• Title, Summary, Keyword: textural property

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Hierarchically nanoporous carbons derived from empty fruit bunches for high performance supercapacitors

  • Choi, Min Sung;Park, Sulki;Lee, Hyunjoo;Park, Ho Seok
    • Carbon letters
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    • v.25
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    • pp.103-112
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    • 2018
  • Hierarchically porous, chemically activated carbon materials are readily derived from biomass using hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) and chemical activation processes. In this study, empty fruit bunches (EFB) were chosen as the carbon source due to their sustainability, high lignin-content, abundance, and low cost. The lignin content in the EFB was condensed and carbonized into a bulk non-porous solid via the HTC process, and then transformed into a hierarchical porous structure consisting of macro- and micropores by chemical activation. As confirmed by various characterization results, the optimum activation temperature for supercapacitor applications was determined to be $700^{\circ}C$. The enhanced capacitive performance is attributed to the textural property of the extremely high specific surface area of $2861.4m^2\;g^{-1}$. The prepared material exhibited hierarchical porosity and surface features with oxygen functionalities, such as carboxyl and hydroxyl groups, suitable for pseudocapacitance. Finally, the as-optimized nanoporous carbons exhibited remarkable capacitive performance, with a specific capacitance of $402.3F\;g^{-1}$ at $0.5A\;g^{-1}$, a good rate capability of 79.8% at current densities from $0.5A\;g^{-1}$ to $10A\;g^{-1}$, and excellent life cycle behavior of 10,000 cycles with 96.5% capacitance retention at $20A\;g^{-1}$.

Basic Studies on the Native Colored-Soybean Cultivars III. Variations and Preformances in Chemical Composition and Textural Property in Seeds of Collected Colored-Soybean Cultivars (유색 대두수집종의 특성연구 제III보 유색 대두수집종의 화학적 조성과 특성 변이)

  • 구자옥;이종욱;이영만
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.345-350
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    • 1983
  • Collected 38 varieties of colored-soybean seed cultivated under a given cultural conditions were tested in the various chemical compositions and rheological properties in seeds. As it were, protein, fat, carbohydrate, ash and water contents as a chemical contents were studied not only on their statistical variations, but also on interrelationships with their collaborated rheological characteristics; hardness, cohesiveness, elasticity, gumminess and chewiness. For the rheological analysis of the materials, the General Foods Texturometer and typical texturometer curve were used.

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Effects of Number of Washes and Salt Treatment on the Quality Characteristics of Protein Recovered from Alaska Pollock and Pork Leg

  • Jin, Sang Keun;Lee, Seung Yun;Yim, Dong Gyun;Hur, Sun Jin
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.503-509
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    • 2019
  • The aim of this study was to compare the effects of number of washes and salt addition on the meat quality in protein recovered from Alaska Pollock compared with pork leg. Various properties of protein recovered from Alaska Pollock (C, washed twice, no salt) and pork leg (T1, washed twice, no salt; T2, two washes, salt added; T3, washed four times, no salt; and T4, washed four times, salt added) were assessed in this study. Pork leg samples exhibited better color (more whiteness, less yellowness) than Alaska Pollock samples. In pork leg samples, four washes (T3, T4) during processing yielded whiter, less yellow protein than two washes (T1, T2). Overall, the textural property measures were higher in pork leg samples (T2, T3, and T4) than in other samples. Breaking force, jelly strength, and folding resistance were significantly higher in salt-treated pork leg samples (T2, T4) than in the other samples. Our findings demonstrate that protein recovered from pork leg has better color parameters, and physical strength compared with Alaska Pollock-derived protein. A higher number of wash steps and treatment with salt during processing were furthermore found to yield better color, and physical strength in the protein samples.

The Quality Characteristics of Yackwa Prepared with Egg (전란(全卵)의 첨가수준에 따른 약과의 품질특성)

  • 윤숙자
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.18 no.6
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    • pp.613-618
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    • 2002
  • Yackwa was prepared with various amounts of egg and the texture profile analysis, Hunter's color measurement and sensory evaluation were performed during storage for 7 days. In the texture profile analysis, hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess and chewiness of Yackwa were increased in all samples during storage and the textural parameters were increased by increasing egg level. No significant difference was observed in the lightness, redness and yellowness (p>0.05). During storage, L and a values in all samples were increased while b value was decreased. In the results of sensory evaluation, Yackwa prepared with 10g of egg had an acceptable sensory quality.

Physical and Functional Properties of Several Extrusion-Texturized Oilseed Protein Products Containing Beef Muscle (탈지 유지종자와 우육단백질을 동시에 가압사출시킨 제품의 물리 및 기능적 특성)

  • Kim, Byong-Ki
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.328-333
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    • 1993
  • The effect of defatted and dehydrated beef muscle on the physical properties of thermoplastically extruded defatted soybean, cottonseed, peanut and sunflower seed flours were investigated. To minimize the adverse effect of meat fat and to increase the mixing efficiency of the meat with defatted oilseed flours at a given moisture level, beef muscle was extracted with chloroform-ethanol(2 : 1) at 2$0^{\circ}C$ and air dried. The variety of oilseed flours used had greater effects on color, expansion, bulk density, water absorption rate and textural strength of the extrudate than did the added level of defatted, dehydrated beef muscle (0 to 20% on a dry weight basis).

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Sensory Evaluation of Kimchi using Two Ethnic Groups (두 인종간의 김치의 관능특성 차이)

  • Yoon, Hee-Nam;Um, Ki-Won
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.755-758
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    • 1991
  • Kimchi was investigated with regard to the sensory properties depending on ethnic group and processing conditions, and to the relationship between its sensory attributes. Sensory panel scores of American in sourness, pungency and crunchiness were significantly higher than those of Korean. The opposite result was performed in sweetness. There were no significant differences between American and Korean in sensory properties of saltiness, hardness and toughness. Salt content in brine was significantly related to saltiness of kimchi at p<0.001. Sensory panel scores of saltiness in kimchi made with 10, 15 and 20% salt solution appeared to be 4.5, 5.8 and 7.1, respectively. Mean values of toughness were 5.7 at 3 days of aging and 4.5 at 10 days. There were no relationship among sensory properties between taste attributes and textural terms of kimchi.

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A Study on the Development of Cooked Rice according to the Different Coating Ratio of Yacon(Polymia sonchifolia) Root and Its Antioxidant and Sensory Properties (야콘 뿌리 추출액 코팅 쌀 제조 및 항산화력과 관능적 품질 연구)

  • Lee, Ae-Rang
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.600-606
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    • 2010
  • The objective of this study was to develop functional rice coated with yacon roots extracts and to evaluate the antioxidant properties and physiological activity of rice coated with yacon extract. The washed rice was coated by spraying yacon extract at 10, 20, 30, and $40^{\circ}Brix$ and dried at room temperature. The moisture contents, color changes, antioxidant properties as total polyphenolics and DPPH radical scavenging activity and instrumental texture property and sensory evaluation change in the yacon root extracts coated rice and uncoated cooked rice were observed during 3 days of storage. Increasing the coating concentration was associated with lower color values(L value) and moisture contents. Total phenolics and DPPH radical scavenging properties generally increased in the cooked rice coated with yacon root extract more than the control (non-coated rice). However, D-20($20^{\circ}Brix$ of the yacon root concentration) resulted in better textural properties and sensory overall acceptability in cooked rice on 0 and 3 storage days. It was concluded that the optimum coating ration of rice and added functional yacon rice were $20^{\circ}Brix$ and 7% respectively, in proportion to the total weight of raw rice.

Studies on Preparation of Low-Fat Press Ham and Its Quality Properties during Storage (저지방 프레스햄의 제조와 품질특성에 관한 연구)

  • 정인범;정인철;문윤희
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.11 no.5
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    • pp.475-481
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    • 1998
  • This study was conducted to investigate the possibility for low fat press ham which was made without fat added. Four kinds of press ham were prepared ; Apork 70%, fat 0% ; low fat press ham), B(pork 60%, fat 10%), C(pork 55%, fat 15%) and D(pork 50%, fat 20%). The press ham samples were stored at 4$\pm$2$^{\circ}C$. The physic chemical properties of press hams were analyzed during storage 60 days at 4$^{\circ}C$. The contents of moisture(71.3%) and crude protein (23.4%) of low press ham were higher than those of other products, and crude fat content (2.8%) was remarkably lower(p<0.5). The water holding capacity of press ham was higher than other products. Hunter's L(61.6) and b-value(5.9) of low fat press ham were lower than other products, but a-value(11.7) was higher. Hardness (70.2 dyne/cm), springiness(85%), chewiness(0.49kg), gumminess (2.0kg) and brittleness (0.7kg) of low fat press ham were higher than those of other products, but cohesiveness was lower than D product. Aroma and texture of low fat press ham were inferior to other, but taste and palatability of that were superor.

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Fractal Dimension of Contact Points between Fabric and Flat Surfaces (직물표면과 평판과의 접촉면에 대한 Fractal 차원)

  • 이현영;홍경희
    • Textile Science and Engineering
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    • v.35 no.5
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    • pp.294-300
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    • 1998
  • Quantification of the nature of contact points between fabric surfaces and a flat plate was attempted using an image processing system. In order to make visible images of the contact points, we used flat slide glasses covered with soot from isopropyl alcohol. Black soots transferred to the fabric from the slide were regarded as contact points. And these black points were analyzed in terms of total contact area, average size of contact points, average axis ratio and roundness of contact points etc. Fractal dimension was also determined to describe the distribution and complexity of contact points by applying box counting method. Experimental variables of fabrics include fiber type (cotton, polyester, cotton/polyester 35/65), weave type (plain polyester, crepe polyester) and surface treatment type (peach-skin finish, general finish). As results, cotton fabrics demonstrated the least total contact area, smallest average radius of contact point. Fractal dimension of cotton fabrics was about unity, whereas that of polyester was about 2. It was indicated that fractal geometry was applicable to the study of contact points between fabric and plate. In addition, it seemed that the fractal dimension of contact points would be a good surface property related physical parameters which closely related to subjective textural evaluation under the warm environment.

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Comparison of Physicochemical Properties of Korean and Australian Wheat Flours Used to Make Korean Salted Noodles

  • Kim, In-Sook;Binns, Colin;Yun, Hon;Quail, Ken;Lee, Chi-Ho
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.275-280
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    • 2007
  • The effect of using Korean wheat flour versus Australian wheat flour on noodle quality as a result of differing physical and chemical properties of the flours was investigated. The results provided appropriate technical information for selection of wheat varieties to produce high quality Korean salted noodles. Noodle quality was quantified based on measurement of the appearance and texture of noodles. When consumer preference tests were conducted, a firmer and more elastic texture was preferred for Korean white salted noodles, however, when appearance was included in the consumer tests, noodles made with Australian wheat were favored over Korean wheats. Korean flour was found to produce firmer and more elastic noodles, whereas Australian flour produced brighter, creamier colored noodles. In flour quality tests, Korean flours were found to have a higher setback viscosity and lower swelling power than Australian flour. Additionally, Korean flours had higher water absorption values. Protein content of flour was an important parameter affecting the firmness of Korean noodles, whereas setback viscosity and swelling power were the major determinants of elasticity. Overall, the important parameters for determination of the quality of Korean salted noodles were high setback viscosity, low swelling power, and high protein content.