• Title, Summary, Keyword: tight junction

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Tight junctional inhibition of entry of Toxoplasma gondii into MDCK cells (MDCK세포의 tight junction 형성이 Toxoplusmu gondii의 숙주세포 침투에 미치는 효과)

  • 남호우;윤지혜
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.197-206
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    • 1990
  • Various conditions of cultures were performed to investigate the role of tight junctions formed between adjacent MDCK cells on the entry of Toxoplasma. When MDCK cells were cocultured with excess number of Toxoplasma at the seeding density of 1×105, 3×105, and 5×105 cells/ml for 4 days, the number of intracellular parasites decreased rapidly as the host cells reached saturation density, i.e., the formation of tight junctions. When the concentration of calcium in the media (1.8 mM in general) was shifted to $5{\mu}M$ that resulted in the elimination of tight junction, the penetration of Toxoplasma increased about 2-fold(p<0.05) in the saturated culture, while that of non-saturated culture decreased by half. Trypsin-EDTA which was treated to conquer the tight junctions of saturated culture favored the entry of Toxoplasma about 2.5-fold(P<0.05) compared to the non-treated, while that of non- saturated culture decreased to about one fifth. It was suggested that the tight junctions of epithelial cells play a role as a barrier for the entry of Toxoplasma and Toxoplasma penetrate into hoot cells through membrane structure-specific, i.e., certain kind of receptors present on the basolateral rather than apical surface of MDCK cells.

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Investigation of the Effect of Sappan Lignum and Brazilin on Expression of Tight Junction Related-genes in Human Keratinocyte (소목(蘇木)과 그 지표물질인 brazilin이 인간 유래 각질 형성 세포의 tight junction 유전자 발현에 미치는 영향)

  • Cheon, Seong Hye;Choi, Sun Kyung;Cho, Nam Joon;Kim, Kee Kwang;Lee, Woong Hee;Hwang, Hyung Seo;Kim, Kyoon Eon;Han, Hyosang
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.106-112
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    • 2018
  • The aim of this research was to determine the diverse effects of Sappan Lignum extract and brazilin on human keratinocyte HaCaT cells. We confirmed the antioxidant effect of Sappan Lignum extract and brazilin was analyzed by using an ABTS assay, confirming the efficacy of water extraction method. Also, we examined effect of Sappan Lignum extract and brazilin on the cell viability, using the MTS assay in HaCaT cells. mRNA expression levels of tight junction-related genes associated with skin barrier in HaCaT cells were analyzed using quantitative real-time PCR analysis. Sappan Lignum extract increased the cellular activity of HaCaT cells and the expression of the tight junction-related genes claudin 3, claudin 6, and ZO-2. Brazilin displayed the same effects as that of the extract on HaCaT cells activity and tight junction-related genes expression. Furthermore, dispase assay demonstrated altered cell-cell adhesion strength of Sappan Lignum extract or brazilin treated HaCaT cells. Sappan Lignum extract or brazilin might be an useful ingredient in skin-mosturizinng and anti-wrinkle cosmetics, given its effects of altering mRNA expression of tight junction-related genes and enhancing cell-cell adhesion strength of HaCaT cells.

Differential Expression of the Tight Junction Protein, Occludin, in Brain Tumors

  • Kim, Choong-Hyun;Cheong, Jin-Hwan;Bak, Koang-Hum;Kim, Jae-Min;Ko, Yong;Oh, Suck-Jun
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.12-15
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    • 2005
  • Objective : Cerebral edema develops in the brain tumors by loosening of the endothelial tight junction. Tight junction[TJ] proteins, such as occludin and claudin bind adjacent cells tightly. Authors examine the expression rate of occludin in human brain tumors to evaluate the effect of altered expression of occludin on cerebral edema. Methods : Seventy surgical specimens stored at $-70^{\circ}C$ were used. It included 14 astrocytic tumors, 27 meningiomas, 12 scwannomas, 7 pituitary adenomas, 6 hemangioblastomas. and 4 craniopharyngiomas. After protein extraction, expression of occludin was investigated by Western blot analysis. The tumors were classified according to World Health Organization[WHO] classification. Results : The expression rates of occludin in brain tumors were : glioma [8/14=57.1%]. meningioma [16/27=59.3%], schwannoma [10/12=83.3%], pituitary adenoma [6/7=85.7%], hemangioblastoma [6/6=100%], and craniopharyngioma [3/4=75.0%]. The expression rate in glioma and meningioma was lower than other brain tumors. In gliomas, high grade tumor [1/4=25.0%] exhibited lower expression rate of occludin than low grade one [7/10=70.0%]. Conclusion : These results suggest that the expression of occludin is different among the various kinds of brain tumors. In gliomas, its expression is correlated with the histological grade. It may indicate that occludin plays a role in the development of edema in the brain tumors.

Study on the pressure self-adaptive water-tight junction box in underwater vehicle

  • Huang, Haocai;Ye, Yanying;Leng, Jianxing;Yuan, Zhuoli;Chen, Ying
    • International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.302-312
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    • 2012
  • Underwater vehicles play a very important role in underwater engineering. Water-tight junction box (WJB) is one of the key components in underwater vehicle. This paper puts forward a pressure self-adaptive water-tight junction box (PSAWJB) which improves the reliability of the WJB significantly by solving the sealing and pressure problems in conventional WJB design. By redundancy design method, the pressure self-adaptive equalizer (PSAE) is designed in such a way that it consists of a piston pressure-adaptive compensator (PPAC) and a titanium film pressure-adaptive compensator (TFPAC). According to hydro-mechanical simulations, the operating volume of the PSAE is more than or equal to 11.6 % of the volume of WJB liquid system. Furthermore, the required operating volume of the PSAE also increases as the gas content of oil, hydrostatic pressure or temperature difference increases. The reliability of the PSAWJB is proved by hyperbaric chamber tests.

Inhibitory Effect of Steviol and Its Derivatives on Cell Migration via Regulation of Tight Junction-related Protein Claudin 8 (스테비올 및 그 유도체의 세포연접 관련 클라우딘 8 발현 조절을 통한 세포이동 저해효과)

  • Choi, Sun Kyung;Cho, Nam Joon;Cho, Uk Min;Shim, Joong Hyun;Kim, Kee K.;Hwang, Hyung Seo
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.403-412
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    • 2016
  • The tight junction, one of Intercellular junctions, performs a variety of biological functions by bonding adjacent cells, including the barrier function to control the movement of the electrolyte and water. Recent studies have revealed that unusual expression of tight junction-related genes have been shown to be related in cancer development and progression. Recently, there are many reports that control of tight junction proteins expression is closely related to the skin moisture. In this study, we are focusing on the regulating mechanism of tight junction-associated genes by the steviol and its derivatives. Steviol, used as a sweetner, is known to chemical compound isolated from stevia plant. The MTS (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt) assay was carried out in HaCaT cells (human keratinocyte cell line) in order to determine the cytotoxicity. As a result, while steviol showing cytotoxicity from $250{\mu}M$, steviol derivatives are not cytotoxic more than $250{\mu}M$ concentration. We have observed a change in the tight junction protein via quantitative real-time PCR. Claudin 8 among tight junction proteins is only significantly reduced up to 30% in the presence of steviol. In addition, cell migration was inhibited by steviol, not by stevioside and rebaudioside. Finally, we could observe that steviol, not stevioside and rebaudioside, is able to increase the skin barrier permeability through the transepithelial electric resistance (TEER) measurements. These results suggest that the steviol and its derivatives are specifically acts on the tight junction related gene expression, but steviol derivatives are more suitable as a cosmetic material.

Regulatory effects of saponins from Panax japonicus on colonic epithelial tight junctions in aging rats

  • Dun, Yaoyan;Liu, Min;Chen, Jing;Peng, Danli;Zhao, Haixia;Zhou, Zhiyong;Wang, Ting;Liu, Chaoqi;Guo, Yuhui;Zhang, Changcheng;Yuan, Ding
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.50-56
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    • 2018
  • Background: Saponins from Panax japonicus (SPJ) are the most abundant and main active components of P. japonicus, which replaces ginseng roots in treatment for many kinds of diseases in the minority ethnic group in China. Our previous studies have demonstrated that SPJ has the effects of anti-inflammation through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-${\kappa}B$) signaling pathways. The present study was designed to investigate whether SPJ can modulate intestinal tight junction barrier in aging rats and further to explore the potential mechanism. Methods: Aging rats had been treated with different doses (10 mg/kg, 30 mg/kg, and 60 mg/kg) of SPJ for 6 mo since they were 18 mo old. After the rats were euthanized, the colonic samples were harvested. Levels of tight junctions (claudin-1 and occludin) were determined by immunohistochemical staining. Levels of proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-$1{\beta}$ and tumor necrosis factor-${\alpha}$) were examined by Western blot. NF-${\kappa}B$ and phosphorylation of MAPK signaling pathways were also determined by Western blot. Results: We found that SPJ increased the expression of the tight junction proteins claudin-1 and occludin in the colon of aging rats. Treatment with SPJ decreased the levels of interleukin-$1{\beta}$ and tumor necrosis factor-${\alpha}$, reduced the phosphorylation of three MAPK isoforms, and inhibited the expression of NF-${\kappa}B$ in the colon of aging rats. Conclusion: The studies demonstrated that SPJ modulates the damage of intestinal epithelial tight junction in aging rats, inhibits inflammation, and downregulates the phosphorylation of the MAPK and $NF-{\kappa}B$ signaling pathways.

Characterization of TRAF4 mRNA and Functions related to tight junction in pig (돼지에서 TRAF4 유전자 특성 및 Tight junction 관련 기능 분석)

  • Yun, Jeong-hee;Hwang, In-Sul;Hwang, Seongsoo;Park, Mi-Ryung
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.21 no.5
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    • pp.216-222
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    • 2020
  • Tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor 4 (TRAF4) is found to be overexpressed in human breast cancer. It plays a role in cancer metastasis, production of reactive oxygen species, and cell polarity at membranes. The characteristics and functions of TRAF4 in pigs have not yet been identified. As the first step of research, the mRNA sequence of TRAF4 in porcine cells has been determined. To obtain the full-length sequence, rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) has been carried out. Upon cloning, 2,030 bp of nucleotides were found to encode 470 amino acids, and 8 and 12 amino acids were different from those of the human and mouse TRAF4, respectively. The coding region of porcine TRAF4 was shown to be 93% and 90% homologous to human and mouse TRAF4, respectively. qPCR was conducted to determine the relative expression level of TRAF4. TRAF4 expression in pK15 was enhanced by cell-cell contacts. The mRNA levels of CLDN4, OCLN, and TJP1 at 60% and 80% confluency were significantly higher than at 40% confluency. Further, TRAF4 and tight junction-related genes were down-regulated upon treatment with TRAF4 siRNA. Thus, TRAF4 may affect the function of tight junctions in pig.

Tight junction protein 1 is regulated by transforming growth factor-β and contributes to cell motility in NSCLC cells

  • Lee, So Hee;Paek, A Rome;Yoon, Kyungsil;Kim, Seok Hyun;Lee, Soo Young;You, Hye Jin
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.48 no.2
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    • pp.115-120
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    • 2015
  • Tight junction protein 1 (TJP1), a component of tight junction, has been reported to play a role in protein networks as an adaptor protein, and TJP1 expression is altered during tumor development. Here, we found that TJP1 expression was increased at the RNA and protein levels in TGF-${\beta}$-stimulated lung cancer cells, A549. SB431542, a type-I TGF-${\beta}$ receptor inhibitor, as well as SB203580, a p38 kinase inhibitor, significantly abrogated the effect of TGF-${\beta}$ on TJP1 expression. Diphenyleneiodonium, an NADPH oxidase inhibitor, also attenuated TJP1 expression in response to TGF-${\beta}$ in lung cancer cells. When TJP1 expression was reduced by shRNA lentiviral particles in A549 cells (A549-sh TJP1), wound healing was much lower than in cells infected with control viral particles. Taken together, these data suggest that TGF-${\beta}$ enhances TJP1 expression, which may play a role beyond structural support in tight junctions during cancer development.

Effect of Korean Red Ginseng on the Stability of the Tight Junction of Intestinal Epithelial Cells (홍삼에 의한 Caco-2 단세포층 간극의 안정화)

  • Shon, Dong-Hwa;Kim, Mi-Hye;Kim, Young-Chan;Kim, Sung-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.335-342
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    • 2010
  • Bioactive components involved in the tight junction stabilization of intestinal epithelial cells from Korean red ginseng were studied by analyzing transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) values of the Caco-2 cell monolayer between the apical and basolateral sides for 96 hr. The treatment with less than $20\;{\mu}g/mL$ of the Korean red ginseng extract to the apical side of Caco-2 cell monolayer gave higher TEER values than the control. However, the treatment with more than $130\;{\mu}g/mL$ of the Korean red ginseng extract drastically decreased the TEER values, and these effects were not due to its cytotoxicity. When fractions of low molecular weight compounds, polysaccharides, proteins, saponins, and polyphenols derived from Korean ginseng were applied to the apical side of the Caco-2 cell monolayer, polyphenols showed high tight junction stabilizing activity and saponins showed low activity, but the others showed no significant activity. These results suggest that Korean red ginseng might be useful for the prevention of food allergy by stabilizing the tight junction of intestinal epithelial cells leading to hindering absorption of food allergens.

Inhibition of NAD(P)H:Quinone Oxidoreductase 1 by Dicumarol Reduces Tight Junction in Human Colonic Epithelial Cells (인간 대장상피세포 밀착연접 형성과정에서 NQO1 저해 효과)

  • Hong, Ji;Zhang, Peng;Yoon, I Na;Kim, Ho
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.531-536
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    • 2016
  • We previously showed that NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) knockout (KO) mice exhibited spontaneous inflammation with markedly increased mucosal permeability in the gut, and that NQO1 is functionally associated with regulating tight junctions in the mucosal epithelial cells that govern the mucosal barrier. Here, we confirm the role of NQO1 in the formation of tight junctions by human colonic epithelial cells (HT29). We treated HT29 cells with a chemical inhibitor of NQO1 (dicumarol; 10 μM), and examined the effect on the transepithelial resistance of epithelial cells and the protein expression levels of ZO1 and occludin (two known regulators of tight junctions between gut epithelial cells). The dicumarol-induced inhibition of NQO1 markedly reduced transepithelial resistance (a measure of tight junctions) and decreased the levels of the tested tight junction proteins. In vivo, luminal injection of dicumarol significantly increased mucosal permeability and decreased ZO1 and occludin protein expression levels in mouse guts. However, in contrast to the previous report that the epithelial cells of NQO1 KO mice showed marked down-regulations of the transcripts encoding ZO1 and occludin, these transcript levels were not affected in dicumarol-treated HT29 cells. This result suggests that the NQO1-depedent regulation of tight junction molecules may involve multiple processes, including both transcriptional regulation and protein degradation processes such as those governed by the ubiquitination/proteasomal, and/or lysosomal systems.