• Title, Summary, Keyword: time difference method

### Position Measuring System Design using Time Difference of Arrival (송신 신호의 도달 시간차(TDOA)를 이용한 위치 측정 시스템의 구현)

• Kim, Dong-Uk
• Proceedings of the KIEE Conference
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• pp.394-397
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• 2001
• There are several methods of measuring position. For example GPS, AOA, TDOA and using radio camera. In this Paper I used TDOA method in position measuring system. TDOA method uses arrival time difference. In position measuring system, three transfers which is placed in different position transfer signal to receiver in fixed time interval and receiver records arrival time of signal. Because receiver knows idle signal's arrival time, receiver can calculate the difference of the signal's arrival time between idle and real. When we obtain time difference we can know the receiver position by Newton Raphson method.

### Finite Difference Method on Consolidation under Time Dependent Loading (점증하중에 의한 압밀의 유한차분해석)

• Lee, Seung-Hyun
• Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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• v.13 no.4
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• pp.1895-1899
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• 2012
• Formulation of finite difference method for analyzing consolidation were carried out. It can be seen that the differences in settlement with time obtained by FDM and Terzaghi method are diminished by fine discretization of time increment. Excess pore pressures predicted by the derived finite difference equation were same as those calculated by Olson's method. Predicted time-settlement behavior from the derived finite difference method were almost same as those calculated by Terzaghi's method and Olson's method. Analysis results obtained from the assumed multi-step time dependent loading are thought to be reasonable.

### VARIABLE TIME-STEPPING HYBRID FINITE DIFFERENCE METHODS FOR PRICING BINARY OPTIONS

• Kim, Hong-Joong;Moon, Kyoung-Sook
• Bulletin of the Korean Mathematical Society
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• v.48 no.2
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• pp.413-426
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• 2011
• Two types of new methods with variable time steps are proposed in order to valuate binary options efficiently. Type I changes adaptively the size of the time step at each time based on the magnitude of the local error, while Type II combines two uniform meshes. The new methods are hybrid finite difference methods, namely starting the computation with a fully implicit finite difference method for a few time steps for accuracy then performing a ${\theta}$-method during the rest of computation for efficiency. Numerical experiments for standard European vanilla, binary and American options show that both Type I and II variable time step methods are much more efficient than the fully implicit method or hybrid methods with uniform time steps.

### Steady-State Current Characteristics for Squirrel Cage Induction Motor according to Design Variables of Rotor Bars using Time Difference Finite Element Analysis

• Kim, Young Sun
• Journal of Magnetics
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• v.22 no.1
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• pp.104-108
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• 2017
• Induction motors have wide applicability in many fields, both in industrial sectors and households, for their advantages of a high efficiency and robust structure. The introduction of power-source-containing harmonics into the induction motor winding lowers its efficiency and increases its temperature, greatly affecting its operation characteristics. In this study, we performed an electromagnetic field analysis using the time-difference finite-element method with the purpose of analyzing the steady-state current characteristics of an induction motor. Additionally, we calculated the steady-state current with a method combining an electromagnetic field equation and a circuit equation. In the electromagnetic field analysis, the nonlinearity was taken into account using the Newton-Raphson method, and a backward time-difference method was employed for the time derivative term. Then, we compared the steady-state current of the induction motor obtained by calculation with the experimentally measured values, thus validating the proposed algorithm. Furthermore, we analyzed the impacts of the shape and material of the rotor conductor bar of the induction motor on the steady-state current of the main winding.

### Effect of Bean Water Concentration and Incubation Time of Yukwa Paste and Packaging Method on the Quality of Yukwa (유과 반죽의 콩물 농도 및 Incubation time과 포장방법이 유과의 저장 중 품질 특성에 미치는 영향)

• Jo, Mi-Na;Jeon, Hyeong-Ju
• Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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• v.33 no.3
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• pp.294-300
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• 2001
• Effect of bean water concentration and incubation time of Yukwa paste as well as packaging method on the quality of Yukwa was investigated. Quality loss in Yukwa during storage was dependent on the packaging method such as bamboo packaging at $30^{\circ}C$, nitrogen packaging at $30^{\circ}C$ and LDPE packaging at $-18^{\circ}C$. Peroxide value increased with bean water concentration, but showed no significant difference by incubation time. The hardness of Yukwa decreased with the increase of bean water concentration, incubation time, and storage time but showed no significant difference by packaging method. Sensory evaluation after storage for 3 months showed that Yukwa color was significantly influenced by packaging method and bean water concentration. The volume was also significantly influenced by bean water concentration and incubation time. Off-flavor showed significant difference by storage method. Tenderness, taste and overall desirability showed significant difference by bean water concentration. Crispness showed significant difference by storage method and bean water concentration.

### A fourth order finite difference method applied to elastodynamics: Finite element and boundary element formulations

• Souza, L.A.;Carrer, J.A.M.;Martins, C.J.
• Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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• v.17 no.6
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• pp.735-749
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• 2004
• This work presents a direct integration scheme, based on a fourth order finite difference approach, for elastodynamics. The proposed scheme was chosen as an alternative for attenuating the errors due to the use of the central difference method, mainly when the time-step length approaches the critical time-step. In addition to eliminating the spurious numerical oscillations, the fourth order finite difference scheme keeps the advantages of the central difference method: reduced computer storage and no requirement of factorisation of the effective stiffness matrix in the step-by-step solution. A study concerning the stability of the fourth order finite difference scheme is presented. The Finite Element Method and the Boundary Element Method are employed to solve elastodynamic problems. In order to verify the accuracy of the proposed scheme, two examples are presented and discussed at the end of this work.

### A Simple Method to Reduce the Splitting Error in the LOD-FDTD Method

• Kong, Ki-Bok;Jeong, Myung-Hun;Lee, Hyung-Soo;Park, Seong-Ook
• Journal of electromagnetic engineering and science
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• v.9 no.1
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• pp.12-16
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• 2009
• This paper presents a new iterative locally one-dimensional [mite-difference time-domain(LOD-FDTD) method that has a simpler formula than the original iterative LOD-FDTD formula[l]. There are fewer arithmetic operations than in the original LOD-FDTD scheme. This leads to a reduction of CPU time compared to the original LOD-FDTD method while the new method exhibits the same numerical accuracy as the iterative ADI-FDTD scheme. The number of arithmetic operations shows that the efficiency of this method has been improved approximately 20 % over the original iterative LOD-FDTD method.

### A study on the determination of Ultrasonic Travel Time by Norm Phase-Time Method (위상시간법에 의한 초음파전파시간의 결정에 관한 연구)

• 이은방
• Journal of the Korean Institute of Navigation
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• v.18 no.4
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• pp.137-146
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• 1994
• In this paper, a new algorithm to measure the ultrasonic travel time is proposed, which is fundamental to estimate distance depth and volume in several media. Pulse wave has been used to measure travel time of transmitted signal. However, due to the characteristic of transducer and propagation, the received signal is so distorted that it is difficult to measure travel time, which is propagation, the received signal is so distorted that it is difficult to measure travel time, which is to be time difference between transmitted and received signals. In this proposed method, transmitted and received signal are transformed respectively into norm phase newly designed by this paper and displayed on phase-time curve. And travel time is simply determined by the arithmetic numerical mean of time difference at the identical norm phase on the phase-time curves of transmitted and received signals. This method has several features; firstly, travel time is calculated analytically with high accuracy by least square error method, secondly, it is useful to compare the difference of signal magnitude for time information, thirdly, noise and discrete errors are relatively small, finally, the measurement accuracy is not influenced by D.C. bias. In particular, this method is useful and applicable to measuring very short distance and sound speed with high accuracy.

### Feedforward actuator controller development using the backward-difference method for real-time hybrid simulation

• Phillips, Brian M.;Takada, Shuta;Spencer, B.F. Jr.;Fujino, Yozo
• Smart Structures and Systems
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• v.14 no.6
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• pp.1081-1103
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• 2014
• Real-time hybrid simulation (RTHS) has emerged as an important tool for testing large and complex structures with a focus on rate-dependent specimen behavior. Due to the real-time constraints, accurate dynamic control of servo-hydraulic actuators is required. These actuators are necessary to realize the desired displacements of the specimen, however they introduce unwanted dynamics into the RTHS loop. Model-based actuator control strategies are based on linearized models of the servo-hydraulic system, where the controller is taken as the model inverse to effectively cancel out the servo-hydraulic dynamics (i.e., model-based feedforward control). An accurate model of a servo-hydraulic system generally contains more poles than zeros, leading to an improper inverse (i.e., more zeros than poles). Rather than introduce additional poles to create a proper inverse controller, the higher order derivatives necessary for implementing the improper inverse can be calculated from available information. The backward-difference method is proposed as an alternative to discretize an improper continuous time model for use as a feedforward controller in RTHS. This method is flexible in that derivatives of any order can be explicitly calculated such that controllers can be developed for models of any order. Using model-based feedforward control with the backward-difference method, accurate actuator control and stable RTHS are demonstrated using a nine-story steel building model implemented with an MR damper.

### A Study on the Electromagnetic wave properties of microstrip antenna using finite difference time domain method (FDTD법을 이용한 마이크로스트립 안테나의 전자파 특성에 관한 연구)

• 홍용인;정명덕;홍성일;이흥기
• Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering
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• v.2 no.4
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• pp.653-660
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• 1998
• The purpose of this paper is to analyze the electromagnetic field characteristics of microstrip array antenna with the FDTD(finite difference-time domain method). Finite difference equations of Maxwell's equations are defined in rectangular coordinate systems. To simulate the unbounded problem like a free space, the Mur's absorbing boundary condition is also used. After modeling the microstrip array antenna with the grid structure, the transient response of the field distribution is depicted in the time domain.