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Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Rice Stored in an Unused Tunnel (폐터널 저장 쌀의 이화학적 및 관능적 특성)

  • Moon, Gap-Soon;Kim, Mi-Jeong;Jin, Myung-Hee;Kim, Su-Yeon;Park, So-Young;Ryu, Bog-Mi
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.220-228
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    • 2010
  • This study was designed to examine the effectiveness of an unused tunnel as a rice storage place. The physicochemical changes of rice grains were investigated during 8-months of storage in the tunnel located at Kyungnam province, Korea. Two kinds of tunnel stored rices, NP(rice grown with no pesticides) and LP(rice grown with less pesticides) were compared with $5^{\circ}C$ stored rice as a control. The peroxidase activities, as an index of freshness of rice grains, gradually decreased and NP appeared to be fresher than LP. Whiteness, grain wholeness, and chalkyness were less desirable for the tunnel stored rice than the control, with no significant difference of physicochemical properties, including the broken, damaged, colored rice, and contents of moisture, protein, and amylose. Palatability dropped below 70 in all three groups at later phase. The sensory evaluation showed that overall preference was slightly higher for the control but not significantly different from the other two groups. From all the evidences shown, unused tunnels may be an effective place for a long-term rice storage, since the average temperature inside the tunnel was maintained very constantly around $14.3^{\circ}C$ and relative humidity was optimal for rice storage, especially during spring and summer seasons.

Effects of Application of Fermented Swine Manure with Additional Nitrogen Fertilizer on Productivity of Corn and Leaching of Nitrogen and Phosphorous in Corn Cultivation Soil (돈분발효 퇴액비 시용과 첨가적인 질소비료 시용이 옥수수의 생산성과 질소 및 인의 용탈에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Ki-Choon;Jo, Nam-Chul;Jung, Min-Woong;Yook, Wan-Bang
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.15-24
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    • 2010
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of swine manure (SM) application with additional nitrogen (N) fertilizer on productivity of corn and environmental pollution in com cultivation soil. The experiment was conformed in lysimeter which was constructed with 30 cm diameter, and 100 cm height. Swine manures used in this study were the compost of swine manure fermented with sawdust (SMFWS) and soft rice hulls treated with high temperature and high pressure (SRH), and swine slurry (SS). The application rates of the additional N, as urea, with swine manure were 50 and 100 kgN/ha on each plot. This study was arranged in completely randomized design with three replication. DM yields in SM treatments with mineral N were increased significantly compared to those in SM treatment without mineral N (zero-mineral N) (P<0.05) and increased as the rate of mineral N application increased (P<0.05). DM yields in SMFWS and SS treatments with mineral 100 kgN/ha showed trends similar to those of chemical fertilizer (control) but higher than those of 50 kg N/ha. DM yields tended to be higher in SMFWS and SS treatments than in SRH treatment. Total N contents in SMFWS, SRH and SS treatments with mineral N were increased, compared with SM treatment without mineral N. N contents in SM treatments with mineral N were lower than those of chemical fertilizer treatment, but N content of chemical fertilizer treatment showed trends similar to that of SS treatments with mineral 100 kgN/ha. $NO_3$-N concentration in SM treatments with mineral N were increased significantly, compared to those in SM treatment without mineral N and in chemical fertilizer (P<0.05). $NH_4$-N concentrations in SMFWS and SS treatments with mineral 100 kgN/ha showed trends similar to those of chemical fertilizer, but higher than those of 50 kg N/ha. $PO_4$-P concentration in SM treatments with mineral N were increased significantly, compared to those in SM treatment without mineral N (P<0.05). $PO_4$-P concentration in chemical fertilizer treatment showed trends similar to that of SS treatments with mineral 100 kgN/ha. The concentrations of $NO_3$-N $NH_4$-N and $PO_4$-P increased as the rate of mineral N application increased (P<0.05). The concentrations of $NO_3$-N $NH_4$-N and $PO_4$-P were highly elevated in the concentrated rainy season in the early stage among experimental period. The maximum $NO_3$-N $NH_4$-N and $PO_4$-P concentrations in the leaching water were 3.46 mg/L, 1.11 mg/L and 0.14 mg/L, respectively.

Effect of Cellulose Derivatives to Reduce the Oil Uptake of Deep Fat Fried Batter of Pork Cutlet (셀룰로오스 유도체가 돈가스 튀김옷의 흡유량 감소에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Byung-Sook;Lee, Young-Eun
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.488-495
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    • 2009
  • Pork cutlet is a favorite deep fat fried food item among Korean children, and an excellent protein-containing food, and as well as a simple and economical cuisine. However, the frying process adds a significant amount of calories. We added MC (Methylcellulose) and HPMC (Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose) to the batter in an effort to reduce oil uptake in prepared pork cutlets. After additions of MC and HPMC at concentrations of 0.5, 1, and 1.5% respectively, we assessed the viscosity of batter, color after frying, the increases in moisture retention and oil uptake, and sensory characteristics, comparing each quality. The viscosity of batter with 0.5% HPMC added (w/w) was similar to that of the controls, but the viscosity of all the batter with added MC was so much higher that it was difficult to use the batter for coating at the same temperature, leading to a failure even to prepare a sample. After frying, the batter with added HPMC provided significantly less oil uptake and more moisture retention than the batter to which MC was added. Additionally, with regard to color and sensory characteristics, the pork cutlet with 0.5% added HPMC was superior to the other samples. According to these results, we concluded that when cellulose derivatives are added in order to reduce oil uptake and to raise the moisture retention of the batter of pork cutlet, HPMC is more useful in this regard than MC. Additionally, the batter with 0.5% HPMC added appears to be the best of the tested choices, for three reasons: first, the viscosity of the batter is similar to that of the controls; second, the taste is not greasy after frying as the result of the reduced oil uptake and higher moisture retention; and third, the sensory characteristics of this sample, such as, color, crispiness, and hardness were the best among samples.

Dietary Habits and Foodservice Attitudes of Students Attending American International Schools in Seoul and Gyeonggi Area (서울.경기지역 외국인 학교 학생들의 식습관 및 급식만족도 -미국계 외국인 학교를 중심으로-)

  • Kim, Ok-Sun;Lee, Young-Eun
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.744-757
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    • 2012
  • This study was designed to obtain basic data for the globalization of Korean food and the expansion of food exports through contract foodservices. A survey of dietary habits and attitudes toward school foodservices was given to students in three American international schools served by a domestic contract foodservice management company located in Seoul and Gyeonggi area. The results showed an average of three meals taken daily 3.39 times for male students and 2.95 times for female students and the time required for a meal was about 24~26 minutes. The average breakfast frequency was 5.10 times(4.59 times for male students and 5.35 times for female students) and many students reported skipping breakfast due to a lack of time. The average weekly frequency of dining out was 1.78 times(2.15 times for male students and 1.60 times for female students). In all schools, irrespective of gender and grade, students responded that a desire for snacking was 'why they want to have cookies', and snacking hours were frequently listed as 'between noon and evening'. Many also responded that an unbalanced diet is the reason some snacks are 'not to their taste'. Overall, students were highly satisfied with the foodservice menu, although there was a significant difference in what was considered proper food temperature, proper food seasoning, suitable amounts of food, and freshness of food. Male and female students were specifically highly satisfied with the 'freshness of food materials' and 'variety of menu' respectively. Overall, all students were highly satisfied with the foodservice, including the 'cleanliness of tables and trays'.

Steroid Effect on the Brain Protection During OPen Heart Surgery Using Hypothermic Circulatory Arrest in the Rabbit Cardiopulmonary bypass Model (저체온순환정지법을 이용한 개심술시 스테로이드의 뇌보호 효과 - 토끼를 이용한 심폐바이패스 실험모델에서 -)

  • Kim, Won-Gon;Lim, Cheong;Moon, Hyun-Jong;Chun, Eui-Kyung;Chi, Je-Geun;Won, Tae-Hee;Lee, Young-Tak;Chee, Hyun-Keun;Kim, Jun-Woo
    • Journal of Chest Surgery
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    • v.30 no.5
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    • pp.471-478
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    • 1997
  • Introduction: The use of rabbits as a cardiopulmonary bypass(CPB) animal model is extremely dif%cult mainly due to technical problems. On the other hand, deep hypothermic circulatory arrest(CA) is used to facilitate surgical repair in a variety of cardiac diseases. Although steroids are generally known to be effective in the treatment of cerebral edema, the protective effects of steroids on the brain during CA are not conclusively established. Objectives of this study are twofold: the establishment of CPB technique in rabbits and the evaluation of preventive effect of steroid on the development of brain edema during CA. Material '||'&'||' Methods: Fifteen New Zealan white rabbits(average body weight 3.5kg) were divided into three experimental groups; control CA group(n=5), CA with Trendelenberg position group(n=5), and CA with Trendelenberg position + steroid(methylprednisolone 30 mglkg) administration group(n=5). After anesthetic induction and tracheostomy, a median sternotomy was performed. An aortic cannula(3.3mm) and a venous ncannula(14 Fr) were inserted, respectively in the ascending aorta and the right atrium. The CPB circuit consisted of a roller pump and a bubble oxygenator. Priming volume of the circuit was approximately 450m1 with 120" 150ml of blood. CPB was initiated at a flow rate of 80~85ml/kg/min, Ten min after the start of CPB, CA was established with duration of 40min at $20^{\circ}C$ of rectal temperature. After CA, CPB was restarted with 20min period of rewarming. Ten min after weaning, the animal was sacrif;cod. One-to-2g portions of the following tissues were rapidly d:ssected and water contents were examined and compared among gr ups: brain, cervical spinal cord, kidney, duodenum, lung, heart, liver, spleen, pancreas. stomach. Statistical significances were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test. Results: CPB with CA was successfully performed in all cases. Flow rate of 60-100 mlfkgfmin was able to be maintained throughout CPB. During CPB, no significant metabolic acidosis was detected and aortic pressure ranged between 35-55 mmHg. After weaning from CPB, all hearts resumed normal beating spontaneously. There were no statistically significant differences in the water contents of tissues including brain among the three experimental groups. Conclusion: These results indicate (1) CPB can be reliably administered in rabbits if proper technique is used, (2) the effect of steroid on the protection of brain edema related to Trendelenburg position during CA is not established within the scope of this experiment.

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Effects of Activation Regimens of Recipient Cytoplasm, Culture Condition of Donor Embryos and Size of Blastomeres on Development of Reconstituted Bovine Embryos (수핵 난자의 활성화 방법과 공핵 수정란의 배양체계 및 할구의 크기가 소 핵이식 수정란의 발달에 미치는 영향)

  • 심보웅;조성근;이효종;박충생;최상용
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.425-435
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    • 1998
  • To improve the efficiency of nuclear transplantation in bovine, in this study the development in vitro of nuclear transferred (NT) embryos was compared by different activation regimens of the enucleated oocytes. The effect of developmental stage and culture system of donor nuclei on fusion and development in vitro of NT embryos were also evaluated. Oocytes were collected from Hanwoo ovaries obtained from slaughterhouse and matured in Ham's F-10 supplemented with hormones. After 20~22 h maturation, the oocytes were vortexed to be free from cumulus cells and subsequently their nucleus and the first polar body were removed. Enucleated oocytes were divided into 3 groups for activation; the oocytes of group I were activated with ionomycin for 5 min and subsequently incubated in 6-dimetylarninopurine (DMAP) for 4 h, Those of group II were treated with DMAP for 4 h at 39 h after onset of in vitro maturation (IVM) and those of group III were kept in room temperature ($25^{\circ}C$) for 3 h at 39 h after onset of IVM. After in vitro fertilization (IVF) the embryos for muclear donor were cultured either by group culture (20 embryos /50 ${mu}ell$ drop) or individually (1 embryo /50 ${mu}ell$ drop) for 4 day and 5 day. At day 4 and 5 after IVF, blastomeres were separated in calcium-magnesium free medium, and then classified into small (day 5: $\leq$ 38 ${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$, day 4: $\leq$ 46 ${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$) and large (day 5 : $\geq$ 38 ${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$, day 4 ; $\geq$ 46 ${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$). The separated blastomeres were replaced into enucleated and activated recipient cytoplasm. The blastomere-oocyte complexes were fused by electrically. The NT embryos were cultured in TCM-199 containing 10% FCS in 39$^{\circ}C$, 5% $CO_2$ incubator for 7 day. The results obtained were summarized as follows; There were no differences in fusion and development to blastocyst between groups as group I (68%, 10%), group II (75%, 14%) and group III (73%, 9%), respectively. However, the cell number in blastocyst of NT embryos in group III were significantly fewer than in the other groups (P<0.05). No differences in fusion and development to blastocyst were found between individual or group cultured and between small or large blastomeres of day 4 and day 5 donor embryos. From these results, it was concluded that the combination of ionomycin and DMAP, or treatment of DMAP at 39 h after onset of IVM were useful for the efficient of production of NT bovine embryos, and the individual cultured embryos could be simply used as donor nuclei for NT bovine embryo.

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Seedling - Emergence of Rice, Weedy Rice, and Echinochloa species Sown before Wintering and in the Early Spring (월동전(越冬前) 초춘(初春)에 파종(播種)한 재배(栽培)벼, 잡초성(雜草性)벼 및 피의 출현특성(出現特性))

  • Kwon, Y.W.;Lee, B.W.;Kim, D.S.
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.88-99
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    • 1996
  • In recent years dry direct-seeding of rice has been encouraged by the government and increasingly practiced by farmers in Korea. This has been bringing up an increased occurrence of weedy rites. Some farmers in the southern region dare to sow the rice before winter after harvest, while most farmers wish to sow as early as possible in the spring to secure the growing period, and to disperse the intensive labor in early May. The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of moving the sowing of rice to an earlier date under dry direct-seeding, and to elucidate the nature of emergence of an old strain of rice, weedy rites, and barnyardgrasses tinder this farming practice and their adaptive competence over present cultivate. The presently recommended rice cultivar, Dongjinbyo and an old rice strain, Dadajo which prevailed in early 1900s, almost could not emerge from soil deeper than 6cm and could emerge to only 5.3% at best from 1cm deep loamy soil field when the seeds were sown on Nov. 28. However, two strains of weedy rites being weedy for over 200 years emerged by 17.0 to 63.0% from the loamy and sandy clay loam field 1 to 6cm deep. Emergence of the weedy rites was greater in the loamy soil and at a shallow depth, and negligible from the soil depth of 9cm. Barnyardgrasses sown on Nov. 28 emerged by 13.4 to 51 % from the 1 to 3cm deep loamy soil, and 8.6 to 46.7% from the 1cm deep sandy clay loam. Echinochloa crus-galli var. crus-galli emerged more than var. praticola, and var. oryzicola least. Most of the non-emerged barnyardgrasses seem to have entered secondary dormancy. Seeding rice a month earlier than the season lowered the emergence of Dongjinbyo by ca. 10, 18, and 26%, respectively at 1, 3, and 6cm soil depths, indicating that moving the seeding date a month earlier is impractical. The old strain, Dadajo sown in the soil at a depth of 6cm responded similarly. However, the strain has shown a significantly higher ability in emergence from 9cm deep soil. Weedy rices sown a month earlier A month earlier sown weedy rices have shown very similar emergence rates at various soil depths to those sown on May 1. Barnyardgrasses have also shown similar emergence rates when sown between April 3 and May 1. Like barnyardgrasses, the old strain and weedy rices apparantly posessed a greater adaptability to emerge under lower temperatures, and from deeper soil ; Dongjinbyo${\leq}$ Echinochloa species in that order. However, emergence- speed under lower temperature(sown on April 3) was faster in the order of weedy rice

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Studies on Characteristics of Sprouting and Occurrence on paddy field of Water Chestnut(Eleocharis Kuroguwai Ohwi) (올방개 괴경(塊莖)의 맹아(萌芽) 특성(特性)과 본답(本畓)에서의 발생(發生)에 관한 연구(硏究))

  • Kim, H.D.;Park, J.S.;Park, K.Y.;Choi, Y.J.;Yu, C.J.;Rho, Y.D.;Kwon, Y.W.
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.264-281
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    • 1996
  • As a consequence of wide use of herbicides, Eleocharis kuroguwai Ohwi became a dorminant problem weed for rice cultivation in Korea. To understand the establishment of the weed, experiments on physio-ecological characteristics were carried out sprouting and occurrence, the results could be summarized as follows: Sprouting percentage remained 68 to 73% until the time of field emergence, indicating many of the them are still dormant. The proportion of the dormant tubers were greater for the smaller than the bigger tubers. Apical dominance was apparent in sprouting, with 84% of tuber sprouted from only one of the apical buds. Tubers sprouted from 2 or 3 buds were less than 20%, and were mostly from the bigger tubers. When the shoot growth was compared, by controlling the others, ones from apical and the next 3 buds showed similar vigorous growth, but the later ones showed poorer growth. For the longevity of tubers, deep soil storage appeared to be better than storage in temperature controlled room to 2~$3^{\circ}C$. Emergence of E. kuroguwai was better in clay soil than in sand, and the possible depth for emergence in clay soil appeared to be up to 21cm, but was 15cm in sand. When tubers were exposed to salt solutions before emergence tests, E. kuroguwai appeared to be much sensitive to salts than S.planiculmis. Among the tubers formed in previous year, 12.7% remained still viable until the end of next crop season, but with relatively strong dormancy. The first emergence was about 10 days after planting at ordinary cropping seasons, and the days to the maximum shoot number stage were 60~90 from planting. The duration was extended at early transplanting, and shoot number, leaves per shoot, and tubers developed per plant were also greater at early plantings. The 6th order offshoots were developing when E. kuroguwai was planted at early season. When planted at later seasons, generation and the number of offshoots was reduced planted at early season. When planted at later seasons, generation and the number of offshoots was reduced and the number of tubers, runner and rhizome lengths was also reduced.

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Radiosynthesis of $[^{11}C]6-OH-BTA-1$ in Different Media and Confirmation of Reaction By-products. ($[^{11}C]6-OH-BTA-1$ 조제 시 생성되는 부산물 규명과 반응용매에 따른 표지 효율 비교)

  • Lee, Hak-Jeong;Jeong, Jae-Min;Lee, Yun-Sang;Kim, Hyung-Woo;Lee, Eun-Kyoung;Lee, Dong-Soo;Chung, June-Key;Lee, Myung-Chul
    • Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.241-246
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    • 2007
  • Purpose: $[^{11}C]6-OH-BTA-1$ ([N-methyl-$^{11}C$]2-(4'-methylaminophenyl)-6-hydroxybenzothiazole, 1), a -amyloid imaging agent for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease in PET, can be labeled with higher yield by a simple loop method. During the synthesis of $[^{11}C]1$, we found the formation of by-products in various solvents, e.g., methylethylketone (MEK), cyclohexanone (CHO), diethylketone (DEK), and dimethylformamide (DMF). Materials and Methods: In Automated radiosynthesis module, 1 mg of 4-aminophenyl-6-hydroxybenzothiazole (4) in 100 l of each solvent was reacted with $[^{11}C]methyl$ triflate in HPLC loop at room temperature (RT). The reaction mixture was separated by semi-preparative HPLC. Aliquots eluted at 14.4, 16.3 and 17.6 min were collected and analyzed by analytical HPLC and LC/MS spectrometer. Results: The labeling efficiencies of $[^{11}C]1$ were $86.0{\pm}5.5%$, $59.7{\pm}2.4%$, $29.9{\pm}1.8%$, and $7.6{\pm}0.5%$ in MEK, CHO, DEK and DMF, respectively. The LC/MS spectra of three products eluted at 14.4, 16.3 and 17.6 mins showed m/z peaks at 257.3 (M+1), 257.3 (M+1) and 271.3 (M+1), respectively, indicating their structures as 1, 2-(4'-aminophenyl)-6-methoxybenzothiazole (2) and by-product (3), respectively. Ratios of labeling efficiencies for the three products $([^{11}C]1:[^{11}C]2:[^{11}C]3)$ were $86.0{\pm}5.5%:5.0{\pm}3.4%:1.5{\pm}1.3%$ in MEK, $59.7{\pm}2.4%:4.7{\pm}3.2%:1.3{\pm}0.5%$ in CHO, $9.9{\pm}1.8%:2.0{\pm}0.7%:0.3{\pm}0.1%$ in DEK and $7.6{\pm}0.5%:0.0%:0.0%$ in DMF, respectively. Conclusion: The labeling efficiency of $[^{11}C]1$ was the highest when MEK was used as a reaction solvent. As results of mass spectrometry, 1 and 2 were conformed. 3 was presumed.

Imaging of Lung Metastasis Tumor Mouse Model using $[^{18}F]FDG$ Small Animal PET and CT ($[^{18}F]FDG$ 소동물 PET과 CT를 이용한 폐 전이 종양 마우스 모델의 영상화)

  • Kim, June-Youp;Woo, Sang-Keun;Lee, Tae-Sup;Kim, Kyeong-Min;Kang, Joo-Hyun;Woo, Kwang-Sun;Chung, Wee-Sup;Jung, Jae-Ho;Cheon, Gi-Jeong;Choi, Chang-Woon;Lim, Sang-Moo
    • Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.42-48
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    • 2007
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study is to image metastaic lung melanoma model with optimal pre-conditions for animal handling by using $[^{18}F]FDG$ small animal PET and clinical CT. Materials and Methods: The pre-conditions for lung region tumor imaging were 16-22 h fasting and warming temperature at $30^{\circ}C$. Small animal PET image was obtained at 60 min postinjection of 7.4 MBq $[^{18}F]FDG$ and compared pattern of $[^{18}F]FDG$ uptake and glucose standard uptake value (SUVG) of lung region between Ketamine/Xylazine (Ke/Xy) and Isoflurane (Iso) anesthetized group in normal mice. Metastasis tumor mouse model to lung was established by intravenous injection of B16-F10 cells in C57BL/6 mice. In lung metastasis tumor model, $[^{18}F]FDG$ image was obtained and fused with anatomical clinical CT image. Results: Average blood glucose concentration in normal mice were $128.0{\pm}23.87$ and $86.0{\pm}21.65\;mg/dL$ in Ke/Xy group and Iso group, respectively. Ke/Xy group showed 1.5 fold higher blood glucose concentration than Iso group. Lung to Background ratio (L/B) in SUVG image was $8.6{\pm}0.48$ and $12.1{\pm}0.63$ in Ke/Xy group and Iso group, respectively. In tumor detection in lung region, $[^{18}F]FDG$ image of Iso group was better than that of Ke/Xy group, because of high L/B ratio. Metastatic tumor location in $[^{18}F]FDG$ small animal PET image was confirmed by fusion image using clinical CT. Conclusion: Tumor imaging in small animal lung region with $[^{18}F]FDG$ small animal PET should be considered pre-conditions which fasting, warming and an anesthesia during $[^{18}F]FDG$ uptake. Fused imaging with small animal PET and CT image could be useful for the detection of metastatic tumor in lung region.