• Title, Summary, Keyword: therapeutic use

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Two Cases of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Treated with Co-60 HDR ICR (강내 조사를 이용한 비인강압 치험2예)

  • Shin, Sei-One;Kang, Cheol-Hoon;Kim, Sung-Kyu;Kim, Myung-Se
    • Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.197-201
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    • 1990
  • The primary treatment modality of malignant tumors of the nasopharynx is radiation therapy owing to its inaccessibility to surgical intervention. Over the last two decades there were many changes in techniques of delivery, which include the use of higher doses of radiotherapy, the use of wide radiation field, including the elective radiation of the whole neck, the combined use of brachy- and teletherapy, and the use of split-course therapy. In spite of these advances local and regional recurrences remain the major cause of death. As a boost therapy after external irradiation, high-dose-rate intracavitary irradiation using remote control afterloading system(RALS) was used in two patients. Our results were satisfactory, however, this procedure should only be performed by those who have developed enough expertise in the use of intracavitary techniques for the treatment of nasopharyngeal cancer and have a supportive team including a physicist, dosimetrist, nurse, and trained technologist.

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Production of Therapeutic Glycoproteins throgh the Engineering of Glycosylation Pathway in Yeast

  • Roy, Samir-Kumar;Yasunori Chiba;Yoshifumi Jigami
    • Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering:BBE
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.219-226
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    • 2000
  • The application of recombinant DNA technology to restructure metabolic net-work can change metabolite and protein products by altering the biosynthetic pathways in an organism. Although some success has been achieved, a more detailed and thorough investigation of this approach is certainly warranted since it is clear that such methods hold great potential based on the encouraging results obtained so far. In last decade, there have been tremendous advances in the field of glycobiology and the stage has been set for the biotechnological production of glycoproteins for therapeutic use. Today glycoproteins are one of the most important groups of pharmaceutical products. In this study the attempt was made to focus on identifying technologies that may have general application for modifying glycosylation pathway of the yeast cells in order to produce glycoproteins of therapeutic use. The carbohydrates of therapeutic recombinant glycoproteins play very important roles in determining their pharmacokinetic properties. A number of biological interactions and biological functions mediated by glycans are also being targeted for therapeutic manipulation in vivo. For a commercially viable production of therapeutic glycoproteins a metabolic engineering of a host cell is yet to be established.

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Affibody molecules as engineered protein drugs

  • Frejd, Fredrik Y;Kim, Kyu-Tae
    • Experimental and Molecular Medicine
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    • v.49 no.3
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    • pp.8.1-8.8
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    • 2017
  • Affibody molecules can be used as tools for molecular recognition in diagnostic and therapeutic applications. There are several preclinical studies reported on diagnostic and therapeutic use of this molecular class of alternative scaffolds, and early clinical evidence is now beginning to accumulate that suggests the Affibody molecules to be efficacious and safe in man. The small size and ease of engineering make Affibody molecules suitable for use in multispecific constructs where AffiMabs is one such that offers the option to potentiate antibodies for use in complex disease.

Trends and Appropriateness of Outpatient Prescription Drug Use in Veterans (보훈의료지원 대상자의 외래 처방의약품 사용경향과 적정성 평가)

  • Lee, Iyn-Hyang;Shim, Da-Young
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.107-116
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    • 2018
  • Objective: This study analyzed the national claims data of veterans to generate scientific evidence of the trends and appropriateness of their drug utilization in an outpatient setting. Methods: The claims data were provided by the Health Insurance Review & Assessment (HIRA). Through sampling and matching data, we selected two comparable groups; Veterans vs. National Health Insurance (NHI) patients and Veterans vs. Medical Aid (MAID) patients. Drug use and costs were compared between groups by using multivariate gamma regression models to account for the skewed distribution, and therapeutic duplication was analyzed by using multivariate logistic regression models. Results: In equivalent conditions, veteran patients made fewer visits to medical institutions (0.88 vs. 1), had 1.86 times more drug use, and paid 1.4 times more drug costs than NHI patients (p<0.05); similarly, veteran patients made fewer visits to medical institutions (0.96 vs. 1), had 1.11 times more drug use, and paid 0.95 times less drug costs than MAID patients (p<0.05). The risk of therapeutic duplication was 1.7 times higher (OR=1.657) in veteran patients than in NHI patients and 1.3 times higher (OR=1.311) than in MAID patients (p<0.0001). Conclusion: Similar patterns of drug use were found in veteran patients and MAID patients. There were greater concerns about the drug use behavior in veteran patients, with longer prescribing days and a higher rate of therapeutic duplication, than in MAID patients. Efforts should be made to measure if any inefficiency exists in veterans' drug use behavior.

Comparative observational study of aminophylline with prophylactic and therapeutic uses for clinical outcomes in preterm infants

  • Bae, Mi Hye;Lee, Na Rae;Han, Young Mi;Byun, Shin Yun;Park, Kyung Hee
    • Kosin Medical Journal
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.380-385
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    • 2018
  • Objectives: Aminophylline has been used for prevention or treatment of apnea in preterm infants with idiopathic apnea of prematurity. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical usefulness of prophylactic in comparison with therapeutic aminophylline therapy. Methods: This retrospective observational study included infants born with a birth weight of < 2,500 g or at < 36 weeks of gestation. Infants born between August 2013 and July 2014 who received aminophylline therapy within 24 hr after birth were assigned to the prophylactic group, while infants born between August 2014 and July 2015 who received aminophylline therapy after obvious apnea were assigned to the therapeutic group. We compared clinical characteristics, including days of ventilator and oxygen therapy and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) between both groups. Results: Sixty-four patients and 25 infants were identified in the prophylactic and therapeutic groups, respectively. The mean gestational age and birth weight were $32.57{\pm}1.96weeks$ and $1765{\pm}205g$, respectively, in the prophylactic group and $32.46{\pm}1.82weeks$ and $1770{\pm}250g$, respectively, in the therapeutic group. No significant differences in clinical characteristics were found between the two groups. Similar clinical outcomes, including days of ventilator and oxygen therapy, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), periventricular leukomalacia, and BPD, were observed between the two groups. Conclusions: The present study showed that the prophylactic use of aminophylline does not improve the clinical outcomes, including BPD, IVH, and ventilator dependency as compared with therapeutic use. In other words, routine prophylactic use of aminophylline is unnecessary.

Synthetic approaches toward [18F]Fluoromisonidazole as a hypoxia imaging maker

  • Kwon, Young-Do;Lim, Seok Tae;Jeong, Hwan-Jeong;Sohn, Myung-Hee;Kim, Hee-Kwon
    • Journal of Radiopharmaceuticals and Molecular Probes
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.9-14
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    • 2015
  • Hypoxia has been shown in many tumors because of a reduced oxygen condition. A useful approach to detect hypoxia is to use molecular imaging. Positron emission tomography (PET), one of the biomedical molecular imaging tools, is the most common non-invasive technique for providing information about physiological and biological events such as diseases. In order to use the PET technique for healthcare, promising molecular probes such as PET tracers required. [$^{18}F$]Fluoromisonidazole ([$^{18}F$]FMISO) is the most widely used in PET tracers for hypoxia. In this review, major developments of the synthetic method of [$^{18}F$]FMISO are discussed.

Analysis of Frequent Therapeutic Duplication Drug Classes Based on National Health Insurance Claimed Data in Korea (국내 건강보험심사청구자료에 근거한 다빈도 치료중복 의약품 약효군 분석)

  • Sohn, Hyun-Soon;Lee, Young-Sook;Choi, Kyung-Eob;Shin, Hyun-Taek
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.262-267
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    • 2010
  • Therapeutic duplication of prescriptions is the most frequently reported inappropriate drug use in Korea. To prevent significant problems during drug prescribing and dispensing, prospectively, development of standard including drug lists considered as therapeutic duplications for the prioritized drug classes first would be necessary. This study was aimed to analyze frequent drug classes of therapeutic duplications by healthcare providers in clinical practice settings. National health claims data for drug review and reimbursement (1,426,065 prescriptions dated March 19, 2008) were analyzed. Therapeutic duplication was defined as the prescription including more than 2 ingredients belonging to the same KFDA drug classification numbers that considered to have therapeutic similarities. The following 3 drug classes were mostly frequent therapeutic duplication classes: 114 anti-pyretics, analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs; 117 drugs for psycho-nervous system; 141 Antihistamines. About 3.5% of overall prescriptions analyzed showed therapeutic duplications. This result might be starting step to develop DUR therapeutic duplication standard.

Production of Biopharmaceuticals in E. coli: Current Scenario and Future Perspectives

  • Baeshen, Mohammed N.;Al-Hejin, Ahmed M.;Bora, Roop S.;Ahmed, Mohamed M. M.;Ramadan, Hassan A. I.;Saini, Kulvinder S.;Baeshen, Nabih A.;Redwan, Elrashdy M.
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.25 no.7
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    • pp.953-962
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    • 2015
  • Escherichia coli is the most preferred microorganism to express heterologous proteins for therapeutic use, as around 30% of the approved therapeutic proteins are currently being produced using it as a host. Owing to its rapid growth, high yield of the product, costeffectiveness, and easy scale-up process, E. coli is an expression host of choice in the biotechnology industry for large-scale production of proteins, particularly non-glycosylated proteins, for therapeutic use. The availability of various E. coli expression vectors and strains, relatively easy protein folding mechanisms, and bioprocess technologies, makes it very attractive for industrial applications. However, the codon usage in E. coli and the absence of post-translational modifications, such as glycosylation, phosphorylation, and proteolytic processing, limit its use for the production of slightly complex recombinant biopharmaceuticals. Several new technological advancements in the E. coli expression system to meet the biotechnology industry requirements have been made, such as novel engineered strains, genetically modifying E. coli to possess capability to glycosylate heterologous proteins and express complex proteins, including full-length glycosylated antibodies. This review summarizes the recent advancements that may further expand the use of the E. coli expression system to produce more complex and also glycosylated proteins for therapeutic use in the future.

A Systematic Review of the Effectiveness of Medical Cannabis for Psychiatric, Movement and Neurodegenerative Disorders

  • Lim, Keane;See, Yuen Mei;Lee, Jimmy
    • Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.301-312
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    • 2017
  • The discovery of endocannabinoid's role within the central nervous system and its potential therapeutic benefits have brought forth rising interest in the use of cannabis for medical purposes. The present review aimed to synthesize and evaluate the available evidences on the efficacy of cannabis and its derivatives for psychiatric, neurodegenerative and movement disorders. A systematic search of randomized controlled trials of cannabis and its derivatives were conducted via databases (PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials). A total of 24 reports that evaluated the use of medical cannabis for Alzheimer's disease, anorexia nervosa, anxiety, dementia, dystonia, Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), psychosis and Tourette syndrome were included in this review. Trial quality was assessed with the Cochrane risk of bias tool. There is a lack of evidence on the therapeutic effects of cannabinoids for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and dystonia. Although trials with positive findings were identified for anorexia nervosa, anxiety, PTSD, psychotic symptoms, agitation in Alzheimer's disease and dementia, Huntington's disease, and Tourette syndrome, and dyskinesia in Parkinson's disease, definitive conclusion on its efficacy could not be drawn. Evaluation of these low-quality trials, as rated on the Cochrane risk of bias tools, was challenged by methodological issues such as inadequate description of allocation concealment, blinding and underpowered sample size. More adequately powered controlled trials that examine the long and short term efficacy, safety and tolerability of cannabis for medical use, and the mechanisms underpinning the therapeutic potential are warranted.