• Title, Summary, Keyword: teratogenecity

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Studies on the Teratogenicity of Food Additives in the Developing Chick Embryo (Chick Embryo를 이용한 식품첨가물의 독성에 관한 연구)

  • 최재준;이영순;안희열
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.185-190
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    • 1989
  • 1. Srobic Acid 투여군은 무처치대조군에 비하여 embryo의 체장과 체중이 용량의존적으로 증가를 나타내었는데 체장에 있어서는 1.0ml/egg 및 5.0ml/egg 투여군이, 체중에 있어서는 0.5ml/egg 투여군에서 유의성이 있었다. 2. 2.5ml/egg 수준으로 BHT를 투여한 실험군은 무처치대조군 및 용매대조군에 비하여 체중, 체장, 전지 및 후지에 있어서 유의성 있는 감소를 나타내었다. 3. Sorbic acid 투여군의 기형발생은 뚜렷한 것은 나타나지 않았으나 1.0ml/egg 투여군에서는 hydrocephalus를 가지고 있는 embryo를 볼수 있었다. 4.BHT 투여군의 기형발생률은 무처치 대조군에 비하여 유의성은 없었으나 전지이상 , 혈종 및 hyrocephalus 가 나타났다.

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A Study on the Evaluation of Teratogenecity of Chemical by Korean Brown Frog Embryo, Rana dybowskii (산개구리 배아를 활용한 화학물질의 기형성 평가에 관한 연구)

  • Ko Sun-Kun
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.333-339
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    • 2004
  • The Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay-Xenopus(FETAX) protocol was recently adopted as a valuable tool fur evaluating chemical toxicity and the effect of environmental contaminants in frogs. In this study, the teratogenecity of NiCl$_2$, Carbofuran, Diazinon were determined in the Korean frog, Rana dybowskii using the FETAX protocol. The mortality rate and the percentage of malformed larvae were investigated by probit analysis, The teratogenic concentrations(EC$_{50}$) of NiCl$_2$, Carbofuran and Diazinon were 0.4 and 1.6 and 1.9 mg/1. The embryolethal concentrations(LC$_{50}$) of NiCl$_2$, Carbofuran and Diazinon were 17.6 and 41.5 and 20.2mg/1. The teratogenic indices (TI=LC$_{50}$/EC$_{50}$) were 43.8 for NiCl$_2$, 26.0 for Carbofuran and 10.6 for Diazinon. NiCl$_2$, Carbofuran and Diazinon were shown to be potent teratogens for Rana dybowskii embryo, causing concentration related increase of edema, tail and abdomen. The study results reveal that NiCl$_2$, Carbofuran and Diazinon suppress the development of embryos at relatively low concentrations. Therefore, the Rana dybowskii embryo teratogenesis assay system was proven to be a useful tool to evaluate the toxicity of environmental pollutants.lutants.

Studies on the teratogenicity of folpet in the developing chick embryo (계태아를 이용한 농약(folpet)의 기형독성 연구)

  • Lim, Yoon-kyu;Heo, Gang-joon;Lee, Yong-soon
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.375-379
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    • 1994
  • A teratogenicity test of 'folpet' was carried out in the developing chick embryos to investigate and validate the safety of rural environmental hazardous materials. Folpet was administered to chick embryos' yolk sac at a rate of 0.1mg and 0.01mg per SPF eggs at 96 hours of incubation. The morphological changes were examined. Fertility ratio of SPF eggs used was 94.9%. Hatching rate of untreated control group was 74.4% and the group dosed with 100ul of corn oil into the yolk sac was 70.0%. The $LD_{50}$ of folpet was 0.663mg/100ul/egg. After hatching, mean body weight, body length, claw length and beak length of high and low dose administered groups were not significantly different from untreated and vehicle control group. There was no abnormal appearence in all the groups. Therefore it seems that, within the doses applied, folpet dose not induce potential teratogenicity in the developing chick embryos.

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Clinical Pharmacology of Psychotropic Agents in Pregnancy (임신시 향정신성 약물의 임상약리학)

  • Roh, Hyung-Keun
    • Korean Journal of Biological Psychiatry
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.149-155
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    • 1996
  • Doctors who treat pregnant women ore usually cautious in writing their prescription for the drugs. The problem of which psychotropic medications ore sale during pregnancy seems to remain unsolved for many years. Although the rate of absorption is reduced due to a reduced rate of gastric emptying, the extent of absorption of drug is generally unchanged during pregnancy. Plasma volume and total body water increase during pregnancy. There is suggestion that drug metabolizing activity may be increased in pregnancy. Since the pregnancy increase the glomerular filtration rate significantly, drugs mainly eliminated by renal excretion will be cleared more quickly. Factors contributing to the potential teratogenecity of a drug include the type of compound, dose and duration of use, developmental stage of fetus at the time of exposure, and the effect of the drug on fetal pharmacokinetics. All major classes of psychotropic agents should be assumed to diffuse readily across the placenta to the fetus and to be present in some quantity in the breast milk. To decide when and how to start the drug treatment depends on an assessment of the risks related both with and without drug treatment of psychiatric disorders.

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Effect of an Antiemetic Drug on the development of Rat Fetuses (항구토제(抗嘔吐劑)가 흰쥐태아(胎兒)의 발육(發育)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Kim, Sung Hoon;Huh, Rhin Sou;Do, Jae Cheul;Lee, Young Ho;Park, Joon Hyoung
    • Current Research on Agriculture and Life Sciences
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    • v.4
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    • pp.124-126
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    • 1986
  • A teratogenecity study was carried out on SD rats administered antiemetic drug (components: diphenhydramine hydrochloride, caffeine, promethazine hydrochloride) at dose levels of 5, and 10ml/kg/day for a period of 11 days from day 7 to 17 of gestation. All of the pregnant females in each group were sacrificed on 20th day of gestation and their fetuses were examined. The incidences of external and skeletal anomalies were not significantly increased in the fetuses of any treated groups, and delayed ossification and resorptions in the treated groups were increased compared to these of the control group and mean number of corpus lutea on the treated groups were decreased compared to that of the control group.

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Comparison of teratogenecity induced by nano- and micro-sized particles of zinc oxide in cultured mouse embryos

  • Jung, A Young;Jung, Ki Youn;Lin, Chunmei;Yon, Jung-Min;Lee, Jong Geol;Lee, Beom Jun;Yun, Young Won;Nam, Sang-Yoon
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.55 no.2
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    • pp.133-139
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    • 2015
  • The increasing uses of zinc oxide nanoparticles (nZnO) in industrial and personal care products raise possible danger of using nZnO in human. To determine whether ZnO induces size-dependent anomalies during embryonic organogenesis, mouse embryos on embryonic day 8.5 were cultured for 2 days under 50, 100, and $150{\mu}g$ of nZnO (< 100 nm) or micro-sized ZnO (mZnO; $80{\pm}25{\mu}m$), after which the morphological changes, cumulative quantity of Zn particles, and expressions of antioxidant and apoptotic genes were investigated. Although embryos exposed to $50{\mu}g$ of ZnO exhibited no defects on organogenesis, embryos exposed to over $100{\mu}g$ of ZnO showed increasing anomalies. Embryos treated with $150{\mu}g$ of nZnO revealed significant changes in Zn absorption level and morphological parameters including yolk sac diameter, head length, flexion, hindbrain, forebrain, branchial bars, maxillary process, mandibular process, forelimb, and total score compared to the same dose of mZnO-treated embryos. Furthermore, CuZn-superoxide dismutase, cytoplasmic glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and phospholipid hydroperoxidase GPx mRNA levels were significantly decreased, but caspase-3 mRNA level was greatly increased in nZnO-treated embryos as compared to normal control embryos. These findings indicate that nZnO has severer teratogenic effects than mZnO in developing embryos.

Toxicity Evaluation of Chemicals using Asian Toad Embryos, Bufo gargarizans (두꺼비 배아를 활용한 화학물질의 독성평가 연구)

  • Ko, Sun-kun
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.705-711
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    • 2016
  • In this experiment, embryos of Asian toad, Bufo gargarizans, were investigated to evaluate toxicity of chemicals along FETAX(Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay-Xenopus) protocol. Asian toad, Bufo gargarizans, embryos incubated and investigation of Zn and Benomyl effect by probit analysis. As a result, depends on the concentrations of Zn and Benomyl, mortality and malformation rates were increases and larval body length were decreased. The teratogenic concentration($EC_{50}$) of Zn and Benomyl were 2.3, $1.0mg/{\ell}$, respectively and the embryo lethal concentration($LC_{50}$) Zn and Benomyl were 10.3, 6.9, respectively. The teratogenic index(TI) were 4.4 in Zn and 6.7 in Benomyl, thus showed teratogenicity in embryonic development of B. gargarizans. These results reveal that Zn and Benomyl in this experiment suppressed the development of embryos at relatively low concentration. Much of B. gargarizans embryos can be secured, and easy to incubate. In addition, mortality, malformation ratios, malformation patterns and growth rates are similar to the results from the other assay systems. Therefore, the B. gargarizans embryo teratogenesis assay system could be a useful tool to evaluate toxicity of pollutants in environment.

The effect of thiamin on fetal growth and development in CD-1 mice exposed with mercury for the gestation period (임신 중 수은을 섭취한 CD-1 마우스 태아의 성장발육과 기형발생에 미친 티아민의 효능 평가)

  • Kim, Jin-suk;Choi, Seok-wha
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.69-75
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    • 1994
  • Pregnant CD-1 mice were exposed to methylmercury in the drinking water at concentration of 20ppm with subcutaneous treatment of thiaminHCl(vitamin $B_1$) (100mg, 200mg or 300mg/ kg b.w.) or BAL(5.0 mg/kg b.w.) under the alone or combined base at the therapeutic agents from day 6 to 15 of gestation. Fetal growth parameters, including body weight and crown-rump length in the mice exposed to mercury, were reduced as placental weight compared to those in the control group(no treatment). The incidence of dead fetuses/resorption and malformed fetuses(especially cleft palate) was also increased even in the group treated with thrapeutic agents as well as in the mercury only treated group. However, all kinds of alteration indicated above, possibly induced by mercury, reduced/or decreased significantly compared to those of control. A subtle indication of maternal toxicity was noted in most experimental animals as evidenced by decreased water consumption and increased relative liver weight. The present study confirmed that methylmercuric chloride is embrytoxic and teratogenic in CD-1 mice when administered during organogenesis and that thiamin administration may have therapeutic application for the treatment or prevention against of deleterious effects induced by mercury during gestation period.

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