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Manufacturing process and food safety analysis of sous-vide production for small and medium sized manufacturing companies: Focusing on the Korean HMR market (중소규모 생산업체의 수비드 제품 생산을 위한 공정 및 안전성 분석: 한국 HMR 시장 중심으로)

  • Choi, Eugene;Shin, Weon Sun
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.52 no.1
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 2020
  • The present study identified the restrictions on the use of sous-vide products in the Korean HMR market for small and medium-sized manufacturing companies. A detailed literature review revealed that the HMR market in Korea is close to saturation. Notably, the technologically advanced products produced using sous-vide seem to display significant potential to overcome market saturation. The sous-vide method differs from conventional cooking techniques and is characterized by maintenance of food texture along with flavor enhancement. However, due to the unfamiliarity of the manufacturers with this method and the unclear food safety regulations, mass food manufacturing companies do not agree on using this method; hence, sous-vide production is usually undertaken by small/medium sized companies catering primarily through online marketing portals. This study highlights the various restrictions to the implementation of sous-vide production, and discusses several practical implications of sous-vide production that would help users of this technique enter the HMR market.

Growth Conditions and Maintenance of Natural Monument Old Big Trees in Gangwondo (강원도 내 천연기념물 노거수의 생육환경 및 관리현황)

  • Heo, Bok Soo;Kim, Hyo Jeong;Lee, Won Ho;Kang, Hee Jin
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.182-195
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    • 2011
  • Old big tree transcends the simple meaning of trees as they are the natural monuments that embody the people's history and culture of this land. The Cultural Heritage Administration of Korea (CHA) defines and protects old big tree based not only on the size of the tree but also on its definitive cultural and natural factors such as value, implications, and originality. This research aims to identify and analyze the habitation and measurements, the soil conditions, as well as the protective facilities of 14 old big tree spread throughout the Gangwondo. The research examined the soundness of the arboreal form, the degree of damage on the bark, as well as the quantity of leafs levels to evaluate the overall condition of growth and development. Then, the tree height, the eastwest and south-north width of the crown, the sternum circumference, and the root circumference were recorded to identify the measurements of the selected old big tree. Also, the research analyzed 9 elements such as soil texture, pH levels, and organic contents in order to determine the scientific characteristics of soil upon which the trees draw nutrition. Finally, the research evaluated supporting pillars, lightning rods, iron pulling-facilities, as well as notice boards to study the protective facilities of old big tree. The research procedures revealed that 78.57% of the old big tree identified as natural monuments in the Gangwondo have average to above average habitation conditions. Also, the average tree height reaches 18.80m above ground while the average root circumference measures 7.34m. Moreover, the results of the scientific analyses conducted on the soil elements determined that most chemical values were within the defined levels, with the exception of phosphoric acid levels falling within the hyper-nutritious range. Finally, although most of the protective facilities did support the habitation of the Old big tree, there were some supporting pillars and iron pulling-facilities that actually damaged the trees. This research means to provide foundational reference data for the analysis of the habitation and management conditions of natural monument old big tree within the Gangwondo. A follow-up topic led by the results of this research is the identification and analysis of correlating environmental elements that affect the habitation of the old big tree.

A Study on History and Archetype Technology of Goli-su in Korea (한국 고리수의 역사와 원형기술의 복원 연구)

  • Kim, Young-ran
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.46 no.2
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    • pp.4-25
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    • 2013
  • Goli-su is the innovative special kind of the embroidery technique, which combines twining and interlacing skill with metal technology and makes the loops woven to each other with a strand. The loops floating on the space of the ground look like floating veins of sculpture and give people the feeling of the openwork. This kind of characteristic has some similarities with the lacework craft of Western Europe in texture and technique style, but it has its own features different from that of Western Europe. It mainly represents the splendid gloss with metallic materials in the Embroidered cloth, such as gold foil or wire. In the 10th century, early days of Goryo, we can see the basic Goli-su structure form of its initial period in the boy motif embroidery purse unearthed from the first level of Octagonal Nine-storied Pagoda of Woljeong-sa. In the Middle period of Joseon, there are several pieces of Goli-su embroidered relic called "Battle Flag of Goryo", which was taken by the Japanese in 1592 and is now in the Japanese temple. This piece is now converted into altar-table covers. In 18~19th century, two pairs of embroidered pillows in Joseon palace were kept intact, whose time and source are very accurate. The frame of the pillows was embroidered with Goli-su veins, and some gold foil papers were inserted into the inside. The triangle motif with silk was embroidered on the pillow. The stitch in the Needle-Looped embroidery is divided into three kinds according to comprehensive classification: 1. Goli-su ; 2. Goli-Kamgi-su ; 3. Goli-Saegim-su. From the 10th century newly establishing stage to the 13th century, Goli-su has appeared variational stitches and employed 2~3 dimensional color schemes gradually. According to the research of this thesis, we can still see this stitch in the embroidery pillow, which proves that Goli-suwas still kept in Korea in the 19th century. And in terms of the research achievement of this thesis, Archetype technology of Goli-su was restored. Han Sang-soo, Important Intangible Cultural Heritage No. 80 and Master of Embroidery already recreated the Korean relics of Goli-su in Joseon Dynasty. The Needle-Looped embriodery is the overall technological result of ancestral outstanding Metal craft, Twining and Interlacing craft, and Embroidery art. We should inherit, create, and seek the new direction in modern multi-dimensional and international industry societyon the basis of these research results. We can inherit the long history of embroidering, weaving, fiber processing, and expand the applications of other craft industries, and develop new advanced additional values of new dress material, fashion technology, ornament craft and artistic design. Thus, other crafts assist each other and broaden the expressive field to pursue more diversified formative beauty and beautify our life abundantly together.

Management Guidelines and the Structure of Vegetation in Natural Monuments Koelreuteria Paniculata Community (천연기념물 모감주나무군락의 식생구조와 관리제언)

  • Shin, Byung Chul;Lee, Won Ho;Kim, Hyo Jeong;Hong, Jeum Kyu
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.43 no.1
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    • pp.100-117
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    • 2010
  • This study analyzed vegetation structure of natural monuments Koelreuteria paniculata community in search of a conservation and management plan. Plant sociological analysis of Koelreuteria paniculata community indicates that it can be classified into Achyranthes japonica subcommunity and Rhodotypos scandens subcommunity and Trachelospermum asiaticum var. intermedium subcommunity. While Koelreuteria paniculata community of Ahnmyeondo is composed of sub tree layer and herb layer, those of Pohang and Wando are composed of tree layer, Sub tree layer, shrub layer, herb layer. The results of tree vitality analysis showed that those in Ahnmyeondo appeared to be relatively low when compared to those in Pohang and Wando-gun. This can be understood in two different aspects: disease and insects vulnerability due to a relatively simple structure and lack of competitive species, and decreased vitality / natural branch losses due to crown competition arising from high density. The result of soil characteristics analysis showed that soil texture, soil pH, organic matter, $p_2O_5$, exchange positive ion were sufficient for tree growth while total nitrogen was not, so that discretion would be needed for fertilizer application. As there were damages of disease and inscet, but only for 10~15% of the entire area; it still requires consistent preconsideration. The study suggests the management methods for preservation of Koelreuteria paniculata community. First, securing designated areas is necessary in order to minimize environment deterioration due to surrounding development. Especially, for sections with decreased areas, expansion of designated areas through land purchase should also be considered. Second, artificial interference may affect the livestock. Therefore, monitoring of artificial interference is necessary, based on which protection projects must be conducted. Third, from analysis of young plants which influence the maintenance mechanisms of Koelreuteria paniculata community, a decrease compared to the prior year was observed; investigation is needed. Therefore, an active management policy through status examination of livestock such as germination and young plants is necessary.

Relationship between Measured and Predicted Soil Water Content using Soil Moisture Monitoring Network (토양수분관측망을 활용한 토양수분의 실측값과 추정값 상관성 평가)

  • Ok, Jung-hun;Kim, Dong-Jin;Han, Kyung-hwa;Jung, Kang-Ho;Lee, Kyung-Do;Zhang, Yong-seon;Cho, Hee-rae;Hwang, Seon-ah
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.297-306
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    • 2019
  • Soil moisture monitoring is an important task to cope with climate change, and soil water prediction can provide large-scale soil moisture information. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between the measured and predicted soil water content, and to estimate the correlation between the soil characteristics and soil water content. The selected sites in soil moisture monitoring network were 76, and the soil with high sand content (sand, loamy sand, and sandy loam in soil texture) accounted for 77% of the total. Organic matter and bulk density were 0.03 to 3.50% and 1.01 to 1.69 Mg m-3, respectively. Predicting values of field capacity and wilting point were lower than the measured soil water content, and the correlation coefficient between the measured and predicted values were low as 0.548 to 0.748. However, a significantly high positive correlation (p<0.01) found between the measured and predicted soil water content. Soil water (field water capacity and wilting point) content was highly positively correlated with silt, clay, and organic matter (p<0.01) and highly negatively correlated with sand (p<0.01).

Distribution and Stratigraphical Significance of the Haengmae Formation in Pyeongchang and Jeongseon areas, South Korea (평창-정선 일대 "행매층"의 분포와 층서적 의의)

  • Kim, Namsoo;Choi, Sung-Ja;Song, Yungoo;Park, Chaewon;Chwae, Ueechan;Yi, Keewook
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.53 no.4
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    • pp.383-395
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    • 2020
  • The stratigraphical position of the Haengmae Formation can provide clues towards solving the hot issue on the Silurian formation, also known as Hoedongri Formation. Since the 2010s, there have been several reports denying the Haengmae Formation as a lithostratigraphic unit. This study aimed to clarify the lithostratigraphic and chronostratigraphic significance of the Haengmae Formation. The distribution and structural geometry of the Haengmae Formation were studied through geologic mapping, and the correlation of relative geologic age and the absolute age was performed through conodont biostratigraphy and zircon U-Pb dating respectively. The representative rock of the Haengmae Formation is massive and yellow-yellowish brown pebble-bearing carbonate rocks with a granular texture similar to sandstone. Its surface is rough with a considerable amount of pores. By studying the mineral composition, contents, and microstructure of the rocks, they have been classified as pebble-bearing clastic rocks composed of dolomite pebbles and matrix. They chiefly comprise of euhedral or subhedral dolomite, and rounded, well-sorted fine-grained quartz, which are continuously distributed in the study area from Biryong-dong to Pyeongan-ri. Bedding attitude and the thickness of the Haengmae Formation are similar to that of the Hoedongri Formation in the north-eastern area (Biryong-dong to Haengmae-dong). The dip-direction attitudes were maintained 340°/15° from Biryong-dong to Haengmae-dong with a thickness of ca. 200 m. However, around the southwest of the studied area, the attitude is suddenly changed and the stratigraphic sequence is in disorder because of fold and thrust. Consequently, the formation is exposed to a wide low-relief area of 1.5 km × 2.5 km. Zircon U-Pb age dating results ranged from 470 to 449 Ma, which indicates that the Haengmae Formation formed during the Upper Ordovician or later. The pebble-bearing carbonate rock consisted of clastic sediments, suggesting that the Middle Ordovician conodonts from the Haengmae Formation must be reworked. Therefore, the above-stated evidence supports that the geologic age of the Haengmae Formation should be Upper Ordovician or later. This study revealed that the Haengmae Formation is neither shear zone, nor an upper part of the Jeongseon Limestone, and is also not the same age as the Jeongseon Limestone. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the Haengmae Formation should be considered a unit of lithostratigraphy in accordance with the stratigraphic guide of the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS).

SHRIMP U-Pb ages of zircon from banded gneisses and a leucocratic dyke in the Wilson Terrane, northern Victoria Land, Antarctica (남극 북빅토리아랜드 윌슨 암체 호상 편마암과 우백질 암맥의 저어콘 SHRIMP U-Pb 연령)

  • Kim, Yoonsup;Kim, Taehwan;Lee, Jong Ik;Kim, Sook Ju
    • Journal of the Geological Society of Korea
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    • v.53 no.4
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    • pp.489-507
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    • 2017
  • The Wilson Terrane is primarily composed of Precambrian-Early Palaeozoic medium- to high-grade metasedimentary rocks as well as Cambrian-Ordovician intrusive rocks, and was amalgamated with the northeastern Bowers and Robertson Bay terranes during the Ross Orogeny to form northern Victoria Land, Antarctica. In order to preliminarily constrain timing of metamorphism and provenance of the sedimentary protoliths, the U-Pb compositions of zircon from two banded gneisses and a leucocratic dyke of the Wilson Terrane were measured using a SHRIMP-IIe. Apart from Early Ordovician magmatic ages, the U-Pb age distribution of zircon is characterized by a couple of major populations at ~1.0-1.2 Ga and ~530-700 Ma correlative to the Grenville and Pan-African orogenies, respectively, with scattered ages over 1.6 Ga and the prominent early-to-middle Neoproterozoic (~700-900 Ma) absence. The relatively small fraction, high Th/U ratio, and rare metamorphic texture of Early Cambrian zircon in the banded-gneiss samples suggest their youngest apparent age ~530 Ma as the maximum depositional age. For the leucocratic dyke, the weighted mean $^{206}Pb/^{238}U$ age of the oscillatory-zoned overgrowth rims of zircon is ~480 Ma, and apparent ages for the structureless, intermediate regions with low Th/U ratios between inherited core and the oscillatory-zoned rim cluster at ~500 Ma. In summary, our preliminary geochronologic data may reflect the timing of tectonic processes in the Wilson Terrane such as (1) continuous supplies of detrital materials during the Early Cambrian; (2) the granulite facies metamorphism at ~500 Ma; and (3) additional thermal input at ~480 Ma resulting in crustal reworking.

Quality Differences in High Grade of Medium-short Grain Milled Rice Between the Exported Korean Rice and Chinese Circulating Rice in China (대중국 우리 수출쌀과 중국내 유통중인 고급 중단립종의 품질 차이)

  • Ko, Jae-Kwon;Lee, Kwang-Won;Kim, Kee-Jong;Baek, Man-Kee;Shin, Woon-Chul;Chun, Jae-Buhm;Kim, Woo-Jae;Jeong, Ji-Ung;Kang, Kyung-Ho;Kim, Hyun-Soon;Kim, Bo-Kyeong
    • The Journal of the Korean Society of International Agriculture
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.129-133
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    • 2017
  • In January 2016, Korea began rice exporting to China from six domestic Rice Processing Complexes (RPC). The appearance characteristics and quality of medium-short grain milled rice between the exported Korean rice was compared with Wuchang rice, which is known as high quality in Heilongjiang province in China, and the imported rice from Japan and Taiwan in Chinese circulating marketing. The 1000-grain weight of exported rice is 22.4g, which is similar to that of Chinese Wuchang rice, but it tended to be heavier than that of Japanese and Taiwanese. The rice type is round in exporting Korean, Japanese, and Taiwanese rice while Chinese Wuchang rice is thin and long with 2.5. The head rice rate of export rice was 93.3 ~ 98.4%, which was 95.8% on average, which was higher than that of Chinese Wuchang rice, and similar to that of Japanese, and Taiwanese. The protein content of the export rice was 5.2 ~ 6.2%, which was 5.8% on average, similar to that of Chinese Wuchang rice, Japanese and Taiwanese. Amylose content was 18.5% of the exported rice, which was lower than that of Chinese Wuchang rice and slightly higher than that of Japanese and Taiwanese. The whiteness of the exported Korean rice was 35.6 on the average, lower than 41.8 of Chinese Wuchang rice, and lower than that of Japanese and Taiwanese. The purity of rice variety being exported ranged from 87.5 to 100.0%, which was 96.5% on average. This was much higher than that of Chinese Wuchang rice, while the Japanese and Taiwan rices were similar. The sensory test of rice by the experts, cooked rice of the exported was evaluated to be good for all items such as taste, sticky glutinous, and texture compared to Chinese Wuchang rice.

Effects of High Temperature Sterilization on Qualities Characteristics of the Canned Boiled Oyster (가열살균처리가 굴 보일드통조림의 품질특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kong, Chung-Sik;Yun, Jae-Ung;Oh, Dong-Hun;Park, Jun-Yong;Kang, Jin-Yeong;Oh, Kwang-Soo
    • Journal of agriculture & life science
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    • v.43 no.6
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    • pp.85-93
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    • 2009
  • The boiled oyster vacuum-packed in cylindrical can(No. 301-3) were thermally processed at $115^{\circ}C$ to reach Fo values of 5~20 min. The yield was slightly decreased with the increasing of Fo-values (79.2~ 83.7%), and volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) contents increased markedly with the increasing of Fo-value. In fatty acid composition of canned oyster, the composition ratio of saturates and monoenes such as 14:0, 16:0 and 18:1n9 increased, while polyunsaturated fatty acids such as 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 decreased with the increasing of Fo-value. In taste compounds, content of total free amino acid in raw oyster was 1,533.5 mg%, and this total content was slightly increased (1,140.8~1,266.2 mg%) with the increasing of Fo values. But contents of betaine and ionic minerals such as Na, K, Mg and P decreased markedly by thermal processing at $115^{\circ}C$. As compared with Fo 5 min. heat treatment; Fo 20 min. heat treatment at $115^{\circ}C$ became more hardened in texture of oyster meat. In sensory evaluations on organoleptic characteristics, no significant difference at 5% level was observed among the canned boiled oyster meats heated at Fo 5~15 min.

Food Quality Characterization and Safety of Imported Fish Roe (Japanese flyingfish roe, Capelin roe and Pacific herring roe) (수입 어란(날치 알, 열빙어 알 및 청어 알)의 품질 특성과 안전성)

  • Lee, Jong-Soo;Kim, Jin-Soo;Kim, Jeong-Gyun;Oh, Kwang-Soo;Choi, Byeong-Dae;Park, Kwon Hyun;Choi, Jong-Duck
    • Journal of agriculture & life science
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    • v.45 no.6
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    • pp.95-108
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    • 2011
  • The food quality characterization and safety Japanese flying fish roe (JFF-R), capelin roe (C-R), Pacific herring roe (PH-R) were investigated. The size of JFF-R was 1.48-1.93 mm, which was longer than those of C-R and PH-R. The moisture content of JFF-R imported from Peru (JFF-R-P) was 70.3%, which was higher than that of JFF-R imported from China (JFF-R-C) (67.4%), while was lower than that of JFF-R imported from Indonesia (JFF-R-I) (83.3%). However, the salinity of JFF-R-P was 13.6%, which was lower than that of JFF-R-C, while was higher that of JFF-R-I (1.8%). The moisture contents and salinities of the other fish roes were 80.4% and 3.2%, respectively, for capalin roe, and 65.4% and 20.0%, respectively, for Pacific herring roe. According to the results of pH, volatile basic nitrogen content, heavy metal content, viable cell count and coliform group, the fish roes could be used as sanitary sources for preparation of seasoned JFF-R. The major fatty acids of fish roes were 16:0 (27.8-30.5%), 18:1n-9 (7.2-8.0%), 20:5n-3 (5.6-8.2%) and 22:6n-3 (22.0-25.6%) in JFF-R, and 16:1n-7 (6.7-9.3%) as well as these fatty acids in C-R and PH-R. Total amino acid contents of fish roes ranged from 9.44 g/100 g to 10.39 g/100 g and their major amino acids were aspartic acid, glutamic acid, leucine and lysine. The mineral content of JFF-R were higher than those of the other fish roes expected for zinc of JFF-R-I. According to the results of sensory evaluation, the color and texture of JFF-R-P were superior to those of the other fish roes. No difference was, however, found in flavor, among JFF-R-P and the other fish roes.