• Title, Summary, Keyword: the activity of NK cells

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XRP44X Enhances the Cytotoxic Activity of Natural Killer Cells by Activating the c-JUN N-Terminal Kinase Signaling Pathway

  • Kim, Kwang-Soo;Park, Kyung-Soon
    • Development and Reproduction
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.53-62
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    • 2020
  • Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphocytes that play an essential role in preventing cancer development by performing immune surveillance to eradicate abnormal cells. Since ex vivo expanded NK cells have cytotoxic activity against various cancers, including breast cancers, their clinical potential as immune-oncogenic therapeutics has been widely investigated. Here, we report that the pyrazole chemical XRP44X, an inhibitor of Ras/ERK activation of ELK3, stimulates NK-92MI cells to enhance cytotoxic activity against breast cancer cells. Under XRP44X stimulation, NK cells did not show notable apoptosis or impaired cell cycle progression. We demonstrated that XRP44X enhanced interferon gamma expression in NK-92MI cells. We also elucidated that potentiation of the cytotoxic activity of NK-92MI cells by XRP44X is induced by activation of the c-JUN N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway. Our data provide insight into the evaluation of XRP44X as an immune stimulant and that XRP44X is a potential candidate compound for the therapeutic development of NK cells.

Immunomodulation of NK Cell Activity by Red Ginseng Acidic Polysaccharide (RGAP) in Ovariectomized Rats

  • Kim, Kyung-Suk;Pyo, Suh-Kneung;Sohn, Eun-Hwa
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.99-103
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    • 2009
  • The in-vitro immunomodulatory function of murine natural-killer (NK) cells induced by red-ginseng acidic polysaccharide (RGAP) in ovariectomized (OVX) rats was examined in this study. The IL-2-induced NK cell activity was significantly decreased in the OVX rats compared to the sham groups, but the normally induced NK cell activity was not. RGAP, however, increased the NK cell activity in both groups, and this effect involved iNOS expression. The inhibition of iNOS activity did not increase the NK cell cytotoxicity by RGAP in the OVX rats. The data that were obtained also demonstrated that the expression of iNOS was increased in the spleen of the OVX rats. These results indicate that RGAP increases the tumoricidal activity of the NK cell in the OVX rats, which is a primed or activated state of innate immune cells resulting from the changes in cytokine production induced by estrogen-deficient stress. Therefore, RGAP has a synergistic effect on the NK cell activities, which are regulated by the iNOS signals in OVX rats. This suggests that RGAP is useful for potential therapeutic strategies as a nutrient in regulating the NK cells in OVX rats.

The Cell Surface Expression of H2-M3 Does Not Directly Effect on the Killing Activity of NK Cell (H2-M3의 세포 표면 발현이 NK 세포의 활성에 미치는 영향 분석)

  • Lee, Sang-Yeol;Chun, Tae-Hoon
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.53 no.3
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    • pp.125-129
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    • 2009
  • H2-M3 (M3) is a unique antigen presenting molecule which provides N-formylated peptide to certain type of T cells. Previous observation indicated that NK cell activity is significantly diminished during listerial infection in $H2-M3^{-/-}$ mice. To explore the possibility that M3 expression directly effect on NK cell activity, we measured NK cell activity with or without stimulation of N-formylated peptide on antigen presenting cells. Results indicated that the expression of M3 is not directly influence on NK cell activity. Further study will be focused on the indirect effect of M3 on regulating NK cell activity.

5-Fluorouracil and Interleukin-2 Immunochemotherapy Enhances Immunogenicity of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer A549 Cells through Upregulation of NKG2D Ligands

  • Zhao, Lei;Wang, Wen-Jia;Zhang, Jin-Nan;Zhang, Xing-Yi
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.9
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    • pp.4039-4044
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    • 2014
  • Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-cancer effects and mechanisms of immunochemotherapy of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) A549 cells. Materials and Methods: In order to detect whether 5-FU+IL-2 could effectively inhibit tumor growth in vivo, we established an A549-bearing nude mouse model. The cytotoxicity of natural killer (NK) cells was evaluated using a standard chromium release assay. To evaluate the relevance of NK cells in 5-FU+IL-2-mediated tumor inhibitory effects, we depleted NK cells in A549-bearing mice by injecting anti-asialo-GM-1 antibodies. Effects of 5-FU+IL-2 on the expression and promoter activity of NKG2D ligands (MICA/MICB) in A549 cells in vitro were also assessed. Results: In A549-bearing nude mice, combination therapy significantly inhibited tumor growth in comparison with monotherapy with 5-FU or IL-2 and enhanced the recognition and lysis of tumor cells by NK cells. Further study of mechanisms showed that NK cells played a vital role in the anticancer immune response of 5-FU+IL-2 immunochemotherapy. In addition, the combination therapy synergistically stimulated the expression and promoter activity of MICA/MICB. Conclusions: 5-FU and IL-2 immunochemotherapy significantly inhibited tumor growth and activated NK cytotoxicity in vivo, and these effects were partly impaired after depleting NK cells in tumor-bearing mice. Combination treatment of 5-FU and IL-2 upregulated the expression and the promoter activity of MICA/MICB in A549 cells, which enhanced the recognition of A549 cells by NK cells. All of the data indicated that immunochemotherapy of 5-FU and IL-2 may provide a new treatment option for patients with lung cancer.

Effects of Armillaria mellea Extract on Macrophage and NK Cell Activity

  • Park Byoung-Wook;Shin Jang-Woo;Cho Jung-Hyo;Son Chang-Gue;Lee Yeon-Weol;Yoo Hwa-Seung;Lee Nam-Heon;Yun Dam-Hee;Cho Chong-Kwan
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.161-170
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    • 2004
  • Objective : The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Armillaria mellea extract (AME) on immune modulation focused on anti-cancer activity. Methods : To prove the effects of AME, we performed NO assay, NK cytotoxicity assay and RT-PCR of cytokine related with macrophage and NK cell activity. Results : AME increased NO production produced by macrophages in part. AME also enhanced the NK cell activities in destroying target cells (YAC-1 cells). AME up-regulated gene expression of IL-l, iNOS, TNF-a in RAW 264.7 cells and IL-l, IL-2, IFN-(equation omitted), TNF-a in splenocytes, respectively. Conclusion : From the above results, we assumed that AME is a potential drug for anti-cancer by activation of the macrophages and NK cells.

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Anticancer and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Probiotic Lactococcus lactis NK34

  • Han, Kyoung Jun;Lee, Na-Kyoung;Park, Hoon;Paik, Hyun-Dong
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.25 no.10
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    • pp.1697-1701
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    • 2015
  • The anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities of probiotic Lactococcus lactis NK34 were demonstrated. Treatment of cancer cells such as SK-MES-1, DLD-1, HT-29, LoVo, AGS, and MCF-7 cells with 106 CFU/well of L. lactis NK34 resulted in strong inhibition of proliferation (>77% cytotoxicity, p < 0.05). The anti-inflammatory activity of L. lactis NK34 was also demonstrated in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 cells, where the production of nitric oxide and proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-18, and cyclooxygenase-2) was reduced. These results suggest that L. lactis NK34 could be used as a probiotic microorganism to inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells and production of proinflammatory cytokines.

Inflammatory Mediators Modulate NK Cell-stimulating Activity of Dendritic Cells by Inducing Development of Polarized Effector Function

  • Kim, Kwang-Dong;Choi, Seung-Chul;Lee, Eun-Sil;Kim, Ae-Yung;Lim, Jong-Seok
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.133-140
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    • 2007
  • Background: It is well established that cross talk between natural killer (NK) cells and myeloid dendritic cells (DC) leads to NK cell activation and DC maturation. In the present study, we investigated whether type 1-polarized DC (DC1) matured in the presence of IFN-${\gamma}$ and type 2-polarized DC (DC2) matured in the presence of PGE2 can differentially activate NK cells. Methods: In order to generate DC, plastic adherent monocytes were cultured in RPMI 1640 containing GM-CSF and IL-4. At day 6, maturation was induced by culturing the cells for 2 days with cytokines or PGE2 in the presence or absence of LPS. Each population of DC was cocultured with NK cells for 24 h. The antigen expression on DC was analyzed by flow cytometry and cytokine production in culture supernatant was measured by ELISA or a bioassay for TNF-${\alpha}$ determination. NK cell-mediated lysis was determined using a standard 4h chromium release assay. Results: DC2, unlike DC1, had weak, if any, ability to induce NK cell activation as measured by IFN-${\gamma}$ production and cytolytic activity. DC2 were weakly stimulated by activated NK cells compared to DC1. In addition, IFN-${\gamma}$-primed mature DC appeared to be most resistant to active NK cell-mediated lysis even at a high NK cell/DC ratio. On the other hand, PGE2-primed DC were less resistant to feedback regulation by NK cells than IFN-${\gamma}$-primed mature DC. Finally, we showed that the differential effect of two types of DC population on NK cell activity is not due to differences in their ability to form conjugates with NK cells. Conclusion: These results suggest that different combinations of inflammatory mediators differentially affect the effector function of DC and, as a result, the function of NK cells, eventually leading to distinct levels of activation in adaptive immunity.

Enhancement of Murine NK cell Activity in vitro by Red Ginseng Acidic Polysaccharide

  • Choi, Hye-Sook;Sohn, Eun-Wha;Rhee, Dong-Kwon;Pyo, Suh-Kneung
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.278-282
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    • 2009
  • The in-vitro immunomodulatory function of the activity of murine natural-killer (NK) cells induced by redginseng acidic polysaccharide (RGAP) was examined. RGAP induced the significant enhancement of NK cell activity against the Yac-1 tumor cells. The treatment of splenocytes cultured with RGAP for 16 h resulted in a significant increase in NK activity at the E:T ratio of 100:1, and in a 239 and 250% increase at 10 and $100{\mu}g$/ml, respectively. We also demonstrate that RGAP treatment increased the production of interferon (IFN)-$\gamma$ (17-125%) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-${\alpha}$ (15-100%), suggesting that the increase in NK cell cytotoxicity could be due to the enhancement of the NK cell production of both cytokines. In addition, RGAP had a stimulating effect on lymphocyte proliferation in the presence of mitogens. Overall, these results suggest that RGAP has an immunopotentiating effect on NK cells, which can support the development of clinical studies on RGAP.

Improved Anti-Cancer Effect of Curcumin on Breast Cancer Cells by Increasing the Activity of Natural Killer Cells

  • Lee, Hwan Hee;Cho, Hyosun
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.874-882
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    • 2018
  • Curcumin is known to possess various biological functions, including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and anti-cancer activities. Natural killer (NK) cells are large lymphocytes that directly kill cancer cells. However, many aggressive cancers, including breast cancer, were reported to escape the successful killing of NK cells in a tumor microenvironment. In this study, we investigated the anti-cancer effect of curcumin in coculture of human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 and NK (NK-92) cells. We found that curcumin had an immune-stimulatory effect on NK-92 by increasing the surface expression of the $CD16^+$ and $CD56^{dim}$ population of NK-92. We confirmed that the cytotoxic effect of NK-92 on MDA-MB-231 was significantly enhanced in the presence of curcumin, which was highly associated with the activation of Stat4 and Stat5 proteins in NK-92. Finally, this improved anticancer effect of curcumin was correlated with decreased expression of pErk and PI3K in MDA-MB-231.

Cytotoxic activity and subset populations of peripheral blood natural killer cells in patients with chronic pain

  • Yoon, Jae Joon;Song, Ji A;Park, Sue Youn;Choi, Jeong Il
    • The Korean Journal of Pain
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.43-49
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    • 2018
  • Background: Chronic pain reportedly exerts complex effects on immune function. Natural killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes that play a critical role in cellular and innate immunity. This study examined changes in the subset populations and cytotoxic activity of peripheral blood NK cells in patients with chronic pain. Methods: Thirty patients with chronic moderate-to-severe pain (group P) and age-matched pain-free subjects (group NoP) were enrolled. Peripheral whole blood was analyzed for the percentage and expression of NK cell surface markers (CD56 and CD16) by flow cytometry. Cytotoxic activity was assayed by evaluating CD69 expression on $CD3^-/CD56^+NK$ cells. Results: The percentage of NK cells among total lymphocytes was not significantly different between groups P and NoP ($16.3{\pm}9.3$ vs. $20.2{\pm}10.5%$). Likewise, the percentages of two major NK cell subsets, $CD56^{bright}$ and $CD56^{dim}$, were also not significantly different between the two groups. However, the percentage of $CD56^{bright}/CD16^+$ subset, was slightly but significantly increased in group P ($1.0{\pm}0.9%$; P< 0.01) compared with group NoP ($0.5{\pm}0.6%$). The cytotoxicity of NK cells was not different between the two groups, showing similar CD69 expression (P vs. $NoP=29.2{\pm}15.2$ vs. $32.0{\pm}15.0%$). These findings were not influenced by pain intensity, opioid use, or disease causing pain in group P. Conclusions: NK cell cytotoxic activity and major subset populations, with the exception of an increased percentage of the $CD56^{bright}/CD16^+$ subset, are not significantly altered in patients with chronic severe pain.