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Quality Characteristics of Crackers with Tomato Concentrate (토마토 농축액을 이용한 크래커의 품질 특성)

  • Kim, Ki-Ppum;Kim, Kyoung-Hee;Kim, Young Shik;Yook, Hong-Sun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.46 no.1
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    • pp.77-82
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    • 2017
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality of crackers added with different concentrations (0%, 3%, 5%, 7%, and 10%) of tomato concentrate. The study results found that pH and baking loss rate of crackers of the control were higher than those of the samples. On the other hand, density and moisture of crackers with 10% tomato concentrate were higher than those of the samples. Hunter L values of crackers decreased as concentration of tomato concentrate increased, whereas a and b values of crackers increased. In the texture analysis, hardness of crackers decreased according to concentration of tomato concentrate. DPPH free radical scavenging activity of crackers increased as concentration of tomato concentrate increased. In the sensory evaluation, taste, color, flavor, texture, and overall acceptability of crackers added with 5% tomato concentrate were higher than those of other samples. Therefore, the results suggest that addition of 5% tomato concentrate is effective for increasing consumer acceptability and functionality of crackers.

Monitoring of Wine Quality by using Environmentally friendly Tomato Concentrate and Commercial Wines (친환경 토마토 농축액을 이용한 토마토 와인과 시중 판매 와인 품질 모니터링)

  • Lee, Seul;Moon, Hey-Kyung;Lee, Su-Won;Moon, Jae-Nam;Kim, Dong-Hwan;Kim, Gwi-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.278-285
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    • 2014
  • This study investigated the quality characteristics of fermented wines using a selected strain to obtain basic data on sugar-free tomato wine production. Alcohol content of the tomato and commercial wine was 8.2~12.9%, whereas tomato wine showed a relatively low alcohol content of 8.2%. For total phenol content, Chile wine showed the highest value of 162.89 mg/100 g, followed by persimmon wine at 122.33 mg/100 g. Tomato wine showed a relatively high total phenol content of 96.57 mg/100 g. In all sections, xylose was not detected, although there were differences in free sugars depending on each product. Acetic and citric acid contents were highest in tomato wine, and the six kinds of commercial wine and tomato wine showed acetic acid content of 800.6 mg/100 g and citric acid content of 1,064.4 mg/100 g. The total free amino acid content was 100.63 mg/100 g in tomato wine, which was 2~3 times higher compared to that in commercial wine ($26.33{\pm}52.15mg/100g$).

Water soluble tomato concentrate regulates platelet function via the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway

  • Jeong, Dahye;Irfan, Muhammad;Saba, Evelyn;Kim, Sung-Dae;Kim, Seung-Hyung;Rhee, Man Hee
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.56 no.2
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    • pp.67-74
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    • 2016
  • Tomato extract has been shown to exert antiplatelet activity in vitro and to change platelet function ex vivo, but with limitations. In this study, antiplatelet activity of water soluble tomato concentrate (Fruitflow I) and dry water soluble tomato concentrate (Fruitflow II) was investigated using rat platelets. Aggregation was induced by collagen and adenosine diphosphate and granule-secretion, $[Ca^{2+}]_i$, thromboxane B2, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) levels were examined. The activation of integrin ${\alpha}_{IIb}{\beta}_3$ and phosphorylation of signaling molecules, including mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and PI3K/Akt, were investigated by flow cytometry and immunoblotting, respectively. Prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) were examined. Moreover, in vivo thrombus weight was tested by an arteriovenous shunt model. Fruitflow I and Fruitflow II significantly inhibited agonist induced platelet aggregation, adenosine triphosphate and serotonin release, $[Ca^{2+}]_i$, and thromboxane B2 concentration, while having no effect on cAMP and cGMP levels. Integrin ${\alpha}_{IIb}{\beta}_3$ activation was also significantly decreased. Moreover, both concentrates reduced phosphorylation of MAPK pathway factors such as ERK, JNK, P38, and PI3K/Akt. In vivo thrombus formation was also inhibited. Taken together, these concentrates have the potential for ethnomedicinal applications to prevent cardiovascular ailments and can be used as functional foods.

Oxidation and Isomerization of Lycopene under Thermal Treatment and Light Irradiation in Food Processing

  • John Shi;Ying Wu;Mike Bryan;Maguer, Le Marc
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.179-183
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    • 2002
  • Lycopene as a natural antioxidant may provide protection against a broad range of epithelial cancers and chronic diseases. Lycopene concentrate extracted from tomatoes can be used as functional food. Lycopene would undergo degradation via isomerization and oxidation under different processing conditions, which impact its bioactivity and reduce the fuuctionality for health benefits. Heat and light induce lycopene oxidation and isomerization of all-trans form to cis form. The effects of thermal treatment and light irradiation on the stability of lycopene were determined. Results have shown that lycopene stability depends on the extent of oxidation and isomerization. Cir-isomers are less stable than trans-isomers. The level of cis-isomers increased as treatment time increased but only for a short period during the beginning of the treatment. The major effect of thermal treatment and light irradiation was a significant decrease in the total lycopene content. A true assessment of health benefits of lycopene concentrate depends on the lycopene content and the composition of all trans-isomers and cia-isomers.

Effect of Microbial Agent on Control of Tomato Gray mold and Powdery mildew (미생물제 처리에 의한 토마토의 잿빛곰팡이병과 흰가루병의 방제효과)

  • Kim, Tack-Soo;Ko, Min-Jung;Lee, Se-Weon;Han, Ji Hee;Park, Kyungseok;Park, Jin-Woo
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.364-368
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    • 2012
  • In vivo experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of microbial agents on tomato disease occurrences in a sustainable tomato farm in Gong-ju, Chung-nam during 2 years (2010-2011). Two kind of commercial microbial agents (EXTN-1 and Cillus suspension concentrate) and 2 kind of microbial agents (Bacillus subtilis strain 'B4' and 'B17') developing by National academy of agricultural science were used in this study. In the 1st experimental year, the microbial agents were sprayed on leaves for 2-4 times at 1-2 weeks interval from 3 weeks after transplanting, and then disease occurrence were observed. As a result, the control efficacies of commercial EXTN-1 and Cillus suspension concentrate (SC) against gray mold were 59.6% and 50.5% in the treatment of 4 times foliar application at 1 week interval from 3 weeks after transplanting, and the control efficacy of commercial EXTN-1 SC against gray mold was 55.4% in the treatment of 3 times foliar application at 1 week interval from 4 weeks after transplanting. However, the control efficacies of EXTN-1 and Cillus SC were not enough for tomato crop protection against powdery mildew. In the 2nd experimental year, the microbial agents were treated following by the planned combination schedule of transplanting stage drip-watering, early stage root irrigation and early blooming stage foliar application. The control efficacies of EXTN-1 SC and B17 treatment following by transplanting stage drip-watering, 2 times root irrigation at 2 weeks interval root irrigation and 4 times foliar application at 1 weeks interval for gray mold management were 57.0 and 55.1%, respectively. In the case of same treatment for gray mold management mentioned at above, the control efficacies of EXTN-1 SC, B4 and B17 treatment for powdery mildew management were 50.5, 51.3 and 52.5%, respectively.

Greenhouse Whitefly and Thrips Management Model Using Natural Enemies in Semi-forcing Culture of Tomato (토마토 반촉성 시설 재배에서 천적중심 온실가루이와 총채벌레 관리모델)

  • Jeong, Tae-Sung;Hwang, Mi-Ran;Hwang, Se-Jung;Lee, Jae-Hong;Lee, An-Soo;Won, Heon-Seop;Hong, Dae-Ki;Cho, Jum-Rae;Ham, Eun Hye
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.56 no.4
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    • pp.403-412
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    • 2017
  • To investigate the control effect of insect pests by natural enemies, sticky traps were used in commercial tomato greenhouses in Chun-cheon and the experiment fields of Gangwon-do Agricultural Research and Extension Services, Republic of Korea using semi-forcing culture (February to June). We selected low toxicity pesticides, environment-friendly agricultural materials (EFAM), and natural enemies of the study species, combinations of which have been previously used in farms to control insect pests. In this study, Trialeurodes vaporariorum and thrips, which are major agricultural insect pests, were studied in experimental greenhouses. The adult T. vaporariorum population was observed in mid-April and the population of thrips showed occurrences in early April. Regarding seasonal fluctuation, T. vaporariorum peaked in mid-May and thrips peaked after June. one insecticide, spiromesifen suspension concentrate (SC); one fungicide, cyazofamid SC; and two EFAMs containing neem tree extract were shown to be slightly toxic to Encarsia formosa and Orius laevigatus. The results of this study could be used to develop management models using natural enemies of control the insect pests; T. vaporariorum and thrips in semi-forcing culture of tomato.

Screening of yeast for alcoholic fermentation of no sugar-added tomato concentrate (토마토 농축액을 이용한 무가당 알코올 발효를 위한 효모의 선발)

  • Kim, Dong-Hwan;Moon, Jae-Nam;Lee, Seul;Lee, Soo-Won;Moon, Hey-Kyung;Kim, Gwi-Young
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.591-598
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of this study was to screen desirable yeast strains for alcoholic fermentation of tomato paste without sugar addition. The moisture, crude protein, crude fat, ash, and soluble nitrogen contents of the tomato paste ($25^{\circ}Brix$) were found to be 67.33%, 1.90%, 0.03%, 0.02%, and 30.72%, respectively. Free sugars found in the paste were fructose and glucose. Most abundant free amino acids of the paste were glutamic, aspartic, and ${\gamma}$-aminobutyric acids. Total seven yeast strains (Saccharomyces cerevisiae KDH (TWA), S. cerevisiae Lalvin ICVD-47 (TWB), S. cerevisiae Lalvin RC-212 (TWC), S. cerevisiae Lalvin K1-V1116 (TWD), S. bayanus Lalvin EC-1118 (TWE), S. cerevisiae Enoferm (TWF), and S. cerevisiae DJ97(KCTC8842P) (TWG)) were tasted for alcohol fermentation of the tomato paste. The highest alcohol content (8.2%) and the lowest residual sugar content ($13.25^{\circ}Brix$) were observed in the tomato paste fermented using the S. cerevisiae Lalvin ICVD-47 strain (TWB) after 3 day and 4 day of fermentation, respectively. Sugar and reducing sugar contents, and pH of the tomato paste were not remarkably affected by the difference in yeast strains used, showing $13.25{\sim}13.45^{\circ}Brix$, 28.37~28.48 mg/mL, and 4.43~4.54, respectively, after 4 day of fermentation. Color and total acid content were significantly affected by the types of yeast strains and fermentation time, but the numerical changes were negligible. These results indicate that TWB would be the suitable strain for alcoholic fermentatiom of tomato paste based on its highest alcohol production and the lowest residual sugar content produced during fermentation.

Production of GABA (gamma amino butyric acid) by Lactic Acid Bacteria

  • Kook, Moo-Chang;Cho, Seok-Cheol
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.377-389
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    • 2013
  • Gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) is a kind of pharmacological and biological component and its application is wide and useful in Korea specially, becoming aging society in the near feature. GABA is request special dose for the purposed biological effect but the production of concentrated GABA is very difficult due to low concentration of glutamic acid existed in the fermentation broth. To increase GABA concentrate using fermentation technology, high content of glutamic acid is required. For this reason, various strains which have the glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and can convert glutamic acid to GABA, were isolated from various fermented foods. Most of GABA producing strains are lactic acid bacteria isolated from kimchi, especially added monosodium glutamate (MSG) as a taste enhancer. Optimizing the formulation of culture media and the culture condition, GABA conversion yield and amounts were increased. Finally GABA concentration of fermentation broth in batch or fed batch fermentation reached 660 mM or 1000 mM, respectively. Furthermore formulation of culture media for GABA production developed commercially. Many studies about GABA-rich product have been continued, so GABA-rich kimchi, cheese, yogurt, black raspberry juice and tomato juices has been also developed. In Korea many biological effects of GABA are evaluated recently and GABA will be expected to be used in multipurpose.

Effects of Dietary Lycopene Supplementation on Plasma Lipid Profile, Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Defense System in Feedlot Bamei Lamb

  • Jiang, Hongqin;Wang, Zhenzhen;Ma, Yong;Qu, Yanghua;Lu, Xiaonan;Luo, Hailing
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.28 no.7
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    • pp.958-965
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    • 2015
  • Lycopene, a red non-provitamin A carotenoid, mainly presenting in tomato and tomato byproducts, has the highest antioxidant activity among carotenoids because of its high number of conjugated double bonds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of lycopene supplementation in the diet on plasma lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense system in feedlot lamb. Twenty-eight Bamei male lambs (90 days old) were divided into four groups and fed a basal diet (LP0, 40:60 roughage: concentrate) or the basal diet supplemented with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg lycopene. After 120 days of feeding, all lambs were slaughtered and sampled. Dietary lycopene supplementation significantly reduced the levels of plasma total cholesterol (p<0.05, linearly), total triglycerides (TG, p<0.05) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, p<0.05), as well as atherogenic index (p<0.001), whereas no change was observed in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p>0.05). The levels of TG (p<0.001) and LDL-C (p<0.001) were decreased with the feeding time extension, and both showed a linear trend (p<0.01). Malondialdehyde level in plasma and liver decreased linearly with the increase of lycopene inclusion levels (p<0.01). Dietary lycopene intake linearly increased the plasma antioxidant vitamin E level (p<0.001), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC, p<0.05), and activities of catalase (CAT, p<0.01), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, p<0.05) and superoxide dismutase (SOD, p<0.05). The plasma T-AOC and activities of GSH-Px and SOD decreased with the extension of the feeding time. In liver, dietary lycopene inclusion showed similar antioxidant effects with respect to activities of CAT (p<0.05, linearly) and SOD (p<0.001, linearly). Therefore, it was concluded that lycopene supplementation improved the antioxidant status of the lamb and optimized the plasma lipid profile, the dosage of 200 mg lycopene/kg feed might be desirable for growing lambs to prevent environment stress and maintain normal physiological metabolism.

Identification of Streptomyces scopuliridis KR-001 and Its Herbicidal Characteristics (Streptomyces scopuliridis KR-001의 분리 동정 및 잡초 방제효과)

  • Lee, Boyoung;Kim, Jae Deok;Kim, Young Sook;Ko, Young Kwan;Yon, Gyu Hwan;Kim, Chang-Jin;Koo, Suk Jin;Choi, Jung Sup
    • Weed & Turfgrass Science
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.38-46
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    • 2013
  • With increasing environmental issues from synthetic chemical herbicides, microbe-originated herbicides could be a fascinating alternative in current agriculture. We isolated Streptomyces strains that produced herbicidal active metabolite(s) against a grass weed Digitaria sanguinalis. According to the result from 16S rDNA sequence comparison with the close strains, the best isolate (Code name MS-80673) was identified as Streptomyces scopuliridis KR-001. The closest type strain was Streptomyces scopuliridis RB72 which was previously reported as a bacteriocin producer. The optimal culture condition of S. scopuliridis KR-001 was $28^{\circ}C$, pH 7.0 and culture period 4 to7 days. Both of soil and foliar application of the crude culture broth concentrate was effective on several troublesome or noxious weed species such as a Sciyos angulatus in a greenhouse and field condition. Phytotoxic symptoms of the culture broth concentrate of S. scopuliridis KR-001 by foliar application were wilting and burndown of leaves, and stems followed by discoloration and finally plant death. In crops such as rice, wheat, barley, hot pepper and tomato, growth inhibition was observed. These results suggest that the new S. scopuliridis KR-001 strain producing herbicidal metabolites may be a new bio-herbicide candidate and/or may provide a new lead molecule for a more efficient herbicide.