• Title, Summary, Keyword: tolerable daily intake

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Estimation of manganese daily intake among adults in Korea

  • Kim, Eun-Young;Bae, Yun-Jung;Kim, Su-Jin;Choi, Mi-Kyeong
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.22-25
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    • 2008
  • The purpose of this study was to estimate daily intake of manganese in Korean adults. Manganese intake was estimated through the use of the database of manganese content in frequently consumed Korean foods after first conducting anthropometric measurement and a survey on dietary intake with 354 Korean adults. Average age, height, weight and body mass index were 54.6 years, 165.7 cm, 67.2 kg and $24.5\;kg/m^2$ in males and 53.8 years, 153.7 cm, 59.1 kg and $24.9\;kg/m^2$ in females. The daily energy intakes of subjects were 1740.1 kcal in males and 1432.6 kcal in females. Male and female subjects recorded, respectively, 5.2 mg and 4.1 mg in manganese intake indicating that the male subjects consume more manganese (p<0.001). And they posted, respectively, 3.0 mg and 2.9 mg in manganese intake per 1000 kcal of energy consumption; it turned out that there was no significant difference. Daily manganese intake of both males and females posted, respectively, 148.8% and 135.2% of the adequate intake, and 8 males and 3 females surpassed the tolerable upper intake level. It is suggested that the study for accurate determination of manganese consumption needs to be more diversified based on the database of manganese content in Korean foods.

The estimated daily manganese intake of Korean children aged 11-12

  • Bae, Yun-Jung;Choi, Mi-Kyeong
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.5 no.6
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    • pp.548-552
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    • 2011
  • The purpose of this study was to estimate the daily manganese (Mn) intake of Korean children. This study was done using a three-day dietary intake survey of 257 Korean children (boys 123; girls 134). The Mn intake values were calculated based on a database that provides the Mn content of the frequently consumed Korean foods, alongside the food composition table provided by the Korean National Rural Living Science Institute. The average age, height, weight and body mass index of our subjects were 11.9 years, 155.4 cm, 48.9 kg and 20.2 kg/$m^2$ in boys and 11.9 years, 154.1 cm, 43.5 kg and 18.3 kg/$m^2$ in girls. The average daily energy intakes were 2,249.2 kcal in boys and 2,044.5 kcal in girls. Boys consumed significantly more Mn than girls, based on intake estimates of $4,585.3{\mu}g$ (117.6% of adequate intake) and $4,029.3{\mu}g$ (117.1% of adequate intake), respectively (P < 0.001). Boys had a Mn intake of $2,041.1{\mu}g$ per 1,000 kcal of energy consumption, whereas for girls this was at $1,983.9{\mu}g$ per 1,000 kcal. Neither group exceeded the tolerable upper intake level for Mn. The major food groups which contributed to Mn intake in our subjects were cereals (50.8%), vegetables (21.0%), seasonings (8.9%), and pulses (7.7%). Notably, boys derived a higher Mn intake through cereals and vegetable than did girls (P < 0.001, P < 0.05). The key food sources of Mn, in descending order, were rice, soybean curd, kimchi, black rice and cereals. We propose that the results of our study may be used as a basis for follow-up studies that examine the Mn intake of children.

Iodine Intake and Tolerable Upper Intake Level of Iodine for Koreans (한국인의 요오드 섭취와 요오드 상한섭취량)

  • Lee, Hyun-Sook;Min, Hye-Sun
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.82-91
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    • 2011
  • The present study reviewed the effects of excess iodine intake on thyroid function and the incidence of thyroid disease and discussed the scientific basis for establishing a tolerable upper intake level (UL) of iodine for Koreans. ULs are defined as "the highest level of daily nutrient intake that is likely to pose no risk of adverse effects to almost all individuals in the general population." Koreans consume excess iodine from seaweed, and iodine intake is strongly influenced by seaweed consumption. However, no dose-response data derived from subjects consuming excess iodine frequently but not continuously during a lifetime are available. Therefore, the Korean DRI committee set the iodine UL to reduce the risk of adverse health effects by excess iodine intake for Koreans with distinctive seaweed-eating habits.

Distribution and Potential Human Risk Assessment of Trace Metals in Benthic Fish Collected from the Offshore of Busan, Korea (부산 연근해 저서어류 체내의 미량금속 분포 특성과 잠재적 인체 위해성 평가)

  • Choi, Jin Young;Kim, Kyoungrean
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.37 no.6
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    • pp.349-356
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    • 2015
  • Trace metals concentrations in the tissue of edible marine fish (4 species), olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), Korean rockfish (Sebastes schlegelii), file fish (Stephanolepis cirrhifer) and abbysal searobin (Lepidotrigla abyssalis), collected near the Yongho wharf in Busan were determined to assess the potential human health risk (HRA) of trace metals by fish consumption. Levels of Li, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb in the fish tissue were $0.005{\pm}0.009$, $0.77{\pm}0.30$, $0.29{\pm}0.34$, $0.49{\pm}0.14$, $15.96{\pm}2.52$, $10.62{\pm}4.67$, $0.001{\pm}0.002$, and $0.045{\pm}0.06mg/kgdw$ respectively. The estimated daily intakes of Cu and Zn and the estimated weekly intakes of As, Cd, and Pb from the fish collected near the Yongho wharf were 0.0032, 0.054-0.18% of PMTDI (provisional maximum tolerable daily intake) and 13, 0.0041, 0.020% of PTWI (provisional tolerable weekly intake) which were set to evaluate the food safeties by the JFCFA (The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives). Lifetime cancer risk and target hazard for local residents due to those fish consumption were found to be negligible.

Simultaneous Analysis of Mycotoxins and Risk Assessment in Seeds using LC-MS/MS (LC-MS/MS를 이용한 종자류 생약의 곰팡이독소 동시분석 및 위해도 평가)

  • Choi, Eun Jung;Park, Young Ae;Choi, Su Jeong;Jung, Sam Ju;Park, Youn Sun;Hwang, In Sook;Yu, In Sil;Shin, Gi Young
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.51 no.4
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    • pp.270-277
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    • 2020
  • This study analyzed mycotoxins, aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, G2, fumonisin B1, B2, ochratoxin A and zearalenone, using LC-MS/MS and conducted risk assessment on 54 samples of seeds distributed in SeoulYangnyeongsi and the management status of extramural herbal dispensary facility. The matched calibration showed a good linearity as observed in 6 concentration levels(r2>0.999) as a result of method validation applied with Arecae semen. Limits of detection(LOD) and quantification(LOQ) were in the range of 0.02-0.11 ㎍/kg and 0.08-0.34 ㎍/kg, respectively. Recoveries also estimated, ranging from 65.1-99.7% with relative standard deviation(RSD) 0.5-6.3%. As a result of the method on 54 samples, mycotoxins were detected in 16 samples. Among them, two Thujae semen showed a degree of concentration that exceeded the aflatoxin specification. In the risk assessment, the human exposure safety standard values were calculated as ADI(Acceptable Daily Intake) for aflatoxin B1, fumonisin and zearalenone. Ochratoxin A was calculated as PTWI(Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake). The MOE(Margine of Exposure) of aflatoxin B1 was in the range of 40.36-3536.88. And no items exceeded 100% in %TDI(Tolerable Daily Intake) and %TWI(Tolerable Weekly Intake) of fumonisin, zearalenone and ochratoxin A.

Estimation of Daily Exposure to 3-Monochloropropane-1,2-diol from Commercial Soy Sauces in Korea

  • Kim, Hyun-Jung;Ha, Jae-Ho;Chun, Hyang-Sook;Cho, Eun-Jung
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.768-772
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    • 2006
  • To assess the dietary exposure to 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) from soy sauces, the levels of 3-MCPD in commercial soy sauces were analyzed with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Sixty nine out of the 72 soy sauces tested contained a level of 3-MCPD below $0.3\;{\mu}g/g$, the maximum limit in Korea. The average concentration of the 72 samples was $0.080\;{\mu}g/g$ and the highest concentration was $3.131\;{\mu}g/g$. On the basis of the consumption data, 3-MCPD concentration and body weight, the estimated daily exposures to 3-MCPD were ranged from 0.037 to $0.146\;{\mu}g/kg$ body weight (bw)/day for 95th percentile exposed population groups. Our estimated daily exposures are significantly lower than the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI) of $2\;{\mu}g/kg$ bw/day, which was established by the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA).

Comparison of Estimated Daily Dietary Intake of Dioxins in Coastal, Rural, and Urban District (어촌, 농촌, 도시 지역별 주민의 식품을 통한 다이옥신의 섭취량 추정)

  • Park, Jung-Duck;Huang, Ming-Ai;Im, Ruth;Choi, Byung-Sun;Yang, Jae-Ho;Bae, Yun-Jung;Jun, Ye-Sook;Choi, Mi-Kyeong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.325-332
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    • 2008
  • The human population is mainly exposed to dioxins through the diet. The purpose of this study was to estimate the daily dietary intake of PCDDs and PCDFs in Korean adults residing in different regions. Subjects were recruited and divided into three groups according to the districts where they lived: rural (n=213), coastal (n=193), and urban district (n=187). Subjects were interviewed using a general questionnaire and 24-hour recall for dietary intake. The daily intake of dioxins was estimated through the use of the database of dioxins contents in 35 Korean foods. The average age of the subjects were 61.5 years for coastal district, 57.6 years for rural district, and 49.4 years for urban district. Daily energy intake was 1707.7 kcal for rural district, 1596.5 kcal for urban district, and 1493.8 kcal for coastal district. There was no significant difference in total food intake by regions. The intakes from fishes of coastal district, those from cereals, vegetables, meats, and seasonings of rural district, and those from sugars, pulses, eggs, seaweeds, milks, oils of urban area were higher than those of the other two districts. The daily dioxins intake of coastal district (0.70 pgTEQ/kg/day) was significantly higher than those of rural district (0.32 pgTEQ/kg/day) and urban district (0.46 pgTEQ/kg/day). The dioxins intake from cereals, pulses, vegetables, fishes of coastal district and those from eggs and milks of urban area were the highest among the districts. The daily dioxins intake was positively correlated with the intakes of meats, eggs, fishes, oils, and seasonings. Therefore, it could be concluded that the daily dioxins intake of coastal district is higher than that in other districts and the fish is one of the main sources in dioxin intakes. However, daily dioxins intakes of the three regions were below the level of tolerable daily intake (TDI).

Estimated Daily Intake of Aluminum from Platycodon grandiflorum A. De Candolle (도라지(Platycodon grandiflorum A. De Candolle) 섭취에 따른 알루미늄의 노출량 평가)

  • Kim, Sung-Dan;Ham, Hee-Jin;Jung, Ji-Hun;Lee, Eun-Soon;Lee, Hyun-Kyung;Kim, Hee-Sun;Lee, Jib-Ho;Yu, In-Sil;Jung, Kweon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.45 no.8
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    • pp.1138-1146
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    • 2016
  • This study was performed to estimate daily intakes of aluminum from Platycodon grandiflorum A. De Candolle and evaluate their potential health risks for Koreans. Estimated daily intake of aluminum was calculated, whereas the actual level of aluminum in Platycodon grandiflorum A. De Candolle was analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Food consumption amount was drawn from Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES VI-1). In analysed samples, aluminum values ranged from 0.54~564.38 mg/kg in peeled Platycodon grandiflorum A. De Candolle samples (n=53) and from 0.72~28.05 mg/kg in unpeeled ones (n=40). Statistically significant difference (P<0.001) was detected according to the type of skin. To estimate the dietary intake of Platycodon grandiflorum A. De Candolle, a total of 7,242 respondents (scenario I) were compared to 227 Platycodon grandiflorum A. De Candolle consumption subjects (scenario II). Estimated daily intake of aluminum was calculated based on point estimates. Level of safety for aluminum was evaluated by comparison with Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI), 1 mg/kg bw, set by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. For scenario I, mean estimated daily intake of aluminum was 0.001 mg/kg bw/d. For scenario II, mean estimated daily intake of aluminum was 0.033 mg/kg bw/d, and 95th percentile estimated daily intake was 0.610 mg/kg bw/d. For scenario II, aluminum from Platycodon grandiflorum A. De Candolle had a mean weekly intake that was the 23.1% of PTWI.

Ready-to-eat Cereal Consumption Enhances Milk and Calcium Intake in Korean Population from 2001 Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey (한국인의 시리얼 섭취실태와 우유 및 칼슘섭취와의 관련성 연구 - 2001년도 국민건강영양조사 자료를 이용하여 -)

  • Chung, Chin-Eun
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.39 no.8
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    • pp.786-794
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    • 2006
  • The purpose of this study was to establish an association between the consumption of ready-to-eat cereal (RTEC), milk, and calcium within the context of the most current population dietary practice in Korea. Inadequate calcium intake among Korean children and adults is one of the important public health concern. Milk is one of the best calcium sources because or its bioavailability, and RTEC is one or the foods commonly consumed with milk. The most recent Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey, 2001 dataset was used as the source of data for this research. Subjects excluding pregnant women, were categorized according to gender and age ($1{\sim}5,\;6{\sim}11,\;12{\sim}19,\;20{\sim}49,\;50+$ years) and then by consumption of RTEC and milk. SAS and SUDAAN were used for statistical analyses. Sample weighted means, standard errors, and population percentages were calculated, and multiple regression model with adjustment for covariates were used to determine the predictability of total daily calcium intake from inclusion of RTEC and milk compared to the meal without RTEC and milk. RTEC was consumed by 2.4% or Korean people. Average calcium intake was 17 times greater when RTEC was consumed with milk than when RTEC was consumed without milk. Respondents who consumed RTEC with milk had significantly higher mean daily calcium and other nutrient intakes than respondents who consumed neither. in the multiple regression analysis, milk consumption with or without RTEC predicted total daily calcium intake after adjusting for age, income, and alcohol consumption (p<0.0001). The percentage of respondents below the estimated average requirement (EAR) level for calcium was lower for RTEC consumers than for RTEC non-consumers in all age-gender groups, especially significant differences were in children aged $1{\sim}5$, boys and girls aged $12{\sim}19$, men aged $20{\sim}49$, and women older than 50 years of age. RTEC consumption was not associated with intake in excess of the tolerable upper intake level (UL) for calcium. In conclusion, RTEC consumption was positively associated with both milk and calcium intakes in all age and gender groups in Korean population.

Risk Assessment of Dioxin in Japan

  • Kurokawa, Yuji
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.17
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    • pp.25-35
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    • 2001
  • In 1990, Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) of 10 pg TCDD/kg/day for dioxins based on carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicity was determined by WHO/EURO, that resulted in the establishment of TDIs in other countries. In Japan, Ministry of Health and Welfare and Environment Agency, respectively established the TDI of 10 pg TCDD/kg/day and Health Risk Assessment Index of 5 pg TCDD/kg/day in 1996. Accumulation of new scientific data, especially by molecular toxicology since 1990, resulted in the reevaluation of TDI by WHO-ECEH and IPCS in May, 1998. At this meeting, it was stressed that \circled1 toxic effects of dioxin is mediated through Ah-receptor in both animals and humans, \circled2 use of ebody burdeni concept is better than the use of traditional NOAEL/UF approach, \circled3 inclusion of coplanar PCBs in the TDI by the use of new WHO-TEF. LOAELs (0.16~200 ng TCDD/kg/day) obtained from reproductive toxicity and immunotoxicity in rats, and neurobehavioral toxicity and induction of endometriosis in rhesus monkeys are calculated to be the body burden of 10~50 ng TCDD/kg that is 14~37 pg TEQ/kg/day as human daily intake. Finally TDI of 1~4 pg TEQ/kg/day was established by applying the UF of 10. In Japan, reproductive toxicity and immunotoxicity in rats were used to obtain LOAELs (100~200 ng TCDD/kg/day). Finally TDI of 4 pg TEQ/kg/day was established in June 1999 by applying the UF of 10 to human daily intake of 43.6 pg TEQ/kg/day which corresponds to the body burden of 86 ng TCDD/kg.

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