라이징 용액 에어로졸의 입경)

  • Jeung Jae Yeal;Lee Ki Nam
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.1257-1263
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    • 2003
  • The modified engineering methodology and the modified electronic circuit in classical ultrasonic principles were applied to ultrasonic aerosol nebulizer for inhalation toxicology study of cadmium aerosol. 1532.96ppm Cd nebulizing solution was used to generate cadmium aerosol for particle size analysis with the modifying source and inlet temperatures. The results of particle size analysis for cadmium aerosol were as following. The highest particle counting for source temperature 20℃ was 399.75 × 10² in inlet temperature 100℃ and particle diameter 0.75㎛. The highest particle counting for source temperature 50℃ was 399.70 × 10² in inlet temperature 50℃ and particle diameter 0.75㎛. The highest particle counting for source temperature 70℃ was 411.14 × 10² in inlet temperature 100℃ and particle diameter 0.75㎛. The ranges of geometric mean diameter were 0.74-0.79㎛ in source temperature 20℃, 0.65-0.72㎛ in source temperature 50℃, and 0.65-0.80㎛ in source temperature 70℃. The smallest geometric mean diameter was 0.65㎛ in source temperature 50, 70℃ and inlet temperature 20, 50℃, and the largest geometric mean diameter was 0.80㎛ in source temperature 70℃ and inlet temperature 100℃. The ranges of geometric standard deviation were 1.71-1.80 in source temperature 20℃, 1.27-1.61 in source temperature 50℃, and 1.27-2.29 in source temperature 70℃. The lowest geometric standard deviation was 1.27 in source temperature 50, 70℃ and inlet temperature 20, 50℃, and the highest geometric standard deviation was 2.29 in source temperature 70℃ and inlet temperature 100℃. Generated aerosol for cadmium inhalation toxicology study was polydisperse aerosol with the above geometric standard deviation 1.2. The ranges of mass median diameter(MMD) were 1.75-2.25㎛ in source temperature 20℃, 1.27-1.61㎛ in source temperature 50℃, and 1.27-2.29㎛ in source temperature 70℃. The smallest MMD was 1.27㎛ in source temperature 50, 70℃ and inlet temperature 20, 50℃, and the largest MMD was 2.29㎛ in source temperature 70℃ and inlet temperature 100℃. Cadmium chloride concentration in nebulizing solution affected the particle size and distribution of cadium aerosol in air. MMO for inhalation toxicology testing in OECD and EU is less than 3㎛ and EPA guidance is less than 4㎛. In our results, in source temperatures of 20, 50, 70℃, and inlet temperatures of 20, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250℃ were conformed to the those guidance.

Change in the Plant Temperature of Tomato by Fogging and Airflow in Plastic Greenhouse (포그분사 및 공기유동에 의한 온실재배 토마토의 엽온 변화)

  • Nam, Sang-Woon;Kim, Young-Shik;Seo, Dong-Uk
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.11-18
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    • 2014
  • To investigate the influence of surrounding environment on the plant temperature and examine the effect of plant temperature control by fogging and airflow, plant temperature of tomato, inside and outside air temperature and relative humidity, solar radiation and wind speed were measured and analyzed under various experimental conditions in plastic greenhouse with two-fluid fogging systems and air circulation fans. According to the analysis of plant temperature and the change of inside and outside air temperature in each condition, inside air temperature and plant temperature were significantly higher than outside air temperature in the control and shading condition. However, in the fogging condition, inside air temperature was lower or slightly higher than outside air temperature. It showed that plant temperature could be kept with the temperature similar to or lower than inside air temperature in fogging and airflow condition. To derive the relationship between surrounding environmental factor and plant temperature, we did multiple regression analysis. The optimum regression equation for the temperature difference between plant and air included solar radiation, wind speed and vapor pressure deficit and RMS error was $0.8^{\circ}C$. To investigate whether the fogging and airflow contribute to reduce high temperature stress of plant, photosynthetic rate of tomato leaf was measured under the experimental conditions. Photosynthetic rate was the highest when using both fogging and airflow, and then fogging, airflow and lastly the control. So, we could assume that fogging and airflow can make better effect of plant temperature control to reduce high temperature stress of plant which can increase photosynthetic rate. It showed that the temperature difference between plant and air was highly affected by surrounding environment. Also, we could estimate plant temperature by measuring the surrounding environment, and use it for environment control to reduce the high temperature stress of plant. In addition, by using fogging and airflow, we can decrease temperature difference between plant and air, increase photosynthetic rate, and make proper environment for plants. We could conclude that both fogging and airflow are effective to reduce the high temperature stress of plant.

Projected Climate Change Impact on Surface Water Temperature in Korea (기후변화에 따른 지표수의 수온 영향평가)

  • Ahn, Jong Ho;Han, Dae Ho
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.133-139
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    • 2010
  • Global human activities associated with the use of fossil fuels have aggravated climate change, increasing air temperature. Consequently, climate change has the potential to alter surface water temperature with significant impacts on biogeochemical cycling and ecosystems in natural water body. In this study, we examined temporal trends on historical records of surface water temperature, and investigated the air temperature/water temperature relationship and the potential water temperature change from an air temperature scenario developed with regional climate model. Although the temporal trends of water temperature are highly variable site-by-site, surface water temperature was highly dependent on air temperature, and has increased significantly in some sub-watersheds over the last two decades. The results presented here demonstrate that water temperature changes are expected to be slightly higher in river system than reservoir systems and more significant during winter than summer for both river and reservoir system. Projected change of surface water temperature will likely increase $1.06^{\circ}C$ for rivers and $0.95^{\circ}C$ for reservoirs during the period 2008 to 2050. Given the potential climatic changes, every $1^{\circ}C$ increase in water temperature could cause dissolved oxygen levels to fall every 0.206 ppm.

The Design of an Automatic System for Dairy Cattle Breeding I - The Choice of Temperature Sensor for Body Temperature Measuring - (낙농의 자동화 시스템 구성 I - 체온 감지 온도센서의 선정 -)

  • 김형주;정길도;한병성;김용준;김동원;김명순
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.83-90
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    • 1998
  • In this paper the automatic system for dairy cattle has been desisted such as body temperature measuring unit, feed supplying unit and temperature control unit. Since e disease is strongly related to the body temperature of cattle, early detection of the abnormal temperature would prevent the severe problems which nay occur in dairy farms. An electronic component AD590J is used as temperature sensor for the system, The device is highly robust against the noise since the output signal is the current so it can be applied to a long distance sensing The resolution of signal is 0.1$^{\circ}C$ and the current is 10㎷ Also 12-bit A/D converter is desisted fir interfacing the sensor with a one-chip microprocessor. A temperature measuring experiment using the developed system has been done for measuring the temperature of human beings and the system was proven to be useful for measuring the body temperature of dairy cattle properly. A geared AC motor is used for the feed supplying unit The heater and fm are used as temperature control unit. The feed supplying unit and temperature control unit are well operating in the laboratory experiment.

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A Study on the Temperature Characteristics of the Floor Cooling System of Mock-up Experimentent (Mock-up실험에 의한 바닥복사 냉방시스템의 온도특성에 관한 연구)

  • Yoo, Ho-Chun;Lee, Young-A
    • Journal of the Korean Solar Energy Society
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.48-57
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    • 2008
  • The research analyzed the distribution of the indoor temperatures of a radiant floor cooling system through mock-up experiments. It investigated the temperature difference of feed water, the vertical temperature difference of indoor air, the temperature difference of floor surface, and so on. The following is the results of the research. First, the research shows that the difference between indoor temperature and outside temperature was the smallest when the temperature of feed water was set at 16$^{\circ}C$. In addition, the temperature changes according to indoor positions (wall, room, floor, and ceiling) were the most uniform. Thus, the research found that the cold water temperature of 16$^{\circ}C$ is the most proper. In addition, it confirmed that the feed water temperature of 18$^{\circ}C$ is effective because the temperature can lower the temperature of a room to 13.55$^{\circ}C$, which is lower than the temperature of a non-cooling mode. Second, an investigation on the temperature distribution of vertical air in indoor space shows that the temperature distribution had a difference of 0.2 to 1.9$^{\circ}C$ on the average, which satisfies the range of 3.0$^{\circ}C$ in the standard of ISO.

Deformation Properties of TiC-Mo Eutectic Composite at High Temperature (TiC-Mo 공정복합재료의 고온 변형특성)

  • Shin, Soon-Gi
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
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    • v.23 no.10
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    • pp.568-573
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    • 2013
  • The deformation properties of a TiC-Mo eutectic composite were investigated in a compression test at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 2053 K and at strain rates ranging from $3.9{\times}10^{-5}s^{-1}$ to $4.9{\times}10^{-3}s^{-1}$. It was found that this material shows excellent high-temperature strength as well as appreciable room-temperature toughness, suggesting that the material is a good candidate for high-temperature application as a structure material. At a low-temperature, high strength is observed. The deformation behavior is different among the three temperature ranges tested here, i.e., low, intermediate and high. At an intermediate temperature, no yield drop occurs, and from the beginning the work hardening level is high. At a high temperature, a yield drop occurs again, after which deformation proceeds with nearly constant stress. The temperature- and yield-stress-dependence of the strain is the strongest in this case among the three temperature ranges. The observed high-temperature deformation behavior suggests that the excellent high-temperature strength is due to the constraining of the deformation in the Mo phase by the thin TiC components, which is considerably stronger than bulk TiC. It is also concluded that the appreciable room-temperature toughness is ascribed to the frequent branching of crack paths as well as to the plastic deformation of the Mo phase.

Design of CMOS Temperature Sensor Using Ring Oscillator (링발진기를 이용한 CMOS 온도센서 설계)

  • Choi, Jin-Ho
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering
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    • v.19 no.9
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    • pp.2081-2086
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    • 2015
  • The temperature sensor using ring oscillator is designed by 0.18㎛ CMOS process and the supply voltage is 1.5volts. The temperature sensor is designed by using temperature-independent and temperature-dependent ring oscillators and the output frequency of temperature-independent ring oscillator is constant with temperature and the output frequency of temperature-dependent ring oscillator decreases with increasing temperature. To convert the temperature to a digital value the output signal of temperature-independent ring oscillator is used for the clock signal and the output signal of temperature-dependent ring oscillator is used for the enable signal of counter. From HSPICE simulation results, the temperature error is less than form -0.7℃ to 1.0℃ when the operating temperature is varied from -20℃ to 70℃.

Daily Changes in Red-Pepper Leaf Surface Temperature with Air and Soil Surface Temperatures

  • Eom, Ki-Cheol;Lee, Byung-Kook;Kim, Young-Sook;Eom, Ho-Yong
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.47 no.5
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    • pp.345-350
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    • 2014
  • This study was conducted to investigate the changes in daily surface temperature of red pepper leaf compared to air and soil surface temperature. The maximum, minimum and average daily temperatures of red pepper leaf were 27.80, 11.40 and $19.01^{\circ}C$, respectively, which were lower by 0.10, 7.60 and $3.86^{\circ}C$ than air temperature, respectively, and lower by 15.00, 0.0 and $4.38^{\circ}C$ than soil surface temperature, respectively. Mean deviations of the difference between measured and estimated temperature by the E&E Model (Eom & Eom, 2013) for the air and surface temperature of red pepper leaf and soil were 0.64, 1.82 and $4.77^{\circ}C$, respectively. The relationships between measured and estimated scaled factor of the air and surface temperature of red pepper leaf and soil were very close to the 1:1 line. Difference between air and surface temperature of red pepper leaf showed a linear decreasing function with the surface temperature of red pepper leaf. Difference between soil surface temperature and air and surface temperature of red pepper leaf linearly increased with the soil surface temperature.