• Title, Summary, Keyword: textural property

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Effect of Dry Heating on the Pasting/retrogradation and Textural Properties of Starch-soy Protein Mixture (건조가열이 전분과 콩단백질 혼합물의 호화 및 노화특성과 조직감에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Ki-Jung;Lee, Su-Yong;Kim, Yong-Ro;Park, Jang-Woo;Shim, Jae-Yong
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.568-573
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    • 2004
  • Effects of dry heating and pH on pasting, thermal, and textural properties of corn starch containing soy protein isolate (SPI) were investigated. Samples were prepared by drying corn starch dispersions containing 3% SPI at $40^{\circ}C$ (unheated sample) or additionally heating dried mixtures at $130^{\circ}C$ (heated sample). Pasting properties of starch samples and textural properties of starch gels were measured using Rapid Visco-Analyzer (RVA) and Texture Analyzer (TA), respectively. Effects of SPI addition and dry heating on retrogradation and microstructure of gel samples were investigated using DSC and SEM, respectively. Pasting viscosity of dry-heated samples was significantly higher than that of unheated samples, and at pH 8 compared to pH 6. Dry-heat treatment decreased fracture stress and strain of starch gels containing SPI. No significant effects of dry-heat treatment and pH were observed on retrogradation of starch gels. Addition of SPI retarded starch retrogradation and modified starch gel properties with increased nutritional value. Dry-heat treatment with SPI could be possible method for starch modification.

Optimization for the Physical Properties of Steamed Foam Cakes Prepared with Single-stage Method by Response Surface Methodology (반응표면 분석법에 의한 단단계법 거품형 찜 케이크의 물리적 특성의 최적화)

  • Kwhak, Sung-Ho;Jang, Myung-Sook
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.557-566
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    • 2005
  • In preparation of steamed foam-cakes, effects of whipping time, amount of wheat flour, and amounts of emulsifier on physical properties of the steamed foam cakes were investigated using RSM (response surface methodology). The three independent variables selected for the RSM experiment were whipping time $(X_1)$, amount of wheat flour $(X_2)$, and amounts of wheat flour $(X_2)$, and concentration of emulsifier $(X_3)$ were set for single-stage mixing, respectively. A rotatable central composite design was used for treatment arrangement. The responses from the product for loaf volume, color values and textural properties were analysed. In the analysis of variance for the foam cakes prepared by single-stage method, significant interactions were observed between independent variables (experimental factors) and physical property like loaf volume (p<0.05); textural properties like hardness, gumminess, and chewiness (p<0.05). Among independent variables, concentration of emulsifier had the most effects on physical properties while whipping time. The ordinary points in surface response showed maximal points with physical property like colorimetric b value while other properties revealed saddle points. The 3-dimensional response surface graphs of the predicted regression models displayed decreasing loaf volumes with increasing whipping times and emulsifier concentrations beyond optimum levels. The optimum conditions for best loaf volume and textural property (hardness, gummimess and chewiness) of the products selected by extracting intersectional areas of the contour maps that commonly overlapped all characteristics were; $11\~13$ min whipping time, $470\~486\;g$ amount of wheat flour, and $19\~20\;g$ emulsifier concentration, in case of single-stage method. The median values extracted from the RSM experimental results for optimum manufacturing conditions for single-stage method, i.e., 12 min whipping time, 478 g amount of wheat flour, and 20 g emulsifier concentration were empirically proven to fit the predicted levels of physical properties from the final foam cakes.

Quality Characteristics on Adding Blood Levels to Blood Sausage (혈액 첨가 수준에 따른 혈액소시지의 품질 특성)

  • Choi, Yun-Sang;Sung, Jung-Min;Jeon, Ki-Hong;Choi, Hyun-Wook;Seo, Dong-Ho;Kim, Cheon-Jei;Kim, Hyun-Wook;Hwang, Ko-Eun;Kim, Young-Boong
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.31 no.6
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    • pp.741-748
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    • 2015
  • This study evaluated the effects of adding blood levels to phycochemical properties, textural properties, and sensory characteristics of blood sausage. 4 treatment groups of blood sausage were produced, T1 (pork ham : pork blood = 60:15), T2 (55:20), T3 (50:25), and T4 (45:30). T1 had the highest moisture content, most cohesiveness, and gumminess, CIE L-value, CIE a-value, and CIE b-value of raw and cooked blood sausages. Protein content, fat content, ash content, and VBN values were not significantly different among the treatments. T4 was treated with the most added pork blood, and had the highest pH of raw and cooked blood sausages, cooking loss, and TBA values. T2's sausage was the hardest, but had more springiness, cohesiveness, gumminess, and chewiness than T4. The best scores were from T4 and had the most overall acceptability. The results of this study show that blood sausages containing 20% pork blood had higher improved quality characteristics in blood sausages.

Effects of Physicochemical and Gel Properties of Starches Purified from Korean and Chinese Mungbeans with Different Methods (한국산과 중국산 녹두로부터 방법을 달리하여 분리한 전분의 이화학적 및 겔 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Qian, Yurun;Shin, Malshick
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.871-881
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    • 2012
  • To compare the physicochemical and gel properties of mung bean starches prepared by different purification methods, starches from Korean Eohul variety and Chinese mung bean (MB) with or without hull using alkaline solution or water as solvent were purified. The optimum conditions for making muk were investigated. Apparent amylose and total dietary fiber contents, water binding capacity, solubility and pasting properties by RVA were analyzed. The characteristics of starch gels (10% dry basis) were measured for 0 and 4 day stored at $4^{\circ}C$. The protein and ash contents were significantly different (p<0.05) and lowered in starch from dehulled MB using alkaline solution. The starches from dehulled MB using alkaline solution showed the lowest color differences. Apparent amylose contents of Eohul and Chinese starches showed 37.06-39.03% and 31.57-32.74%, respectively. Chinese starch was higher in water binding capacity but lower in solubility at $85^{\circ}C$ than others. Peak, trough, cold, and breakdown viscosities of Eohul starch were higher than those of Chinese one. Mung bean starch gel made immediately exhibited clear and glossy appearance but became whiter like milk. The crystallinities of starch and starch gel showed A and B types, respectively. The hardness, gumminess, and resilience of starch gel made immediately and hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, and resilience of 4 day stored gels were different significantly (p<0.05). Especially, Eohul starch gels purified from hulled MB showed higher resilience (bending property) and hardness. Therefore, it was suggested that high quality muk would be made using MB starch purified from hulled Korean mung bean using water as solvent.decreased in contain more than 20% of SGP added groups. The optimal concentration of SGP was found in the range of less than 10%.

Quality Characteristics of Noodle Added with Browned Oak Mushroom(Lentinus edodes) (갈변 표고버섯(Lentinus edodes)을 첨가한 국수의 품질 특성)

  • Kim, Se-Young;Kang, Mi-Young;Kim, Mi-Hyun
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.24 no.5
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    • pp.665-671
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    • 2008
  • The principal objective of this study was to assess the quality properties of noodles to which browned oak mushroom (Lentinus edodes) paste was added at concentrations of 10%, 20%, and 30% to wheat flour, respectively. With regard to the cooking properties of the noodles, the weight and water absorption of the cooked noodles increased with increasing paste contents, but the turbidity of the noodle soups decreased (p<0.05). The hardness and gumminess of the uncooked and cooked noodles decreased significantly in proportion to the quantity of added paste, except in the case of the cooked noodles with 30% paste. The springiness and cohesiveness of both noodles with Lentinus edodes paste were significantly higher than in the controls. The lightness of the uncooked and cooked noodles decreased in accordance with the amount of added paste. However, the yellowness of both noodles was significantly increased. Moreover, the results of our sensory evaluation showed that the cooked noodles with 20% and 30% added Lentinus edodes paste had higher values. Thus, Lentinus edodes paste added to a concentration of up to 30% was shown to effectively improve the quality of noodles.

Correlation of mineralogical and textural properties with mechanical qualities of granite dimension stone from the Namwon area, Korea (남원지역 화강암 석재의 품질, 암석조직과 구성광물의 비교연구)

  • 홍세선;윤현수;이병태
    • The Journal of Engineering Geology
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.105-121
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    • 2004
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between petrographical and engineering properties of granitic rocks, widely used as building and ornamental stones in Korea, at the Namwon are a. This area is one of the most famous area as a domestic dimension stone production. The granitic rocks were examined for grain sizes, modal compositions and then same samples were tested to determine specific gravity, water absorption, porosity, uniaxial compressive strength, tensile strength, abrasive hardness, P-wave velocity, modulus of elasticity and Poisson's ratio. It is suggested that the influence of the grain size on the engineering properties is more important than that of the mode of mineralogical compositions. And quartz contents also significantly influence the engineering properties of granitic rocks.

Effect of the Addition of Schisandra chinensis Powder on the Physico-chemical Characteristics of Sausage

  • Jin, S.K.;Park, J.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.26 no.12
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    • pp.1753-1761
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    • 2013
  • The individual and interactive effects of Schisandra chinensis powder (SCP) and sodium nitrite additions on color, pH, water holding capacity, residual nitrite, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), volatile basic nitrogen, texture properties, fatty acids, amino acids and sensory evaluation of cooked pork sausages were investigated after 20 d of storage at $4^{\circ}C$. The powders (0, 0.5 and 1.0%) were added to sausages either alone or in combination with nitrite (0 and 100 ppm). SCP added-sausages showed lower $L^*$ (lightness) and W (whiteness) values, and higher $b^*$ (yellowness) values than sausage containing no nitrite, and exhibited the highest $a^*$ values at a 0.5% addition (p<0.05). Residual nitrite and TBARS values were found to be significantly reduced as the addition levels of SCP increased (p<0.05). As the addition of SCP increased, the sausage showed gradually decreased brittleness, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess and chewiness, while adhesiveness increased. Polyunsaturated fatty acid, n-6 and n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio concentrations were significantly higher in sausages containing SCP (p<0.05). The addition of SCP to sausage significantly (p<0.05) increased the ammonia content (by 0.5% SCP) and aromatic amino acid concentrations (by 1.0% SCP) (p<0.05). Inclusion of SCP in sausage meat resulted in a significant deterioration in quality characteristics of flavor, springiness, juiciness and overall acceptability (p<0.05). As expected, the observed changes in $a^*$, W, pH, shear force, texture property, TBARS, fatty acid, amino acid and sensory score of sausages, depended on the rate of addition of nitrite (p<0.05). These results suggest that SCP addition is not an effective way of improving the sensory evaluation of sausages, but may beneficially affect TBARS, nitrite scavenging activity, fatty acid and amino acid content in pork sausages.

Hierarchically nanoporous carbons derived from empty fruit bunches for high performance supercapacitors

  • Choi, Min Sung;Park, Sulki;Lee, Hyunjoo;Park, Ho Seok
    • Carbon letters
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    • v.25
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    • pp.103-112
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    • 2018
  • Hierarchically porous, chemically activated carbon materials are readily derived from biomass using hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) and chemical activation processes. In this study, empty fruit bunches (EFB) were chosen as the carbon source due to their sustainability, high lignin-content, abundance, and low cost. The lignin content in the EFB was condensed and carbonized into a bulk non-porous solid via the HTC process, and then transformed into a hierarchical porous structure consisting of macro- and micropores by chemical activation. As confirmed by various characterization results, the optimum activation temperature for supercapacitor applications was determined to be $700^{\circ}C$. The enhanced capacitive performance is attributed to the textural property of the extremely high specific surface area of $2861.4m^2\;g^{-1}$. The prepared material exhibited hierarchical porosity and surface features with oxygen functionalities, such as carboxyl and hydroxyl groups, suitable for pseudocapacitance. Finally, the as-optimized nanoporous carbons exhibited remarkable capacitive performance, with a specific capacitance of $402.3F\;g^{-1}$ at $0.5A\;g^{-1}$, a good rate capability of 79.8% at current densities from $0.5A\;g^{-1}$ to $10A\;g^{-1}$, and excellent life cycle behavior of 10,000 cycles with 96.5% capacitance retention at $20A\;g^{-1}$.

Basic Studies on the Native Colored-Soybean Cultivars III. Variations and Preformances in Chemical Composition and Textural Property in Seeds of Collected Colored-Soybean Cultivars (유색 대두수집종의 특성연구 제III보 유색 대두수집종의 화학적 조성과 특성 변이)

  • 구자옥;이종욱;이영만
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.345-350
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    • 1983
  • Collected 38 varieties of colored-soybean seed cultivated under a given cultural conditions were tested in the various chemical compositions and rheological properties in seeds. As it were, protein, fat, carbohydrate, ash and water contents as a chemical contents were studied not only on their statistical variations, but also on interrelationships with their collaborated rheological characteristics; hardness, cohesiveness, elasticity, gumminess and chewiness. For the rheological analysis of the materials, the General Foods Texturometer and typical texturometer curve were used.

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Effects of Number of Washes and Salt Treatment on the Quality Characteristics of Protein Recovered from Alaska Pollock and Pork Leg

  • Jin, Sang Keun;Lee, Seung Yun;Yim, Dong Gyun;Hur, Sun Jin
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.503-509
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    • 2019
  • The aim of this study was to compare the effects of number of washes and salt addition on the meat quality in protein recovered from Alaska Pollock compared with pork leg. Various properties of protein recovered from Alaska Pollock (C, washed twice, no salt) and pork leg (T1, washed twice, no salt; T2, two washes, salt added; T3, washed four times, no salt; and T4, washed four times, salt added) were assessed in this study. Pork leg samples exhibited better color (more whiteness, less yellowness) than Alaska Pollock samples. In pork leg samples, four washes (T3, T4) during processing yielded whiter, less yellow protein than two washes (T1, T2). Overall, the textural property measures were higher in pork leg samples (T2, T3, and T4) than in other samples. Breaking force, jelly strength, and folding resistance were significantly higher in salt-treated pork leg samples (T2, T4) than in the other samples. Our findings demonstrate that protein recovered from pork leg has better color parameters, and physical strength compared with Alaska Pollock-derived protein. A higher number of wash steps and treatment with salt during processing were furthermore found to yield better color, and physical strength in the protein samples.