• Title, Summary, Keyword: time-activity pattern

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A Study on the Space Systems on the basis of Time-based Activity Pattern - Focusing on Spatialization Cases by Diagrams in Contemporary Architecture - (시간대별 행동패턴에 따른 공간시스템에 관한 연구 - 현대건축에 나타난 다이어그램을 통한 공간구축 사례를 중심으로 -)

  • Kang, Eun-Joo;Kim, Jong-Jin
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Interior Design Conference
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    • pp.143-146
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    • 2005
  • Human activity pattern has been changed as the contemporary urban society changes. Diverse activities repeat regular patterns as time passes. Diagram is a simple drawing which aims to organize and unify various information. The elements of the social behaviour could be spatialized by means of diagram applications. By using diagrams, architects understand contemporary urban society and form new space conditions. Time-based activity patterns consists of activity pattern in a restricted space and in urban structure for space use. Activity patterns for different time zones are explained by two types of diagrams, space occupation and flexibility of space, By the characteristic of space system structred by these diagrams, activities and programs are rearranged and variety of space is allowed through flexibility. Also, programs are mixed to apply to simultaneous occurrence of ever-changing human activities.

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Rest-Activity Rhythm and Sleep pattern in the Elderly (노인의 휴식.활동 일주기 생체리듬과 수면양상)

  • Kim, Myung-Ye;Lee, Eun-Ju
    • Journal of Korean Biological Nursing Science
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.211-219
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    • 2011
  • Purpose: The study compared the rest-activity rhythm and sleep pattern of elderly with young group. Methods: The subjects were 22 over than 65 years old and 23 under 65 years old. An actigraph, sleep diary, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Insomnia Severity Index scale were used as measurement tools for this study. The data were analyzed with $x^2$, Lamda test, t-test and correlation with SPSS 15.0 program. Results: The elderly had lower curve than the young group in rest-activity rhythm on each time zone. In particular, the elderly group had lower rest-activity rhythm curve of 8, 9, 14, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22 and 23 time zone than those of young group. Sleep pattern had statistical difference in the total sleep time, PSQI and insomnia. Total sleep time of elderly had lower score and PSQI and Insomnia had higher score than young group. Age had correlation with rest-activity rhythm, sleep efficiency, PSQI and insomnia. Conclusion: Rest-activity rhythm of the elderly showed an increase in activity in the early morning because of earlier get up than the young group and an decrease in activity in the afternoon because of taking a nap at this time. Elderly sleep was that total sleep time increased but sleep efficiency decreased and insomnia intensified. This sleep pattern was related to age and rest-activity rhythm.

Assessment of Time Activity Pattern for Workers (직장인의 시간활동 양상 평가)

  • Lee, Hyun-Soo;Shuai, Jianfei;Woo, Byung-Lyul;Hwang, Moon-Young;Park, Choong-Hee;Yu, Seung-Do;Yang, Won-Ho
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.102-110
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    • 2010
  • Personal exposure relies on characteristics of time activity patterns of the population of concern as human activities impact the timing, location, and level of personal exposure. The information about time spent in microenvironments plays a critical role for personal exposure to air pollutants. It is useful to determine the precise times of the day that the subjects are in certain locations or engaging in specific activities because exposure to some air pollutants can depend on temporal trends. This study investigated time activity pattern for workers of Korean population over 19 years old with 8,778 workers in weekday. The residential indoor times were 12 hours. Time activity was different by gender and the mean times stayed at home in weekday were 12.9 hours in female and 11.42 hours in male, respectively. The major factors on residential indoor time and workplace time were age, monthly income, occupation and industry type, work position, education, and gender. Considering shorter than those in other countries, Korean workers spent less time at home after the working hours. Determinants of time activity pattern need to be taken into account in exposure assessment, epidemiological analyses, exposure simulations, as well as in the development of preventive strategies. Since there are substantial difference of Korean worker activity pattern, this information can be critical for exposure assessment in Korea.

Physical Activity and Sleep Patterns in Elderly Who Visited a Community Senior Center (복지관 이용노인의 신체활동과 수면)

  • Park, Yeon-Hwan
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.5-13
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    • 2007
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between physical activity and sleep patterns of the elderly. Methods: The subjects of this study were 154 elderly who visited a community senior center in Korea. Data was collected by an interview and a self reported questionnaire, during the period from June to October, 2006. Physical activity was measured by IPAQ Korean version(2006), and sleep pattern by Korean Sleep Scale A developed by Oh et al.(1998). Results: The prevalence of chronic illness in the subjects was 73.4 %. The mean time of vigorous activity was $6.62{\pm}31.27$ minutes/day during the past week. Moderate activity time was $28.85{\pm}50.31$ minutes/day and walking time was $28.85{\pm}50.3$ minutes/day. The total sleep time was $397.63{\pm}111.53$ minutes/day. Physical activity of the elderly significantly correlated with sex, chronic illness, job, and sleep patterns of the elderly. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that the most powerful predictor of sleep pattern was the satisfaction of sleep. A combination of the number of chronic illnesses, moderate physical activities(MET), and total time of sleep accounted for 44.4% of the sleep pattern. Conclusions: Moderate physical activity is more effective than vigorous physical activity for improving the sleep quality of the elderly.

A study on the Sleep/Activity pattern of normal neonate in Kangwon area (강원도 지역 신생아 수면/활동 양상에 관한 연구)

  • Kwon, Mi-Kyung;Lee, Kyung-Min;Choi, Seon-Jeong;Choi, Sang-Soon
    • Korean Parent-Child Health Journal
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.18-24
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    • 2000
  • The purpose of this research is to investigate Sleep/Activity pattern of normal neonate in Kangwon area. The subjects of this research were 23 normal neonate who visited pediatric clinic of kangneung general hospital from Jun 15, 1999 to August 10, 2000. The instrument of this research was the NCASA. The results of this research were as follows: 1. The mean time of daytime sleep was 8.21 hours. The mean time of nighttime sleep was 5.70 hours. The mean time of total daily sleep was 13.92 hours. The mean time of longest sleep period was 5.02 hours. The mean time of regularity of sleep were daytime 46.59%, nighttime 74.43%, total daily sleep 55.88%. The mean frequency of nighttime wakening was 2.03 times. 2. The each mean time of activity were daytime 7.72 hours, nighttime 2.28 hours, daily total activity 9.99 hours. The mean time of the longest activity period was 6.16 hours. The mean times of feeding frequency were daytime feeding 4.53, nighttime feeding 1.92, total daily feeding 6.45. The mean of regularity of feeding frequency was 65.71%.

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Comparison of Muscle Activity in the Contralateral Lower Extremity from the PNF Arm Pattern and Leg Pattern (PNF 팔·다리 패턴에 따른 반대측 다리의 근활성도 비교)

  • Kim, Hee-Gwon
    • PNF and Movement
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.177-183
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: This study compared and analyzed the effect of the proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) arm extension pattern and leg flexion pattern on the contralateral lower extremity muscles when the patterns were applied to the same subject. Methods: In the study, 35 healthy men and women who understood the PNF patterns were selected as participants. The participants completed the PNF arm extension-abduction-internal rotation pattern and leg flexion-adduction-external rotation with knee flexion pattern in the supine position. While the patients' completed each pattern, the contralateral leg muscle activity was measured to examine the irradiation effect. The maximum isometric contraction time of the muscles to be measured was kept for 5 seconds, and the mean value was obtained by repeating the pattern three times. Results: When the leg flexion-adduction-external rotation with knee flexion pattern was completed, the muscle activity in the vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, biceps femoris, tibialis anterior, and gastrocnemius of the contralateral lower extremity was significantly greater than that found in the PNF arm extension-abduction-internal rotation pattern. Conclusion: The PNF leg flexion pattern showed greater muscle activity on the contralateral lower extremity than the arm extension pattern. Thus, the PNF leg extension pattern is more effective in the activation of the muscles associated with weight-bearing activity.

Determination of Similar Exposure Groups Using Weekday Time Activity Patterns of Urban Populations (평일 시간활동패턴을 활용한 도시 인구의 유사노출집단 분류)

  • Hwang, Yunhyung;Lee, Kiyoung;Yoon, Chung-Sik;Yang, Wonho;Yu, Seungdo;Kim, Guenbae
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.42 no.6
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    • pp.353-364
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    • 2016
  • Objectives: Determining the time activity patterns of urban populations is critical when performing an exposure assessment. The purposes of this study were to classify urban populations in Korea by their time activity patterns and to identify factors that influence these patterns. Methods: The time activity patterns of 31,634 and 20,263 individuals were obtained from two national databases collected in 2004 and 2009, respectively. The two largest metropolitan cities in Korea, Seoul and Busan, were selected for this analysis. For each city, multivariate linear regressions were performed to determine factors affecting the time spent in a residence and in transit. We also used cluster analysis to classify each urban population by activity pattern. Results: Nine distinctive activity patterns were identified in the Seoul and Busan populations, respectively, and the resulting classified population groups had specific characteristics. The identified patterns were similar for Seoul and Busan. The most significant factors affecting time spent in a residence were employment status, age, marriage status, education, and gender. Gender, education, employment status, and monthly income were significant factors affecting time spent in transit. Conclusion: These results indicate that, in addition to region, exposure scientists in Korea should consider classifying populations based on age, gender, and occupation.

A Study on Farm Women's Stress in Productive Activity (농초여성의 생산활동 스트레스에 관한연구)

  • 양순미
    • Journal of Korean Home Management Association
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.127-138
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    • 1996
  • The purpose of this study is to show farm women's stress under productive activity role multiple overload through family characteristic (pattern and number) and characteristic(type working time and involvement proportion) of productive activity. The outline of the study is as follow; 1. Stress by pattern and number of a family is highest in a four generation family and increases according as the number of the family increases. 2. The characteristic of productive activity : 1) Stress based on type of productive activity is highest in Type III of the most multiple overload roles. 2) in light of stress based working time area of household task activity is in inverse proportion to working time but area of farming and wage earning activity are approximately in direct proportion to it. The two-way ANOVA analysis show that stress in Type I of area of household task increases but in Type IV it decreases as working time increases 3) In stress based on involvement proportion to it. The wo-way ANOVA analysis show that stress in Type I of area of household task increases but in Type IV it decreases as working time increases. 3) In stress based on involvement proportion in three as working time increases 3). In stress based on involvement proportion in three activity areas the more the involvement proportion the less of the stress : an inverse ratio.

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Estimation of Personal Exposure to Air Pollutants for Workers Using Time Activity Pattern and Air Concentration of Microenvironments (시간활동 양상과 국소환경 농도를 이용한 근로자의 유해 공기오염물질 노출 예측)

  • Lee, Hyunsoo;Lee, Seokyong;Lee, Byoungjun;Heo, Jung;Kim, Sunshin;Yang, Wonho
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.436-445
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    • 2014
  • Objectives: Time-activity studies have become an integral part of comprehensive exposure assessment and personal exposure modeling. The aims of this study were to estimate exposure levels to nitrogen dioxide($NO_2$) and volatile organic compounds(VOCs), and to compare estimated exposures by using time-activity patterns and indoor air concentrations. Methods: The major microenvironments for office workers were selected using the Time-Use Survey conducted by the National Statistical Office in Korea in 2009. A total of 9,194 and 6,130 workers were recruited for weekdays and weekends, respectively, from the Time-Use Survey. It appears that workers were spending about 50% of their time in the house and about 30% of their time in other indoor areas during the weekdays. In addition, we analyzed the time-activity patterns of 20 office workers and indoor air concentrations in Daegu using a questionnaire and time-activity diary. Estimated exposures were compared with measured concentrations using the time-weighted average analysis of air pollutants. Conclusions: According to the time-activity pattern for the office workers, time spent in the residence indoors during the summer and winter have been shown as $11.12{\pm}2.20$ hours and $12.48{\pm}1.77$ hours, respectively, which indicates higher hours in the winter. Time spent in the office in the summer has been shown to be 1.5 hours higher than in the winter. The target pollutants demonstrate a positive correlation ($R^2=0.076{\sim}0.553$)in the personal exposure results derived from direct measurement and estimated personal exposure concentrations by applying the time activity pattern, as well as measured concentration of the partial environment to the TWA model. However, these correlations were not statistically significant. This may be explained by the difference being caused by other indoor environments, such as a bar, cafe, or diner.

Comparison of Pattern and Cause of Activity Injury in Military Service (군부대에서 신체활동시 병사의 상해 유형과 원인 비교 분석)

  • Cho, Byung-Jun;Kim, Hak-Soo
    • The Korean Journal of Emergency Medical Services
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.137-146
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    • 2005
  • This research focused on studying the phenomena of activity injuries occurred in military service, the object of which is soldiering soldiers in army. I made a inquiry paper including 6 items such as injury frequency, athletic event when you are injured, injury pattern, injury part in body and injury time according to military classes, and distributed it to elected 421 soldiers, the number of which is the total number of injured soldiers having time for physical activities in a year(last 2002 year). The results were as follows ; First, Injury frequency was according to private middle classes, private second classes, private last classes, private first classes. Second, Athletic event when you are injured was according to soccer, basketball, running and Martial Art(Taekwondo). 1) An abrasion was the most injury pattern when playing soccer. 2) A sprain was the most injury pattern when playing basketball. Third, Most causes of injuries dued to his / her carelessness, which is his / her excessive greed to win. Fourth, The most injury pattern was a skin abrasion. Fifth, The most injury part in body was a leg. Sixth, There was the most injury in summer. Wednesday on week, especially afternoon when you have time for physical to improve your battle-power.

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