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The Most Common Mite- and Tick-borne Infectious Diseases in Korea: Scrub Typhus and Severe Fever Thrombocytopenia Syndrome (한국의 흔한 진드기 매개 감염병: 쯔쯔가무시병과 중증열성혈소판감소증후군)

  • Kim, Da Young;Kim, Dong-Min
    • The Korean Journal of Medicine
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    • v.93 no.5
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    • pp.416-423
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    • 2018
  • The incidence of mite- and tick-borne infectious disease is increasing with climate change and the development of diagnostic tools. Tick-borne infectious diseases include Lyme disease, anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS), and Japanese spotted fever. Rickettsial pox and scrub typhus are mite-borne infectious diseases. Scrub typhus and SFTS are the most common mite- and tick-borne infectious diseases in Korea, respectively. They are often difficult to diagnose at an early stage of disease. To make a definite diagnosis of mite- and tick-borne infectious disease, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests or serologic testing for antibodies during the acute and convalescent periods are necessary. If patients with nonspecific symptoms, such as fever, headache, nausea, and vomiting, have a history of outdoor activity or a tick bite, it is reasonable to consider the possibility of mite- or tick-borne infectious diseases clinically. There are no vaccinations against mite- and tick-borne infectious diseases. Therefore, preventing mite or tick bites is the best way to prevent the diseases.

A human case of tick bite by Ixodes nipponensis on the scalp (진드기(Ixodes nipponensis)에 의한 인체 두피 감염 1례)

  • 이순형;채종일
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.67-69
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    • 1989
  • A human case of tick bite on the scalp was found at a local hospital on June, 1984. The patient, 63-year old female, was attacked by a tick while working in a farm forest which located in the suburbs of Seoul. The clinical complaint was a (worm) mass on the scalp which she thought as a tumor. On admission the patient complained of facial edema and general malaise. After removal of the mass (tick), small bleeding and discoloration were observed around the biting site. The tick was morphologically examined and identified as Ixodes nipponensis. This is the 4th human case of tick bite reported in the literature of Korea.

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A case of histologically diagnosed tick infestation on the scalp of a Korean child

  • Chang, Sun-Hee;Park, Jae-Hwan;Kwak, Ji-Eun;Joo, Mee;Kim, Han-Seong;Chi, Je-G.;Hong, Sung-Tae;Chai, Jong-Yil
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.44 no.2
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    • pp.157-161
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    • 2006
  • A scalp mass surgically excised from a 4-year-old Korean boy was identified as a tick through histological observations. In sections of the mass, characteristic features of a tick, including its gross contour, cuticular structures, well developed musculature and salivary glands, and the capitulum, were discovered. In particular, the capitulum is anteriorly protruded, which strongly suggests that the specimen be a hard tick of family Ixodidae. However, the pre-sent histological features were not enough to determine the genus and species of the tick, because information on sectional morphologies of different tick species is unavailable. This is a rare case of tick infestation on the scalp diagnosed in histological sections.

Present state and future of tick-borne infectious diseases in Korea (국내 진드기매개 질환의 현황과 전망)

  • Sul, Hyoung;Kim, Dong-Min
    • Journal of the Korean Medical Association
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    • v.60 no.6
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    • pp.475-483
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    • 2017
  • The incidence of vector-borne infectious diseases is increasing due to developments in diagnostic techniques, as well as due to economic, environmental, and ecological factors such as global warming, increased rainfall, globalization, and urbanization. Tick-borne infectious diseases occurring in Korea include severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome, Lyme disease, anaplasmosis, and Japanese spotted fever. Various skin lesions, such as erythema migrans, tick bite sites, rash, and eschar, are associated with tick-borne infectious diseases. It is necessary to remove ticks immediately to prevent transmission of these tick-borne infectious diseases. Especially for conditions such as Lyme disease, at least 24 to 48 hours of tick attachment to the host is required for transmission of the causative pathogens to the host. Tick-borne diseases are acquired after outdoor activities and have nonspecific symptoms such as fever, headache, and chills, which make them difficult to identify without a diagnostic test. Rapid diagnosis and early treatment can reduce the otherwise significant morbidity and mortality associated with these conditions; therefore, therapy should not be delayed until laboratory confirmation is received.

Perianal Tick-Bite Lesion Caused by a Fully Engorged Female Amblyomma testudinarium

  • Kim, Jin;Kang, Haeng An;Kim, Sung Sun;Joo, Hyun Soo;Chong, Won Seog
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.52 no.6
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    • pp.685-690
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    • 2014
  • A perianal tick and the surrounding skin were surgically excised from a 73-year-old man residing in a southwestern costal area of the Korean Peninsula. Microscopically a deep penetrating lesion was formed beneath the attachment site. Dense and mixed inflammatory cell infiltrations occurred in the dermis and subcutaneous tissues around the feeding lesion. Amorphous eosinophilic cement was abundant in the center of the lesion. The tick had Y-shaped anal groove, long mouthparts, ornate scutum, comma-shaped spiracular plate, distinct eyes, and fastoons. It was morphologically identified as a fully engorged female Amblyomma testudinarium. This is the third human case of Amblyomma tick infection in Korea.

Resistance and control of cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos as acaricide for control of hard tick Haemaphysalis longicornis (acari: ixodidae)

  • You, Myung-Jo
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.54 no.2
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    • pp.117-120
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    • 2014
  • Chemotherapeutic treatment is still the foundation of tick control programs. This study investigated the acaricidal efficacy of cypermethrin alone and in combination with chlorpyrifos against Haemaphysalis (H.) longicornis. Unfed larval ticks were exposed to 0.1, 1.0, and 10 mg/mL cypermethrin for 60 min, after which the acaricidal efficacy was examined based on tick mortality. All compounds showed similar suppression curves, with the best control being achieved by cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos (1 : 1 ratio) at 10 mg/mL. Effective cypermethrin concentrations for tick control were two to seven times higher than the recommended doses, indicating resistance by H. longicornis.

Studies on the Rearing method of the Tick, Haemaphysalis longicornis (Haemaphysalis longicornis 진드기의 사육방법에 관한 연구)

  • Cha Hyeon-seong;Lee Joo-Mook;Kwon Oh-deog;Chae Joon-seok
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.101-109
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    • 1993
  • This study was attempted to develop a rearing method of the tick(Haemaphysalis longicornis) at the laboratory in winter. The rearing conditions for ticks in winter were summarized as follows; Even in the winter, under controlled Incubator on 25~3$0^{\circ}C$ and 90~95%, temperature and humidity, respectively, it is possible to rear the ticks normally as on summer. in the usual laboratory room temperature and humidity, 20~$25^{\circ}C$ and 51 ~77%. In the ticks collected in summer, the life span of the ticks, from hatching to death, was 91~129(112.8$\pm$15.2) days in the lagoratory, and the number of the oviposited eggs from a tick were about 1,680~2,460 and the hatching rate of the oviposited eggs was about 95(92~98)%. The life span of the ticks which were reared in the laboratory in winter was 89-138(112.2$\pm$21.1) days, and the number of the oviposited eggs from the tick were about 1,382~2,674 and the hatching rate of them was about 89.5(87~92)%. In the rearing of the tick at the laboratory, the dogs, rabbits and mice were able to use the hosts for the tick. The proper temperature to feed the ticks on the cattle in the cold season was obtained by $Hokalong^{\circledR}$ which were attached on the out side of sac which covered bovine ear where attached ticks.

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Farmers' Perceptions and Knowledge of Cattle Adaptation to Heat Stress and Tick Resistance in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

  • Katiyatiya, C.L.F.;Muchenje, V.;Mushunje, A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.27 no.11
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    • pp.1663-1670
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    • 2014
  • The objective of this study was to determine the perceptions and knowledge of farmers of heat stress and tick resistance in cattle. A cross-sectional survey was conducted and 110 farmers in four villages in the sour and sweet velds of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa were interviewed. The associations among area (municipality), gender, age, level of education, employment and religion were computed using Chi-square tests. The majority of the respondents had on average 4 bulls, 4 cows, 4 heifers, 4 calves, and 4 oxen. Milk was considered as the major (28.3%) reason for keeping cattle. Most farmers owned non-descript (72.6%), and Nguni (45.3%) cattle because of their heat tolerance (54.7%), tick resistance (54.7%), and milking ability (28.2%) traits. Excessive panting (56.6%) and disease transmission (76%) were regarded as the major effects of heat stress and tick infestation in cattle, respectively. About 50% of the respondents agreed that hair length influences tick resistance and 47.17% considered coat colour when acquiring cattle. In the sampled areas, ticks were prevalent in the summer season (93%), and 77.36% of the respondents use acaricides every fortnight. Gall sickness was reported to be a major problem in the cattle herds by 36.79% of the respondents. Our results showed that farmers in the two municipalities had knowledge of cattle adaptation to heat stress and tick resistance.

Hematological Changes Associated with Theileria orientalis Infection in Korean Indigenous Cattle

  • Kim, Suhee;Yu, Do-Hyeon;Kang, Sung-Woo;Chae, Jeong-Byoung;Choi, Kyoung-Seong;Kim, Hyeon-Cheol;Park, Bae-Keun;Chae, Joon-Seok;Park, Jinho
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.55 no.5
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    • pp.481-489
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    • 2017
  • Tick-borne pathogens can cause serious problems in grazing cattle. However, little information is available on tick-mediated diseases in cattle grazing on mountains. Thus, this study aimed to understand the potential problems related to tick-borne diseases in grazing cattle through the investigation of prevalent tick-transmitted infections, and their associated hematological changes, in terms of season and grazing type in Korean indigenous cattle (=Hanwoo). Hanwoo cattle from 3 regions of the Republic of Korea (=Korea) were either maintained indoors or placed on grassy mountains from spring to fall of 2014 and 2015. Cattle that grazed in mountainous areas showed a greater prevalence of tick-borne infections with an increased Theileria orientalis infection rate (54.7%) compared to that in non-grazing cattle (16.3%) (P<0.001). Accordingly, the red blood cell (RBC) count and hematocrit (HCT) values of grazing cattle were significantly lower than those of non-grazing cattle throughout the season (P<0.05). Moreover, RBC, hemoglobin (Hb), and HCT of T. orientalis-positive group were significantly lower than those of T. orientalis-negative group (P<0.05). T. orientalis is a widespread tick-borne pathogen in Korea. Grazing of cattle in mountainous areas is closely associated with an increase in T. orientalis infection (RR=3.4, P<0.001), and with consequent decreases in RBC count and HCT. Thus, these findings suggest that the Hanwoo cattle in mountainous areas of Korea are at a high risk of infection by T. orientalis, which can lead to hematological alterations. This study highlights the necessity of preventive strategies that target T. orientalis infection.

Prevalence of Tick-Borne Pathogens from Ticks Collected from Cattle and Wild Animals in Tanzania in 2012

  • Kim, Tae Yun;Kwak, You Shine;Kim, Ju Yeong;Nam, Sung-Hyun;Lee, In-Yong;Mduma, Simon;Keyyu, Julius;Fyumagwa, Robert;Yong, Tai-Soon
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.56 no.3
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    • pp.305-308
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    • 2018
  • This study was aimed to disclose the prevalence rate of tick-borne pathogens from ticks collected from cattle and wild animals in Tanzania in 2012. Ticks were collected from slaughtered cattle and dead wild animals from November 5 to December 23, 2012 and identified. PCR for detecting Anaplasmataceae, Piroplamidae, Rickettsiaceae, Borrelia spp., and Coxiella spp. were done. Among those tested, Rickettsiaceae, Piroplasmidae, and Anaplasmataceae, were detected in ticks from the 2 regions. Rickettsiaceae represented the major tick-borne pathogens of the 2 regions. Ticks from animals in Maswa were associated with a higher pathogen detection rate compared to that in ticks from Iringa. In addition, a higher pathogen detection rate was observed in ticks infesting cattle than in ticks infesting wild animals. All examined ticks of the genus Amblyomma were infected with diverse pathogens. Ticks of the genera Rhipicephalus and Hyalomma were infected with 1 or 2 pathogens. Collectively, this study provides important information regarding differences in pathogen status among various regions, hosts, and tick species in Tanzania. Results in this study will affect the programs to prevent tick-borne diseases (TBD) of humans and livestock in Tanzania.