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Electron Magnetic Resonance of Eu2+ in SrCl2:Eu Single Crystal

  • Lee, Soo Hyung;Yeom, Tae Ho;Kim, Sung-Hwan
    • Journal of Magnetics
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.251-254
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    • 2012
  • The electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) of the $Eu^{2+}$ ion in $SrCl_2$:Eu single crystal has been investigated using an X-band spectrometer. The angular dependence of magnetic resonance positions for the $Eu^{2+}$ impurity ion in the crystallographic aa-plane is analyzed with effective spin-Hamiltonian. The EPR spectra of the isolated $Eu^{2+}$ center merged to each other. The hyperfine splitting of the isolated $Eu^{2+}$ center due to the $^{151}Eu$ nucleus is approximately 35 G. Three kinds of $Eu^{2+}$ centers except the isolated $Eu^{2+}$ center, $Eu^{2+}$ pairs, $Eu^{2+}$ triples, and other $Eu^{2+}$ clusters, are split from the fitting of the integrated experimental spectrum with the Gaussian curve. The calculated spectroscopic splitting parameters of the $Eu^{2+}$ pairs, $Eu^{2+}$ triples, and other $Eu^{2+}$ clusters in $SrCl_2$:Eu crystal are $g_1$ = 2.06, $g_2$ = 1.94, and $g_3$ = 1.93, respectively.

Investigation of Eu(Ⅲ)-Polyfunctional Organic Acid Complexes by Eu(Ⅲ) Luminescence Spectroscopy (Eu(Ⅲ) 발광 분광법을 이용한 Eu(Ⅲ)과 다가 유기산 착물 연구)

  • Lee, Byoung Ho;Shin, Hyun Sang;Moon, HiChung
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.59-64
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    • 1996
  • The 7F0→5D0excitation spectra of Eu(Ⅲ) complexed with polyfunctional monocarboxylic acid(glycolic acid, glycine and thioglycolic acid) containing a terminal O, N and S neutral donors and propionic acid were investigated using Eu(Ⅲ) luminescence spectroscopy. In the excitation spectra of Eu(Ⅲ)-propionate system, the stepwise appearance of the peaks was observed at 579.0, 579.2 and 579.5 nm with increasing in the ligand-to-metal ratio, which correspond to the formation of Eu(propionate)2+, Eu(propionate)2+ and Eu(propionate)3 species. Three maximum peaks were also obtained for Eu(Ⅲ)-glycolate, Eu(Ⅲ)-glycinate and Eu(Ⅲ)-thioglycolate systems and were found to be quite similar to those of Eu(Ⅲ)-propionate system. The q values (number of coordinated water molecules of Eu(Ⅲ) ion) obtained from the luminescence decay constants of Eu(Ⅲ)-glycolate and Eu(Ⅲ)-thioglycolate were 7.0 and 7.1, and compare well with 7.3 for Eu(Ⅲ)-propionate: Each ligand units replace around two coordinated water molecules. These results show that the polyfunctional monocarboxylates behaves like the propionate for Eu(Ⅲ) ion coordination.

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Determinants of the EU's Antidumping Measure against Korean products (EU의 한국산 제품에 대한 반덤핑 조치에 영향을 미치는 거시경제요인 분석)

  • Hu, Di;Choi, Chang-Hwan
    • International Commerce and Information Review
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.245-262
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    • 2013
  • The transaction size between South Korea and the European Union (EU) had increased by more than two times among 2003 to 2008. With rapid growth of transaction, the EU was becoming important transaction object of South Korea gradually. EU has used the Antidumping policy as a trade protection tool against Korean products due to reduce the deficit of trade balance of payment, boost the economic growth and protect its weak industries. This paper investigates whether there is a connection between the EU's macroeconomic activity and pressures for protection to Korean products under antidumping measures with using the current data that come from the WTO, World Bank for 2004 to 2012. The result suggests that pressures for protection under Antidumping measure against exporting of Korean products to EU have increased during periods of macroeconomic weakness of low GDP growth, larger deficit of trade balance, however, has not significantly affected during periods of high unemployment.

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Photoemission study f valence stated in Eu chalcogenides

  • Hoon Koh;Park, Won-Go;Oh, S.J.
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.166-166
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    • 2000
  • We studied electronic structure of magnetic semiconductors EuO, EuS, and EuTe. The photoemission spectra show localized Eu 4f states and broad anion p bands. As the size of anion increases from oxygen to tellurium, anion p band width increases and eventually overlaps Eu 4f states. Hence in EuO and EuS, Eu 4f states are the highest occupied stated lying above anion p band, while Te 5p band spreads widely over Eu 4f states to become valence band maximum in EuTe. It was also observed that Eu 4f states have width of 0.7eV and dispersion of 0.2eV in EuS by angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy. The width of the 4f spectra mainly originates from atomic multiplets, but the much larger dispersion than that of Eu metal is due to p-f mixing.

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A Study on Process Models for Proposal Evaluation of R&D EU Government Support Programmes (EU정부의 R&D지원 제안서평가 프로세스모형에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Jin Suk
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.80-84
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    • 2013
  • The EU in order to surpass the United States in the world economy have tried several aspects. Economic growth is possible through the technological competitiveness of this industry, and also through the development of industrial technology and employment. Such EU Commission has taken several support policies in order to raise the R & D capabilities. Non-EU member countries, Korea, R & D pipe central incisor see support for the policy proposal evaluation for women is important. The aim of this paper is to analyze the proposal evaluation process of the EU commission for R&D projects. I argue that the EU's methode of proposal evaluation for EU R&D consists of five stages: expert briefings, proposals for individual assessment, consensus and finally a panel evaluation. The main features of the EU's R&D evaluation process for proposals are experts and panel evaluation. The Korean government could select, operate and manage experts for the EU's R&D evaluation. That would lead to a higher rate of success for Korean proposals in the EU.

A Study of the International Dispute on EU ETS Aviation Directive (EU ETS 항공 부분 지침에 따른 국제 분쟁에 관한 소고)

  • Hur, Yun-Seok;Pak, Myong-Sub;Woo, Jung-Wouk;Youn, Jae-Woong
    • The Korean Research Institute of International Commerce and Law
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    • v.54
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    • pp.261-282
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    • 2012
  • The European Union (EU) has introduced the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS) as one of the key policies to reduce the level of greenhouse gas emissions and in July 2008, they decided to include aviation in the scheme. As soon as the decision was announced the EU ETS was met by sharp opposition from world governments and international aviation. A group of US airlines, in particular, dropped a lawsuit against the British government over aviation's inclusion in the EU ETS. On 21 December, the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) ruled that aviation's inclusion in the EU ETS which covers all flights arriving into and departing from the EU is legal and does not contravene international law. The scheme eventually came into effect on 1 January 2012. However, most countries are in opposition to the EU ETS and have agreed on counter-measures to undermine the EU's plan which may bring chaos to the aviation industry if such measures were to put into practice. This study therefore will analyze the likely effects that may be brought to the Korean aviation industry as a result of the inclusion of aviation in the EU ETS. Further, it hopes to contribute to the Korean aviation industry by studying other countries' counter-measures in advance.

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Luminescent characteristics with coupling structure of Eu for ZnO:Eu Phosphor (Zno:Eu 형광체의 Eu 결합 구조에 따른 발광 특성)

  • 박용규;한정인;조황신;주성후
    • Electrical & Electronic Materials
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    • v.10 no.8
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    • pp.763-769
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    • 1997
  • In this study we have synthesized Zno:Eu phosphors under various sintering atmospheres and temperatures. The analysis of X-ray diffractometer measurement indicates that for Zno:EuCl$_3$ phosphors sintered in air and vacuum 뗘 exists in the host lattice as Eu$_2$O$_3$and EuOCl respectively. From the photoluminescence for the phosphors sintered in vacuum Eu removes the broad-band emission of the ZnO host consequently isolating the red emission due to Eu$^{3+}$ ion and improves the color purity of red emission. The photoluminescence excitation and time resolving spectrum measurements suggest that energy-transfer process occurres from the self-activated defect center in ZnO host the Eu$^{3+}$ ion which exist in the host lattice in the form of EuOCl.

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Legal Review on the Regulatory Measures of the European Union on Aircraft Emission (구주연합의 항공기 배출 규제 조치의 국제법적 고찰)

  • Park, Won-Hwa
    • The Korean Journal of Air & Space Law and Policy
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.3-26
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    • 2010
  • The European Union(EU) has recently introduced its Directive 2008/101/EC to include aviation in the EU ETS(emissions trading system). As an amendment to Directive 2003/87/EC that regulates reduction of the green house gas(GHG) emissions in Europe in preparation for the Kyoto Protocol, 1997, it obliges both EU and non-EU airline operators to reduce the emission of the carbon dioxide(CO2) significantly in the year 2012 and thereafter from the level they made in 2004 to 2006. Emission allowances allowed free of charge for each airline operator is 97% in the first year 2012 and 95% from 2013 and thereafter from the average annual emissions during historical years 2004 to 2006. Taking into account the rapid growth of air traffic, i.e. 5% in recent years, airlines operating to EU have to reduce their emissions by about 30% in order to meet the requirements of the EU Directive, if not buy the emissions right in the emissions trading market. However, buying quantity is limited to 15% in the year 2012 subject to possible increase from the year 2013. Apart from the hard burden of the airline operators, in particular of those from non-European countries, which is not concern of this paper, the EU Directive has certain legal problems. First, while the Kyoto Protocol of universal application is binding on the Annex I countries of the Climate Change Convention, i.e. developed countries including all Member States of the European Union to reduce GHG at least by 5% in the implementation period from 2008 to 2012 over the 1990 level, non-Annex I countries which are not bound by the Kyoto Protocol see their airlines subjected to aircraft emissions reductions scheme of EU when operating to EU. This is against the provisions of the Kyoto Protocol dealing with the emissions of GHG including CO2, target of the EU Directive. While the Kyoto Protocol mandates ICAO to set up a worldwide scheme for aircraft emissions to contribute to stabilizing GHG concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system, the EU ETS was drawn up outside the framework of the international Civil Aviation Organization(ICAO). Second, EU Directive 2008/101 defines 'aviation activities' as covering 'flights which depart from or arrive in the territory of a Member State to which the [EU] Treaty applies'. While the EU airlines are certainly subject to the EU regulations, obliging non-EU airlines to reduce their emissions even if the emissions are produced during the flight over the high seas and the airspace of the third countries is problematic. The point is whether the EU Directive can be legally applied to extra-territorial behavior of non-EU entities. Third, the EU Directive prescribes 2012 as the first year for implementation. However, the year 2012 is the last year of implementation of the Kyoto Protocol for Annex I countries including members of EU to reduce GHG including the emissions of CO2 coming out from domestic airlines operation. Consequently, EU airlines were already on the reduction scheme of CO2 emissions as long as their domestic operations are concerned from 2008 until the year 2012. But with the implementation of Directive 2008/101 from 2012 for all the airlines, regardless of the status of the country Annex I or not where they are registered, the EU airlines are no longer at the disadvantage compared with the airlines of non-Annex I countries. This unexpected premium for the EU airlines may result in a derogation of the Kyoto Protocol at least for the year 2012. Lastly, as a conclusion, the author shed light briefly on how the Korean aviation authorities are dealing with the EU restrictive measures.

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Growth and magnetic properties of Tb, Eu, EuTb-substituted garnet single crystal films (Tb, Eu, EuTb가 치환된 가네트 단결정 막의 성장과 자기적 특성)

  • Kim G. Y;Yoon S. G.;Chung I. S;Park S. B;Yoon D. H
    • Journal of the Korean Crystal Growth and Crystal Technology
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.193-198
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    • 2004
  • Using the $PbO-B_2O_3-Bi_2O_3$ flux system, $(TbBi)_3(FeAIGa)_5O_{12}(TbIG)$, $(EuBi)_3(FeAIGa)_5O_{12}(EuIG)$ and $(EuTbBi)_3(FeAIGa)_5O_{12}(EuTbIG)$ films were grown on $(GdCa)_3(GaMgZr)_5O_{12}(SGGG)$ substrates by the liquid phase epitaxy (LPE). The saturation magnetization of the grown TbIG, EuIG and EuTbIG films was about 150, 950 and 125 Oe, respectively. The TbIG films resulted in the single magnetic domain while the EuIG and EuTbIG films were observed to be the multi magnetic domains by magnetic force microscope (MFM).

Sulfurization Reaction Characteristics of Eu-doped Uranium Oxides (유로퓸 고용(固溶) 우라늄산화물(酸化物)의 황화반응(黃化反應) 특성(特性))

  • Lee, Jae Won;Park, Geun Il;Lee, Jung Won
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Resources Recycling
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.57-64
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    • 2013
  • Sulfurization reaction characteristics of $Eu_2O_3$, uranium oxides($UO_2$, $U_3O_8$), mixture of $Eu_2O_3$ and uranium oxides, Eu-doped uranium oxides($(U,Eu)O_2$, $(U,Eu)_3O_8$), and phase-separated products prepared by HOX (High temperature OXidation) of $(U,Eu)O_2$ were investigated in the temperature range from 400 to $800^{\circ}C$. Only $Eu_2O_3$ in the mixture of $Eu_2O_3$ and uranium oxides was converted into $Eu_3S_4$ by sulfurization reaction at $450^{\circ}C$ without reaction between them. Sulfurization reaction behavior of $(U,Eu)_3O_8$ and $(U,Eu)O_2$ up to $600^{\circ}C$ was similar to $U_3O_8$ and $UO_2$, respectively, while they were sulfurized into Eu-rich $(U,Eu)S_x$ and ${\alpha}-US_2$ at $800^{\circ}C$. In the sulfurization of RE-rich $(U,Eu)_4O_9$ and $U_3O_8$ prepared by high temperature oxidation, it was confirmed that RE-rich $(U,Eu)S_x$ and UOS phases were formed at $600^{\circ}C$. For Eu-rich $(U,Eu)O_2$ and $UO_2$ prepared by reduction of HOX products, it was identified that Eu-rich (U,Eu)OS was formed at $450^{\circ}C$ by sulfurization of Eu-rich $(U,Eu)O_2$, while $UO_2$ remained unreacted.