• Title, Summary, Keyword: testes

Search Result 381, Processing Time 0.053 seconds

The Value of Diagnostic Laparoscopy for Impalpable Testes (비촉지성 정류고환에서 진단적 복강경검사의 유용성)

  • Lee, Young-Guk;Park, Jae-Shin;Lee, Eun-Suk
    • Advances in pediatric surgery
    • /
    • v.13 no.1
    • /
    • pp.66-71
    • /
    • 2007
  • There have been no definitive preoperative diagnostic imaging studies for impalpable testes. We observed the effectiveness of laparoscopy for detecting impalpable testes not identified with ultrasonography (USG) or careful physical examination under general anesthesia. We retrospectively reviewed 117 patients (118 testes) who were operated upon for undescended testes from January 1998 to December 2004. The testes of these patients were palpable in 97(82 %) and impalpable in 21 (18 %). We analyzed the preoperative diagnostic method, site of the testes, operative method and operative findings of the 21 impalpable testes. Preoperative USG and physical examination under general anesthesia were performed on 20 patients, and 12 patients' testes could be localized. Eight patients whose testes could not be localized with USG and physical examination underwent laparoscopy. Seven of the 8 patients had testes in inguinal canal and 4 of these were atrophied and underwent orchiectomy because of atrophy (2) and vanishing (2). Only 1 patient had bilateral intraabdominal testes and one of the testes was atrophied. Laparoscopy was a useful method for detecting impalpable testes, but the clinical application might be limited because the location of atrophic or vanishing testes was mainly inferior to internal inguinal ring.

  • PDF

Expression of protein kinase C in the testes of horse (말 정소내 protein kinase C의 발현)

  • Jin, Jae-kwang;Shin, Tae-kyun
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
    • /
    • v.38 no.1
    • /
    • pp.9-15
    • /
    • 1998
  • To investigate the involvement of protein kinase C(PKC) isoenzyme in the testes which control spermatogenesis and hormone secretion, we examined cellular distribution of four types of PKC $\alpha$, ${\beta}I$, ${\delta}$ and ${\theta}$ in the horse testes using PKC antisera by western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. By the western blot analysis, PKC $\alpha$ and ${\beta}I$ were detected at 82KD, while PKC ${\delta}$ and ${\theta}$ were detected at 80KD in the testes of both juvenile and adult horses. In juvenile horse, PKC $\alpha$, ${\delta}$ and ${\theta}$ except ${\beta}I$ were not detected in the cells of the testes, whereas PKC ${\beta}I$ was immunoreacted with only in spermatocytes. In adult, PKC $\alpha$, ${\beta}I$, ${\delta}$ and ${\theta}$isoenzymes were localized in interstitial cells of the testes. In the seminiferous tubules, PKC ${\beta}I$ is localized in spermatocyte, spermatid and spermatozoa, while PKC ${\delta}$ is localized only in spermatids. We suggest that this is a first report to localize PKC in the testes of horse and PKC isoenzymes are upregulated in the cells of horse testes depending on ages. These findings also suggest that certain PKC isoenzyme plays an important role in the signal transduction of spermatogenic cells and interstitial cells in horse testes.

  • PDF

Orchidopexy: a 10-year Clinical Experience (고환고정술 : 10년간 임상경험)

  • Yoon, Jae-Sik;Kim, Kwang-Sae
    • Advances in pediatric surgery
    • /
    • v.5 no.1
    • /
    • pp.26-32
    • /
    • 1999
  • We analyzed our experience with orchidopexy for undescended testicle performed during recent 10 years in order to evaluate our results and to determine the most effective treatment of undecended testes. Between 1988 and 1997, we treated 420 undescended tested (314 palpable and 106 nonpalpable) in 356 boys. Medical records were reviewed with respect to age at presentation, the surgical approach, testicular location, testicular volume and the final outcome. The average patient age at presentation was 4.1 years with 40.2 % presenting before age 2 years. Of 106 nonpalpable testes, 23 testes were intra-abdominal, 32 were preperitoneal and 51 were absent. During the first 5 years, we performed orchidopexy through 31 inguinal and 13 midline transabdominal incisions for 44 paitents with nonpalpable testes. In the next 5 years, all 47 patients with nonpalpable were treated through inguinal incisions. For the nonpalpable testes, the inguinal approach with or without intraperitoneal extension was successful in defining the location of testes and blind-ending vessels in all patients. Laparoscopy did not help to avoid surgical exploration in all our patients with nonpalpable tests. Of 339 inguinal and midline tranabdominal orchidopexies without spermatic vessels ligations, 324 testes were placed in the scrotum, 4 in the upper scrotum and 3 in the inguinal area. Eight testes underwent atrophy. Of 13 Fowler-Stephens orchidopexies, 7 were placed in the scrotum and 6 became atrophied. Testicular growths were noticed in most patients who underwent orchidopexies and the colume of pexed testes became as large as the contralateral normal testes by the mean duration of 43.3 months postoperatively. In conclusion, orchidopexies were successful in most cases of cryptochidism in terms of testicular position and growth. However, there were more testicular atrophies in cases where spermatic vessels were ligated. In cases of nonpalpable undescended testes, the inguinal approach with or without intraperitoneal extesion would be recommended.

  • PDF

The Glutathione Peroxidase, Glutathione Reductase and Glutathione-s-Transferase Activity in Liver, Kidney and Testes of Male Rats Intoxicated by Cadmium Chloride and Effect of Leek(Allium Odorum L. ) (카드뮴에 중독된 웅성 흰 쥐의 간, 신장 및 고환의 Glutathione Peroxidase, Glutathione Reduetase, and Glutathione-s-Transferasea의 활성도와 부추의 효과)

  • 안령미
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
    • /
    • v.18 no.1
    • /
    • pp.76-83
    • /
    • 1992
  • Effect of freeze drying leek against cadmium poisoning on glutathione peroxidase, on glutathione reductase and on glutathione-s-transferase in liver, kidney and testes of the male rats during the administered period. In this experiment, male rats of Sprague-Dawley strain were used. The rats which were fed for 15 weeks were divided into 4 groups basal diet 3% leek added diet basal diet and cadmium in water and 3% leek added diet and cadmium in water. Cadmium was administered ad libitum 100ppm CdCl$_{2}$ in distilled water. The followings are the result of this experiment. 1. Leek enhanced the glutathione peroxidase activities which were reduced by cadmium treatment in liver, kidney and testes but not significance. 2. Leek reduced glutathione reductase activities which were incresed by cadmium in liver, kidney and testes. 3. Leek incresed the activities of glutathfone-s-transferase in liver but not in kidney and but not in testes. 4. Leek incresed glutathione concentration which was decresed by cadmium treatment in liver and kidney but not testes. This experiment showed that leek-addition group had protective effect against cadmium poisoning and alleviated GR and glutathione-s-transferase activities in tissues. Leek incresed activities of glutathione peroxidase in liver, kidney and testes but not significance. Therefore, this experiment concluded that leek defensive power against long term cadmium poisoning.

  • PDF

Carnitine and Calmodulin N-Methylation in Rat Testis; Calmodulin May beInvolved in Carnitine Biosynthesis

  • Oh, Suk-Heung;Cha, Youn-Soo;Sohn, Hee-Sook
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
    • /
    • v.3 no.3
    • /
    • pp.251-255
    • /
    • 1998
  • Rat testis known to contain all of the enzymes required for carnitine biosynthesis also contains high concentration of calmodulin, a protein which may or may not contain trimethyllysine, the major substrate in carnitine biosynthesis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the levels of carnitine and the state of calmodulin N-methylation in rat testes, and to discuss the possibility of the involvement of calmodulin incarnitine biosynthesis. Nonesterified carnitine , acid soluble acyl carnitine, and acid insoluble acyl carnitine of ra tests were 273 nmole, 62nmole, and 4 nmole/g tissue, respectively. Total carnitine level was 339 nmole/g testes tissue. Calmodulin purified from rat tests was assayed for methylation potential using N-methyltransferase from the rat testes. Rat testes calmodulin showed no 3H-methyl incorporation indicating that the calmodulin was trimethylated already by endogenous calmodulin N-methyltransferase. Amino acid composition analysis revealed that the rat testes calmodulin containd one mole of trimethyllysine per mole of calmodulin. These data suggest that testes calmodulin could provide the trimethyllysine needed for the synthesis of carnitine in the rat tests.

  • PDF

Effects of Gossypol Injection into the Stroma of Testes on Spermatogenesis in Mouse (생쥐 정소 실질내 Gossypol 투여가 조정기능에 미치는 영향)

  • 황권식;장규태;오석두;성환후;정진관;이병오;윤창현
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
    • /
    • v.17 no.1
    • /
    • pp.1-6
    • /
    • 1993
  • This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of gossypol injection spermatogenesis of mice. Gossypol was injected into the stroma of testes(TS) and the doses of gossypol injected were 5, 10 and 15mg per kg of body weights, respectively. The number of sperm and the weight of testes were gradually reduced(P<0.01) from 2 to 4 weeks after gossypol treatment in all groups of mice treated with gossypol, compared with the control group. The rates of malformation(loss of proacrosome, damage of midpiece and breaking of tail) of sperm were significantly(P<0.01) increased at 2 and 3 weeks after the injection of 10 or 15mg of gossypol. However, the weight of testes and the number of normal sperm were gradually increased and the malformation rate of sperm was decreased between 4 and 6 weeks after injection of 5mg of gossypol. The results of this experiment indicated that probably ireeversible suppression of spermatogenesis could be brought about easily and immediately by the single injection of gossypol into TS.

  • PDF

Identification of a Novel MOPT Gene in Human and Mouse Adult Testis

  • Park, Yun-Jung;Kang, Sung-Jo;Kim, Jin-Hoi
    • Proceedings of the KSAR Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.195-195
    • /
    • 2004
  • To discover germ cell-specific transcripts, we prepared a cDNA library from adult testes of 35-day old mice and subtracted it with mRNA from the testes of juvenile mice. Real-time RT-PCR analysis indicated that 42 cDNA clones in the subtracted library were expressed more intensely in the adult testes than in the juvenile testes. One clone identified by subtraction is expressed preferentially in the late spermatid and is located on chromosome 17E3 in mouse and 2p22 in human. (omitted)

  • PDF

Molecular Identification and Distribution of Aquaporins in Human and Rat Testes (사람과 흰쥐의 고환에서 Aquaporin 유전자의 발현)

  • Park, Nam-Cheol;Park, Young-Soo;Oh, Gom-Su;Jung, Jin-Sup
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
    • /
    • v.27 no.2
    • /
    • pp.133-144
    • /
    • 2000
  • Objective: Several water channels (aquaporins; AQP) that belong to the MIP (major intrinsic protein) family have identified. In the selected tissues including red blood cells or renal tubules, water movements are abundant and/or physiologically important. Unexpectedly, a high water permeability of human and ram sperm has been reported. Recent studies showed that AQP7 and AQP8 are present in testes, so that the high water permeability of human sperm suggested to be mediated by AQPs. Method: To identify the identity of aquaporins expressed in testes, RT-PCR was performed using degenerative primers, which were designed to correspond to highly conserved sequences surrounding the Asn-Pro-Ala (NPA) motifs in the aquaporins. New expressed AQP series were reconfirmed by immunohistochemical study using rabbit polyclonal antibodies. Results: DNA sequencing of PCR products revealed that AQP2 and AQP3 mRNA as well as AQP7 and AQP8 are expressed in human and rat testes. In human and rat testes, AQP2 are expressed in spermatozoa, interstitial cells and myofibroblasts and AQP3 are expressed in myofibroblasts of semineferous tubules on immunocytochemical stain. Conclusion: These results indicate that multiple aquaporins are expressed in testes, and that they may have important roles in the spermatogenesis and the germ cell function of testis.

  • PDF

Effects of Nitric Oxide on the Induction of Experimental Allergic Orchitis in Guinea Pig

  • An, Jeong Hwan;Kim, In Keun;Kim, Taek Sang;Kwak, Hyun Jeong;Rhew, Hyun Yul;Chung, Hun-Taeg
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
    • /
    • v.4 no.2
    • /
    • pp.108-115
    • /
    • 2004
  • Background: Production of nitric oxide (NO) by inducible NO synthase (iNOS) has been implicated in the pathology of autoimmune disease. It is unknown whether iNOS expression is increased within testes and whether iNOS and NO have essential roles in the pathogenesis of EAO. Methods: EAO was induced in guinea pig testes at 17 days after secondary immunization by administration of crude extract (CE) and purified glycoprotein 1 (GP1) from normal guinea pig testes. iNOS gene expression was assessed by RT-PCR and Northern blot analysis in testes. Localization of iNOS and Mac-1 and the indicator of NO-mediated tissue injury, nitrotyrosine, were detected in the testicular lesion by immunohistochemistry. Results: In control testes, inflammation and iNOS gene expression were not detected, whereas, in CE- and GP1-injected testes, inflammation and marked iNOS gene expression were evident at day 17 after secondary immunization. Immunohistochemistry of Mac-1 showed the colocalization with iNOS protein and nitrotyrosyl proteins in intertubules, suggesting that NO produced by infiltrated macrophages may be involved in inflammatory lesions of intertubules. Intraperitoneal administration of aminoguanidine significantly prevented EAO with reduction of inflammation, iNOS expression and nitrotyrosine formation. Conclusion: These results suggest that NO production by macrophages may be important in the pathogenesis of CE- and GP1-induced EAO. Furthermore, this study demonstrated the therapeutic potential of iNOS inhibitor in the treatment of inflammatory and autoimmune mediated-diseases.

Effects of Neonatal Exposure of Di (n-butyl) Phthalate and Flutamide on Male Reproduction in Rats

  • Kim, Tae-Sung;Kim, Hyung-Sik;Shin, Jae-Ho;Lee, Su-Jung;Moon, Hyun-Ju;Kang, Il-Hyun;Kim, In-Young;Seok, Ji-Hyun;Oh, Ji-Young;Han, Soon-Young
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Embryo Transfer Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.109-109
    • /
    • 2002
  • In recent reports, the multiple reproductive defects such as cryptorchidism, hypospadias, epididymal cysts, low sperm counts, and testicular cancers are increased in humans, and these changes were doubted by the chemicals with estrogenic or antiandrogenic activities in our environment. To compare the effects of neonatal exposure of di (n-butyl) phthalate and flutamide on the development of reproductive organs and to identify the specific mechanisms of these abnormalities related to the male reproducton, Sprague-Dawley neonate male rats were injected subcutaneously during 5-14 days after birth with corn oil (control), flutamide (0.05, 0.1, and 0.5 mg/animal) and DBP (5, 10, and 20 mg/animal). Animals were killed at 31 (immature) and 42 (pubertal) days of age respectively and blood was collected from abdominal aorta for serum testosterone analysis. Testes, epididymides, seminal vesicles, ventral prostate, levator ani plus bulbocavernosus muscle (LABC), cowpers glands and glans penis were weighed. Expression of steroid hormone receptors (AR and ER) was examined in the testes and ventral prostate. At 31 days of age, ventral prostate, seminal vesicles, LABC, and cowpers glands significantly decreased in the flutamide (0.5 mg/animal) and DBP (20 mg/animal), but serum testosterone levels were not changed. Flutamide slightly delayed the testes descent at the high dose (0.5 mg/animal), but DBP did not show any significant effect on the testes descent at all doses. DBP and flutamide decreased the expression of AR protein in the testes but did not affect the expression of ERa and ER protein in the testes. At 42 days of age, ventral prostate, seminal vesicles, and cowpers glands weights were still significantly decreased at the high dose of flutamide (0.5 mg/animal) and DBP (20 mg/animal), but the weights of testes and epididymides were not different. Serum testosterone decreased significantly in DBP treated animals and slightly, not significantly, in flutamide group. While DBP still significantly decreased the expression of AR protein in testis, flutamide recovered from downregulation of AR protein and did not affect the expression of ERa and ER protein in the testes. Based on these results, flutamide and DBP have shown several similar patterns in reproductive abnormalitis, but some marked differences which may be caused by different acting mechanism.

  • PDF