• Title, Summary, Keyword: textural property

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Electron Microscopical Property of Transglutaminase Added Milk (트랜스글루타미나제를 첨가한 우유의 전자현미경적 특성)

  • 문정한;홍윤호
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.350-355
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    • 2003
  • Raw skim milk and colloidal calcium phosphate-free skim milk were treated with microbial transglutaminase (TGase), ultracentrifuged at varying rates and were observed to contain textural properties using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Skim milk showed irregular signs of conformation at lower centrifugal rate, and associated regular (10,000 ${\times}$g) and thin with broad holes (20,000 ${\times}$g). The associated texture became thick and irregular (40,000 ${\times}$g), and fine particles were regularly associated (100,000 ${\times}$g). When skim milk was incubated for 1 hr with TGase, casein micelles aggregated and broadened as centrifugation rate increased. When skim milk was incubated for 8 hrs with TGase, casein micelles associated to large widened aggregates, and were associated regularly which then became irregular (100,000 ${\times}$g). When colloidal calcium phosphate-free skim milk incubated for 1 hr with TGase showed no sediment, the milk incubated for 8 hrs with TGase associated together, yielding broadened and regular layers as the centrifugation rate increased. It is assumed that such phenomena could be caused by protein crosslinking reaction with TGase and conformational change of casein molecules, as well as dependencies on reaction time, temperature and ultracentrifugation rate.

Physicochemical and Organoleptic Properties of Starch Isolated from Gamma-Irradiated Acorn (감마선 조사 도토리로부터 분리한 전분의 이화학적 및 관능적 특성)

  • Kwon, Joong-Ho;Kim, Soo-Jin;Lee, Jung-Eun;Lee, Soo-Jeong;Kim, Sung-Kon;Kim, Jeong-Sook;Byun, Myung-Woo
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.34 no.6
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    • pp.1007-1012
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    • 2002
  • Physicochemical and organoleptic properties were investigated in starch extracted from acorn gamma-irradiated for insect control. Hunter's color L, a, and b values were unchanged upon irradiation at 0.25 to 10 kGy. Scanning electron microscopic observation revealed no changes with gamma irradiation at 1 kGy, that is effective for disinifestation, whereas 10 kGy resulted in some clefts on the starch surface. X-ray diffraction analysis showed patterns of both amorphous and crystalline regions were not different among the treatment groups. Water-binding property, swelling power, solubility, and gelatinization patterns of starch were influenced by irradiation dose, but 1 kGy dose was not detrimental to the physicochemical properties. Textural parameters of acorn gel were relatively stable, but significant reductions were found in hardness, adhesiveness, and chewiness in samples irradiated at 3 kGy or higher. Rrsults revealed that irradiation at 1 kGy or lower could be applied for insect control without causing apparent changes in physicochemical and organoleptic properties of acorn starch.

Textural Properties of Jumbo Squid Kamaboko as Affected by Edible Starches (대왕 오징어 연제품의 Texture에 영향을 미치는 전분의 종류)

  • LEE Nahm-Gull
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.33 no.6
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    • pp.591-596
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    • 2000
  • The effect of starches such as potato, corn and wheat starch on the rheological properties of ocean jumbo squid kamaboko was investigated. Changes in the water holding capacity and color values of those kamaboko gels was also studied using the maximum gel strength endowing starch, Wheat starch could ive the better water holding capacity and breaking stress than potato or corn starch within $10{\%}$ additional level but corn starch resulted the highest those value at $20{\%}$ added. Wheat starch had higher level of breaking strain and jelly strength at $10{\%}$ then in descending order were corn starch, potato starch. But those starches were decreased after $15{\%}$ level. Texture map showed the simple rheological properties of each starches heat gel with jumbo squid kamaboko, Corn starch map showed more tough and brittle than the other. Potato starch map showed more elastic gel than corn starch. Wheat starch map could make elastic-mushy gel. There was no significant color differences of each starches but the whiteness of each starch showed increase when the starch rate was increased.

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Sensory and mechanical characteristics of Okgalseobyung by Different ratio of Ingredient (옥갈서병의 재료배합에 따른 Texture 특성)

  • 이효지;허수연
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.16 no.6
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    • pp.538-547
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    • 2000
  • Ok-gal-seo-byung is a steamed rice cake which is made from rice flour mixed with com powder, sugars and cinnamon powder. This study aimed for exploring the best recipe of Ok-gal-seo-byung to popularize it. The most desirable recipe was determined after sensory evaluation and mechanical test for measuring texture, moisture content and colorimetry. In case of mixing rice flour with yellow com powder, the best result on each item was obtained in the following conditions: 15% of yellow com powder with honey for color, 15% of yellow com powder with sugar for flavor and sweetness, 5% of yellow com powder with honey for graininess, 5% of yellow com powder with sugar for moistness and chewiness, and 10% of yellow corn powder with sugar for overall quality. When glutinous com powder was used, the conditions giving the best results were as follows: 20% of glutinous com powder with sugar for color, graininess and chewiness, 30% of glutinous com powder with sugar for flavor, 10% of glutinous com powder with sugar for moistness and sweetness, 20% of glutinous com powder with sugar for overall quality. The best condition for each textural property was as follows: 10% of yellow com powder with sugar and 20% of glutinous com powder with sugar for springiness, 5% of yellow com powder with sugar and 30% of glutinous com powder with sugar for cohesiveness, 15% of yellow com powder with sugar and 20% of glutinous corn powder with honey for chewiness, 15% of yellow com powder with sugar and 30% of glutinous com powder with oligosaccharides for gumminess, 5% of yellow com powder with sugar and 10% of glutinous corn powder with sugar adhesiveness, 15% of yellow com powder with sugar and 30% of glutinous com powder with oligosaccharides for hardness. Moisture content in Ok-gal-seo-byung with yellow com powder and with glutinous corn powder which gave the most desirable results were 46.108% and 43.623%, respectively. As a result of colorimetry, the highest L value was obtained from 10% yellow com powder or glutinous com powder with oligosaccharides. The highest a value was obtained from 10% yellow com powder or glutinous corn powder with honey. The best b value was obtained from 15% yellow com powder with oligosaccharides and 30% glutinous corn flour with honey. Based on the results, the best recipe for Ok-gal-seo-byung was determined as follows: in case of using yellow corn powder, rice flour 315g, yellow com powder 35g, sugar 60g, water 100$m\ell$, cinnamon powder 0.5g, salt 3.5g, and in case of using glutinous com powder, rice flour 280g, glutinous com flour 70g, sugar 50g, water 110$m\ell$, cinnamon powder 0.5g, salt 3.5g.

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Studies on the Rheological Properties of Sugar Derivative Sweeteners (대체감미료 당유도체의 유변성에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Cherl-Ho;Park, Choon-Sang;Han, Bok-Jin;Kim, Bong-Chan;Jang, Ji-Hyang
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.22 no.7
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    • pp.852-857
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    • 1990
  • The rheological properties and food functionality of the novel sugar derivatives, fructo-oligosaccharide, high maltose syrup(HMS), maltitol and sorbitol were examined and compared to those of sucrose. All samples tested showed Newtonian fluid property at the concentration range of 10% to the original concentrated products containing $69{\sim}81%w/w$ solid. HMS showed the highest viscosity. The viscosity increased(r=0.8038) as the average molecular weight of sugar derivatives were increased. The viscosity increased exponentially as the concentration increased, and sugar alcohols had lower value of the exponent compared to HMS and fructo-oligosaccharide. The viscosity of sugar derivatives solutions decreased by the increasing temperature following the Arrhenius equation. The flow activation energies of sorbitol and HMS were higer than that of sucrose. Substitution of sucrose with fructo-oligosaccharide in apple jam processing did not change the textural characteristics, but in redbean jelly(yanggaeng) it reduced the hardness, adhesiveness, springiness and cohesiveness. When sucrose was 100% replaced by HMS, the texture of apple jam and redbean jelly was not changed, but by mixing sucrose and HMS 1 : 1 ratio, the hardness decreased substantially The sugar alcohols reduced the hardness, adhesiveness, springiness of apple jam and redbean jelly significantly. Addition of fructo-oligosaccharide and HMS to sucrose did not influence the solidifying rate of candy, but sorbitol, even at 10% addition, retarded the candy moulding.

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Effect of Cowpea Precipitate Flour Protein on Characteristics of Gel (동부앙금의 단백질 함량이 Gel화 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • 김경애;이선영;정난희;전은례
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.627-634
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    • 1997
  • The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of protein content on the physicochemical properties, gelatinized characteristics and textural properties of cowpea precipitate gels stored for 24 hrs and 48 hrs at room temperature. The contents of protein, total fat, and ash ranged from 0.35%∼1.38%, 0.54%∼0.64%, and 0.21%∼0.25%, respectively. The X-ray diffraction patterns were all Ca-type, showing no difference according to the protein content. Protein content did not make any difference in the blue values of cowpea precipitate. The blue value of cowpea precipitate powder as protein content was decreased. The water-binding capacity of cowpea precipitate powder increased as the protein content increased. Swelling power and solubility of cowpea precipitate powder increased as protein content decreased. The transmittance of cowpea precipitate powder was not different according to the protein content. The initial pasting temperature of cowpea precipitate powder by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and rapid visco analyser (RVA) showed no differences according to the protein content. In sensory evaluation, the color and clarity of cowpea precipitate gels stored for 24 hrs and 48 hrs at room temperature as the protein content increased, and the hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, acceptability were greater when the gels were stored for 48 hrs. Instrumental analyses using a rheometer showed that the hardness, gumminess, and chewiness of cowpea precipitate gels stored for 24 hrs, which was increased as the high protein content increased. For the gels stored for 48 hrs, all other factors are significantly different except cohesiveness as the protein content increased.

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Antioxidant activities and quality characteristics of Yanggeng added with aged black chestnut inner shell (숙성 흑율피 첨가 양갱의 품질 특성 및 항산화성)

  • Lee, Seok Ryong;Lim, Jun Young;Kim, Mee Ree
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.303-311
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    • 2017
  • This study was performed to evaluate the quality characteristics and the antioxidant activities of yanggeng added with the aged black chestnut inner shells (ACI). The levels of ACI addition to Yanggeng were 0%, 1%, 3%, or 5%. The moisture content and the reducing sugar contents of Yanggeng increased with the amount of ACI. The pH of Yanggeng with ACI decreased with the amount of ACI, but the acidity increased. Depending on the amount of ACI added, the lightness (L) and yellowness (b) values of Yanggeng with ACI decreased in the Hunter color system, and the redness (a) value increased. Textural properties by TPA showed that hardness, springiness and chewiness decreased as increase in the amount of ACI added. Total phenol content in the Yanggeng added with ACI increased with the amount of ACI added. Increasing amount of ACI addition enhanced antioxidant activities of Yanggeng, as evidenced by DPPH radical scavenging activity and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity assays. In the preference test, Yanggeng added with 3% ACI showed the highest overall preference and texture. Based on these results, when 3% ACI was added to Yanggeng the quality characteristics, antioxidant property and sensory properties were excellent.

Rheological Properties of Calrose Rice and Effect of Thawing Methods on Quality Characteristics of Frozen Turmeric Rice (칼로스 쌀의 유변학적 특성과 이로 제조된 냉동 강황밥의 해동방법에 따른 품질특성 변화)

  • Kim, So Yeon;Choi, Yu Ra;Kim, Kyeong Seop;Lee, Sang Jun;Chang, Yoon Hyuk
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.46 no.6
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    • pp.771-777
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    • 2017
  • This study investigated the rheological properties of Calrose rice flour dispersions as well as the effects of different thawing methods (steamer, smart oven, and microwave oven) on quality characteristics of frozen turmeric rice. Apparent viscosity, consistency index, and yield stress significantly increased at higher rice flour concentrations. Magnitudes of storage modulus and loss modulus significantly increased with elevation of rice flour concentration. Frozen turmeric rice thawed using a steamer had the highest moisture content and largest size (length, width, and thickness) among all thawing methods. The L values of turmeric rice after thawing using a steamer was significantly higher than those of other thawing methods. The a value of turmeric rice after thawing using a steamer was significantly lower than those of other thawing methods. Textural properties (hardness, adhesiveness, springiness, cohesiveness, brittleness, and chewiness) of frozen turmeric rice after thawing using a steamer were significantly lower than those of other thawing methods. Therefore, it can be concluded that frozen turmeric rice after thawing using a steamer might be desirable for improvement of texture.

Quality Changes of Brined Baechu Cabbage Prepared with Low Temperature Stored Baechu Cabbages (저온 저장 생배추를 이용하여 제조한 절임배추의 저장기간 중 품질 특성의 변화)

  • Jeong, Ji-Kang;Park, So-Eun;Lee, Sun-Mi;Choi, Hye-Sun;Kim, So-Hee;Park, Kun-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.475-479
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    • 2011
  • Although the storage period of raw baechu cabbage could be 2 months at $0{\sim}2^{\circ}C$, 1 month was appropriate considering the quality of the baechu cabbage, waste ratio, and storage cost. The polyethylene container was the most efficient storage container among polypropylene box, polypropylene net and polyethylene container. pH of a brined baechu cabbage using raw baechu cabbage was 4.0~4.3 after 8 weeks and its total bacteria and lactic acid bacteria counts were $10^7$ cfu/g, and textural property (springiness) lower than 50% was at 8th week of storage at $0{\sim}2^{\circ}C$ and thus its storage period was limited to 8 weeks. When brined baechu cabbage was prepared by raw baechu cabbage stored for 1 month at $0{\sim}2^{\circ}C$, its pH, microorganism counts and springiness showed similar trends to the brined cabbage using raw baechu stored for 0 month. However, its rates of change were faster than the brined baechu cabbage using the raw baechu, and the storage period was limited to 6 weeks. Brined baechu cabbage using the raw cabbage stored for 2 months and its storage period was limited by about 4 weeks judging by its indicated quality characteristics.

Effect of Whole Egg Spray-drying Conditions on Physical and Sensory Properties of Sponge Cake (계란분말 제조 조건에 따른 스펀지케이크의 특성 변화)

  • Yang, Hae-Young;Lee, Jin-Sung;Park, Ki-Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.310-316
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    • 2010
  • The objective of this study was to determine the optimum manufacturing conditions of whole egg powder with high foaming property sufficient for making sponge cakes. Whole eggs were either desugarized and/or adjusted pH before spray-dried at a temperature of $70^{\circ}C$. The physical properties of the cake were measured, and sensory evaluation was conducted on a 9-point scale. The pH and specific gravities of the foam and batter made from desugarized egg powder did not differ from those of the control, whereas batter made from commercial powder experienced significant loss of cake characteristics. The pH adjustment did not improve the foaming properties of the egg powders. The volume and textural properties of the cakes made from spray-dried egg did not differ from those of fresh egg. The taste and sensory characteristic scores for fresh egg, desugarized whole egg powder, and commercial powder were 5.00, 4.78, and 1.89, respectively. These results indicate that egg powders desugarized and spray-dried at $70^{\circ}C$ are sufficient for making sponge cakes with acceptable physical and sensory attributes.