• Title, Summary, Keyword: the Manchu language

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Manchu Shamanistic Prayers From Sergei Polevoi's Manuscript

  • VOVIN, ALEXANDER
    • Acta Via Serica
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.87-120
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    • 2020
  • This article introduces the texts of Manchu shamanistic prayers recorded in a manuscript by Sergei A. Polevoi, a Russian and an American Sinologist from the first part of the twentieth century. The Manchu original text of these prayers (but not the Polevoi's variant) was recently published by Ye (2018), which, however lacks detailed linguistic analysis. Polevoi's texts are in the slightly outdated romanization of Manchu with no linguistic analysis, translation, and commentary that are provided below by the author. While this publication will be of minor interest to the specialists on Manchu shamanism, it would be important to linguists specializing in the Manchu and Tungusic languages and philology, as the text reflects in all probability the eighteenth century Manchu preserved in romanization, and, therefore priceless for the linguistic analysis.

A Study on the Gamtu (감투에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Eun-Jung;Kang, Soon-Che
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Costume
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    • v.57 no.6
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    • pp.112-121
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    • 2007
  • Gamtu was a name recorded in Korean in respect of 'Mo(帽), Moja(帽子), Somoja(小帽子), Jeongmoja(頂帽子), Jeonmo(氈帽), Yangmomo(羊毛帽), Tangjeon(宕巾)' from the beginning to the end of Joseon dynasty which includes various shapes and uses according to wordbook. Also, Gamtu has various phonetic transcriptions, however Manchu pronunciation of 'Moja(帽子)' is indicated as 'Kamtoo' in $\ulcorner$Dongmunyuhae(同文類解)$\lrcorner$ so the origin of the word Gamtu should be discussed. Accordingly, I want to clearly define the concept of Gamtu in this research by studying the history and shape of Gamtu, and Chinese entries annotated in Korean as Gamtu. Even though we can assume that the etymology of Gamtu is Manchu language as Manchu pronunciation of 'Moja(帽子)' is indicated as 'Kamtu' in $\ulcorner$Dongmunyuhae(同文類解)$\lrcorner$, I think the Korean pronunciation of Gamtu already existed because there already was a Chinese transcription of 'Gamtu' in the Goryeosa(高麗史). So, we can conjecture that Gamtu could be originated from Yeojin language which is the same lineage of Manchu. As a conclusion, Somoja(小帽子), Jeongmoja(頂帽子), Moja(帽子), Jeonmo(氈帽), Yangmomo(羊毛帽), Tangjeon(宕巾) had a common feature that they were produced to fit head without visor, and were annotated as Gamtu per woolen cloth was used as Jeonmo(氈帽), Yangmomo(羊毛帽), and Gamtu was just a Korean transcription that includes these names.

Naturalized Words of Clothing Terms Reflected in the Foreign Language Study Books of the Joseon Dynasty (외국어학습서를 중심으로 본 조선시대 복식관련 외래어 명칭에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Eun-Jung;Cho, Woo-Hyun;Kang, Soon-Che
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Costume
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    • v.59 no.4
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    • pp.155-172
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    • 2009
  • Naturalized words of clothing terms in Joseon Dynasty could be found on the foreign language study books such as Chinese language study books; "譯語類解Yeokeoyuhae", "譯語類解補編Yeokeoyuhae-supplementary book], and "華語類抄Hwaeoyucho", Manchu language study book; "同文類解Dongmunyuhae", Mongolian language study books; 蒙語類解Mongeoyuhae", and "蒙語類解補編Mongeoyuhae-supplementary book", Japanese language study books; "倭語類解Oaeeoyuhae", and "和語類解Hwaeoyuhae", and the study books of over two kinds of foreign language; "方言類解Bangeonyuseok", and "漢淸文鑑Hanchungmungam". This study focused on the name that was related with headgear, socks and clothing from those foreign language study books. The name which was originated in Chinese language is Cwan, Yanggwan, Dugeon, Samo, Bokdu, Jungja, Okjam, Cwanja, Hwa, Johwa, Unhye, Jobok, Danlyeong, Wonlyeong, Changyi, Dunja, Hosu, Dansam, Dopa, Bigye, Peak, Yodae, and Pumdae. The name which was originated in Manchu language is Camto, Nyeolku, Dalogi, kulimae, and Mahulae. The name which was originated in Mongolian language is Tyeolic, and Dugeule. There are two kinds of names that have been used continuously during the whole Joseon Dynasty. The first ones borrowed just name, for example, Cwan, Dugeon, Mahulae, Okjam, Hwa, Dansam, Changyi, kulimae, and Yodae. The second ones loaned the name and object, for example, Yanggwan, Samo, Bokdu, Camto, Jungja, Cwanja, Jobok, Dalogi, Danlyeong, Wonlyeong, Dopa, Tyeolic, Peak, and Pumdae. It was observed that among Korean names that have been used from the Joseon Dynasty, Unhye, Dugeule, and Hosu were used as broader meaning in the Joseon Dynasty. It was names that had not used during the whole Joseon Dynasty were Johwa, Nyeolku, and Bigye.

A Study on the Costume Terminologies of Silla (신라복식 어휘의 연구)

  • 김진구
    • The Research Journal of the Costume Culture
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.189-201
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    • 1994
  • This study is an analysis of the costume terminologies of Silla nine costume terminologies were compared with other languages. The results of this study revealed that the costume terminologies of Sill were related to Semitic language group such s Hebrew, Aramaic, Arabic, and Assyrian as well as Persian, Turkish, Mongolic, Manchu, Gyliak and so on. The results of the analysis of this study imply that he people Silla had cultural contacts with the people of the Middle Est Asia and Near East Asia as well as their neibouring people such as Mongolians, Manchurians and Giyaks.

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The Analysis of the Distribution and Meaning of the Evenki's Clan Name: Centering on Baj, Kim, and Shama/Sama (에벤키족 씨족명 분포 현황 및 의미 분석: 바이(Baj), 킴(Kim), 샤마/사마(Shama/Sama)를 중심으로)

  • Eom, Soon-Cheon
    • Cross-Cultural Studies
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    • v.41
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    • pp.443-475
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    • 2015
  • The subjects of analysis in this paper, the clan name roots "Baj," "Kim," and "Shama/Sama," while distributed commonly among the Altai, Ye i, and isolated language groups, are most widely distributed among the Evenki. The clan name root "Baj-" is widely distributed among indigenous Siberian nations, but is most frequently found among the Manchu-Tungus, especially the Evenki. Therefore, it appears that clans with this root originated from Pribajkal'e, known to be the origin of the Evenki, and spread widely among the nearby Buryats, Mongols, and Yakuts, later spread east to the Nivhi of the Amur River, to the Enisej Protoasiatic language nations such as the Yukaghir or Ket to the north, and the Samoyed language group nations such as the Ne and Selkup. According to the analysis results in this paper, the Evenki clan name "Kim" has the meaning of "person," but also is somewhat associated with gold, metal, or stone. On one hand, while the origin of the clan name "Kim" cannot be clearly established, the clan was assimilated into the Evenki near in ancient times, after which the clan name became widely known among the Manchu-Tungus nations, and furthermore in the Turk nations. The clan name Shama/sama is widely spread across Siberia, including the Manchu-Tungus language group nations of the Altai language family, the Turk language family, and the Samoyed language groups of the Ural language family. Moreover, this clan name is not associated with famous mythic ancestors or heroes of historically famous Asian nations, and it cannot be translated into contemporary language; thus the identification of the meaning and origins of this word is by no means an easy task.

A Study on Clothing Terms in the foreign language study books of the Joseon Period (조선시대 외국어학습서를 중심으로 본 복식명칭 연구)

  • Kim Eun-Jung;Kang Soon-Che
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Costume
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    • v.56 no.6
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    • pp.72-86
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    • 2006
  • The study aimed to materialize the meaning of the names through analyzing names that have synonyms and ambiguous words. The subjects of the study are seven foreign language study books such as $\ll$譯語類解 Yeokeoyuhae $\gg$ $\ll$譯語類解補編 Yeokeoyuhae - supplementary book$\gg$, $\ll$同文類解 Dongmunyuhae$\ggl$, $\ll$象語類解 Mongeoyuhae$\gg$, $\ll$象語類解補編 Mongeoyuhae- supplementary book$\gg$, $\ll$俊語類解 Oaeeoyuhae$\gg$ and $\ll$方름類釋 Bangeonyuseok$\gg$. The study selected vocabularies related with headgear, socks, clothing from those vocabulary books. The results are as follows: 1. The result focusing on the same Chinese terms in multiple forms has shown that '帽子(Moja), 斗逢(Dubong), 頭面(Dumyen), 襪(Mal), 木?(Mokgeuk),  據子(Nanmalja), 樓子(Oja), 小樓子(Sooja), 養衣(Saui), 團領(Danlyeng), 掛子(Goija), 齊肩掛(Jegyengae), 彩兒(Sama), 單補(Dango)' have differences in Korean annotations, and it has been found that these differences are spelt as synonyms in general. 2. The result focusing on the same Korean terms in multiple forms has shown that Gamto, Gat, Satgat, Bolkki, Gatmo, Neoneol, Gatdongot, Ddambatgijeoksam, Nuyeok, Tyeollik, Goui, Baji, Gatdongot, Hatot, Dongdoljji, Yusam, Chima and ete. have 2 or more Chinese spellings. Among these, Neoneol, Ddambatgijeoksam, Nuyeok, Tyeollik, and etc. seem to have used similar Chinese spellings, and Gat, Dongdoljji, and etc. seem to have used Chinese spellings according to the multiple forms in each country. 3. There have also been records of terms seldom used at present such as Dalogi, Neoneol, and etc., and it has been found that Mahulae, Doljji, Dunja, and etc. are the terms have been geographically influenced by the northern race as they have been left as a dialect in North Korea currently. 4. Mahulae, Kulimae, Neolku, and etc. may be inferred as they have originated from Manchu language through pronunciation of each country spelt in translated books.

Burqanism from the Origin of the Pastoral Nomadic Koryo Region and the Vision of Korean Livestock Farming (고려의 원시영역 유목초지, 그 부르칸(불함)이즘과 한국축산의 비전)

  • Chu Chae Hyok
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.71-82
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    • 2005
  • Khori(高麗) refers to the Chaabog(reindeer) that live on lichens(蘚) on Mt. Soyon(鮮) in which pastures are the cold and dry plateau of North Eurasia. Thus, the origin region of the Khori or Koguryo that are the ancestors of the reindeer-herding pastoral nomads(馴鹿 遊牧民) can be said to be the Steppe-Taiga-Tundra pastoral areas of North Eurasia and North America. When the pastoral nomads moved on to the great mountain(大山) zone of the Jangbaek(長白) to the Baekdu(白頭) Mountains, they could have been in contact with pastoral farmers or agricultural farmers living there and they became the farmers remaining on agricultural farms. They were the Koryo people, the ancestors of Korea. Staying in one place, they gradually forgot the origin of their reindeer-herding pastoral nomadic history in the Northwest area of Mt. Soyon, the small mountain(小山) zone of the Steppe-Taiga-Tundra pastoral areas. In other words, they lost their identity as reindeer-herding pastoral nomads when they entered the agricultural area after leaving the pastoral area. However, since their basic genes had already formed when they lived on the cold and dry plateau of North Eurasia, it is possible to study their pastoral nomadic history focusing on 'the minority living in the broad area(廣域少數)', by utilizing highly advanced biotechnological science and focusing on genes and information technology innovation, and removing various past hindrances in research. Therefore, it is not so difficult to restore the reindeerherding pastoral nomadic history of the Koguryo(高句麗) people and secure their pastoral nomadic identity, of which the first steps have already been taken into their historical stages. The Eurasian continent and the Korean peninsula, especially the cold and dry plateau of North Eurasia and the Korean peninsula have been closely related to each other ecologically and historically. They can never be a separate space at all. The Eurasian continent lies horizontally east to west and thus, the continent forms an isothermal zone. Also, since the time of producing their own foods, it was relatively easy for people with their technology to move to other places owing to the pastoral nomadic characteristic of mobility. Unlike the Chungyen(中原) region, western Asia and the regions covering the Siberia-Manchu-Korean peninsula where food production revolution was first made were connected to the Mongolian lichens route(蘚苔之路: Ni, ukinii jam) and steppe roads. Although the ecological conditions of nature have changed a bit throughout a long history, it was natural for the many tribes in North Asia living on the largest Steppe-Taiga-Tundra area in the world to have believed 'the legends related to animals in relation to their founders and ancestors(獸祖傳說)'. Assuming that Siberian tigers and the tigers living on Mt. Baekdu were connected ecologically and genetically because of the ecological characteristics of the animals, and their migration from plateau to plateau, we would suspect that the Chosun(朝鮮) tribe living on Mt. Baekdu were ethnically and culturally more closely connected to the farther removed Ural-Altai tribes that lived on the cold and dry plateau region than to the Han(i14;) tribe who lived in Chungyen(中原) that was close to Mt. Baekdu. More evidence is the structure of the Korean language which has the form of 'Subject + Object + Verb', which is assumed to have originated from the speedy lifestyle of the reindeer-herding pastoral nomads. The structure is quite different from that of the Han(漢) language, which is based on agricultural life. Also, it is natural for reindeer riding reindeerherding pastoral nomads or horse-riding sheep-herding pastoral nomads(騎馬, 羊遊牧民) to have held military and political power over the region and eventually to have established an ancient pastoral nomadic empire in the process of their conquest of agricultural regions. The stages for founding global empires in the history of mankind maybe largely divided into two, in terms of ecological conditions and occupations. They are the steppes and the oceans. Of course, the steppe-based empires were established based on the skills to deal with horses and the ability to shoot arrows while riding horses, along with the use of iron ware in the 8th century BC. The steppe-based empires became the foundation for an oceanic empire, which could have been established by the use of warships and warship guns since the 15th Century. Based on those facts, we know that Chosun, Puyo(夫餘), and Koguryo are the products of a developmental process of pastoral nomadic empires on the steppes. Maybe we can easily find the pastoral nomadic identity of the Koguryo more than we expected when we trace the origins and history of the Korean tribe living in the pastures located in the northwest area of Mt. Jangbaek by focusing on pastoral nomadic mobility and organization just as we have investigated the historic origins of Anglo-Saxons in America by focusing on the times before the 15th Century. In the process, we should keep in mind that English culture originated from the Industrial Revolution and was directly delivered to the American continent, although America was far from England and was not an intermediate point on long sojourns either. Further, American culture came back to England in a more advanced form later. The most important thing currently to be resolved is to cause Koreans to look back on their own history in a freer way of thinking and with diverse, profound, and sharp insight, taking away the old and existing conventional recognition that is entangled with complicated interests with Korean people and other countries. The meanings of Chosun, Khori, and Solongos have been interpreted arbitrarily without any historic evidence by the scholars who followed conventional tradition of fixed-minded aristocrats in an agricultural society. If the Siberian cultural properties of the stone age, the earthenware age, the bronze age, and the iron age are analyzed in such a way, archaeological discovery will never be able to contribute to the restoration of the Koguryo's pastoral nomadic identity. One should transcend the errors that tend to interpret the cultural properties discovered in the pastoral nomadic regions as not being differentiated from those of agricultural regions and just interpret them altogether from the agricultural point of view. A more careful intention is required in the interpretation of cultural properties of ancient Korean empires that seem to have been formed due to mutual interactions of pastoral nomadic and agricultural cultures. Also, it is required that the conventional recognition chain of 'reverse-genes' be severed, which has placed more weight on agricultural properties than pastoral nomadic ones, since their settlement on agricultural farms was made after the establishment of their ancient pastoral nomadic empires. There is no reason at all to place priority on stoneware, earthenware, bronze ware, and iron ware than on wooden ware(木器) and other ware which were made of animal skins(皮器), bones and horns(骨角器), in analyzing the history in the regions of reindeer or sheep pastures. Reading ancient Korean history from the perspective of pastoral nomadic history, one feels strongly the instinctive emotions to return to the natural 'mother place'. The reindeer-herding pastoral nomadic identity of the Koguryo people that has been accumulated in volumes in their genes and hidden deep inside and have interacted organically could be reborn with Burqanism(Burqan refers to 不咸 in Chinese), which was their religion by birth and symbolized as the red willow(紅柳=不咸). The mother place of the Koguryo's people is the endless vast green pastures of North Eurasia and North America, where we anticipated the development of Korean livestock farming following the inherent properties in the genes of the reindeer-herding pastoral nomads with Korean ancestors. We anticipate that the place would be the core resource that could contribute to the development of life of living creatures following the inherent properties of their genes and biotechnological factors. In other words, biotechnology used for a search for clues on the well-being of humans could be the fruit brought by Burqanism of the Koguryo people and the fruit of the globalization of Korean livestock farming. It is the Chosun farmer in China come from the vast nomadic reindeer pastures of North Eurasia that resolved the food problem of a billion Chinese people with lowland paddy rice seeds (水稻) by transforming Heilongjiang Province(黑龍江省) into an oceanic lowland paddy rice field(水田). Even Mao Tse-tung(毛擇東) could not resolve the food problem by his revolution campaigns for tens of years. Today is the very time that requires the development of special livestock farming following the inherent properties of the ancient Korean reindeer-herding pastoral nomads that respected the dignity of life on the cold and dry plateau of North Eurasia and the America continent. I suggest that research should be started from the pastures of the Dariganga Steppe in East Mongolia that was the homeland of Hanwoo(韓牛) and the central horse-herding steppe place(牧馬場) of Chingis Khan's Mongolia. The Dariganga Steppe is awash with an affluent natural environment for pastoral nomadic living however, the quality of life of the pastoral nomads there is still low. I suggest we Koreans, the descendents of the Koguryo, should take our first steps for our livestock farming business project and develop the Northern nomadic pastures, here at the pastures of the Dariganga Steppe, which is the Mongolian core place of state-of-the-art technology for military weapons.