• Title/Summary/Keyword: total acidity

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Deacidification of Mandarin Orange Juice by Electrodialysis Combined with Ultrafiltration

  • Kang, Yeung-Joo;Rhee, Khee-Choon
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.411-416
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    • 2002
  • The effects of electrodialysis (ED) alone or ED plus ultrafiltration (UF) on deacidification of mandarin orange juice were studied by using a commercial ED stack with ion exchange membranes. ED processing, reduced the total acidity of the juices by 30% (0.6~0.7% as total acidity) after 50 min and by about 60~70% (0.23~0.4% as total acidity) after 100 min, as compared to the control juice. However, the acidity reduction after 50 min of ED was determined to be suitable, when considering total acidity (0.6~0.7%, w/w) and current efficiency. There was no color change in the juices following ED, and the pH and Brix were only slightly decreased. Furthermore, ascorbic acid and citric acid concentrations showed only minor decreases, and amino-N, free sugar, and flavonoid contents remained almost unchanged. Therefore, we concluded that the nutritional integrity of the juice was maintained. ED combined with UF may be effective, not only in preventing membrane fouling, but also in preserving the nutrients, such as ascorbic acid, in citrus juice.

Effects of Soo Jeom San on the Functions of Heart and Digestive Organs (수점산(手拈散)이 심장(心臟)과 소화기(消化器)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Lee, Key-Sang;Mun, Byeong-Sun;Kim, Sah-Gil
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.148-169
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    • 1990
  • The Present experiment was designed to investigate the effects of Soo Jeom San on the function of heart and digestive organs. And thus it was analyzed the total acidity, recovery effect, and the other various enzyme activities such as ATPase, Creatine kinase, Aspartate transaminase, and Lactate dehydrogenase. The results were obtained as follows : 1. The Total acidity decreased after Soo JeomSan administration for 6 days, however the total acidity inoreased after the drug administration for 9 days, these phenomena demonstrate that Soo Jeom San acts as a dual factor. The mechanism of decreasing the total acidity was considered to the inhibition of ATPase activity used for HCI active transport from parietal cells. 2. Soo Jeom San recovered the islets of Langerhans which was disrupted by streptozotocin. The recovery mechanism was suggested that Soo Jeom San stimulates the ${\beta}-cell$ proliferation. 3. Soo Jeom San inhibited the enzyme activities such as Creatine kinase and Aspartate transaminase, however the drug activated Lactate dehydrogenase. According to the obtained results, Soo Jeom San may be used for curing gastric ulcer and myocardiac infarction.

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Study on the coating weight and corrosion resistance of Zinc phosphate for surface treatment of ammunition (탄약 표면 처리용 아연계 인산염 피막의 중량 및 내식성에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Myung-Hyun;Lee, Seung-Yong;Lee, Hyun-Hee;Lee, Young-Tae
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.18 no.10
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    • pp.603-610
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    • 2017
  • Steel used for various industrial fields including ammunition is vulnerable to corrosion so surface treatments are required such as plating, painting and chemical conversion coating. Zinc phosphate, used for ammunition manufacturing, is used to stick the stable compound on the surface by chemical conversion of metal. The quality of phosphate coating depends on many factors such as total acidity and iron content. In this study, we studied the influence of total acidity and iron content on coating weight and corrosion resistance of phosphate coating. The surface structure of the coating becomes dense and corrosion resistance is improved with increasing iron content. However, total acidity influences only the thickness and phosphate coating weight. In conclusion, this study suggests the optimal range of total acidity and iron content to manufacture the ammunition.

Study on the Development of Short-term Green Gochujang using Chengyang Green Pepper Powder and Meju Powder (청양 고춧가루와 메주가루를 이용한 단기속성 청고추장 개발에 관한 연구)

  • Shin, Kyung-Eun;Choi, Soo-Keun
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.844-852
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    • 2011
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the optimum chemical composition, color value, salinity, pH, total acidity, and texture for the production of short-term Green Gochujang using Cheongyang pepper powder and Meju powder. The results were as follows. The moisture content for Green Gochujang made from Cheongyang pepper powder was 33.50% for CON, and 27.21% for GG1. Crude fat and crude protein contents increased as the amount of added Meju powder increased (p<0.001). GG1 and CON contained 9.47% and 9.05% crude ash contents. Water activity was between 0.89 to 0.90. A higher amount of added Meju powder resulted in an increased color L value (p<0.001). CON showed the highest a value and b value compared to GG4, which had the lowest a and b values. Salinity was between 5.10% to 5.83%, which was lower compared to a former study. CON had a pH of 5.25, and GG4 had a pH of 6.06. Regarding total acidity, CON had a total acidity of 0.85, and GG4 had a total acidity of 0.44. Hardness value was highest in GG1 (1535.63), and lowest in CON (422.07) (p<0.001). GG1 showed the highest value in the adhesiveness property test, whereas CON showed the lowest value. GG1, which contained the highest amount of Cheongyang pepper powder showed the highest gumminess value (698.47). In an acceptance test, CON and GG3 showed the best appearance and scent value. GG3 received the highest interest in taste, texture, and overall quality. Through these results, GG3 made with 150 g of Chengyang Green pepper powder, 200 g of Meju powder, 600 g of starch syrup, 500 g of water, and 75 g of salt showed fine overall sensory interest, and therefore can be used for the production of fine Green Gochujang and Gochujang sauce.

Study on the Resazurin test as a Rapid Method for the Estimation of Maturity of Kimchi (김치숙성도 판정기준을 위한 신속 검사법 Resazurin-test 에 관한 연구)

  • Woo, Soon-Ja;Lee, Hye-June
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.250-256
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    • 1987
  • An attempt was made to establish a simple and rapid method for the evaluation of Kimchi quality. Four kinds of Kimchi included one home made traditional Kimchi were stored at $4^{\circ}C$ and$25^{\circ}C$ and biochemical changes, including pH, total acidity, volatile acidity, volatile basic nitrogen, vitamin C, NaCl, glucose, nitrite and resazurin value were determined and tested for the relationship with sensory evaluation. The change in pH, total acidity and resazurin value were highly correlated with the sensory maturity of Kimchi-Resazurin value was strongly influenced by the sample dilution and fermentation temperatures. It was concluded that resazurin test with sample solution of $2{\sim}4%$ could be used as a rapid method for the estimation of the maturity of Kimchi.

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Physicochemical Characteristics and Antioxidant Activities of Deoduck (Codonopsis lanceolata) with Different Aging Temperatures and Periods

  • Jang, Gwi Yeong;Lee, Youn Ri;Song, Eun Mi;Jeong, Heon Sang
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.258-263
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    • 2018
  • To assess a potential possibility of Deoduck as functional food resources, this study was performed to determine the changes in chemical components and antioxidant activities on Deoduck with various aging conditions; aging temperatures were 60, 70, and $80^{\circ}C$, and aging periods were 5, 10, 15, 30, and 50 days. We determined pH, total acidity, browning index, 5-hydroxymethyl-furfural, total phenolic contents, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities of aged Deoduck. Total acidity of aged samples increased during aging treatment, at higher temperature and longer time. The pH value of aged Deoduck ranged from 4.97 to 3.76. Aged Deoduck at $60^{\circ}C$ decreased slowly than 70 and $80^{\circ}C$, and these results were similar in total acidity. 5-HMF and total phenolic contents increased when increased aging temperature and periods. The DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities of Deoduck were ranged from 0.374 to 1.560 mg TEAC eq/g and from 0.302 to 1.745 mg trolox eq/g, respectively.

Quality Characteristics of Small Package Kimchi according to Packing Material and Storage Temperature (포장재와 저장온도에 따른 소포장 김치의 품질특성)

  • Park, Hye-Young;Ahn, Ji-A;Seo, Hae-Jung;Choi, Hye-Sun
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.63-73
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    • 2011
  • Cabbage (Baechu) Kimchi in its truncated form was placed in four different packing materials, Ny/PE/LLDP, OPP/AL/PE, PP and PET, and quality changes were observed during storage. Changes in pH and total acidity showed an x-shaped cross-curve as pH decreased and total acidity increased during storage. PP tray showed the slowest change at $5^{\circ}C$ with time. The pH was initially 6.25, but decreased to 4.12~4.16 at 20 days, and total acidity showed a 4 to 4.8-fold increase after 20 days of storage compared to the initial value. During storage at $5^{\circ}C$, total bacterial count and lactic acid bacterial count rapidly increased after 4 days. The total bacterial quantity decreased after a period of time and there were differences according to packaging material; OPP/AL/PE packaging showed the most dramatic decrease. Change in microbial count mostly followed a similar pattern to that of total acidity for all packaging materials. Changes in the color of Kimchi liquid, when examined by color index in $L{\cdot}b$/a form, rapidly decreased over time, similar to pH. Small Ny/PE/PP and OPP/AL/PE packages of Kimchi were examined for changes in free volume inside the packaging. After 13 days of storage at $5^{\circ}C$, the volume was 243 mL, but storage at $20^{\circ}C$ resulted in a volume of 372 mL, a more than 1.5-fold increase in free volume. There were changes in the quality characteristics of small package Kimchi according to storage temperature and packaging material, and large changes in pH, total acidity, and microbial count were evident upon storage at $5^{\circ}C$ for 8 days, which was the optimum palatability period. Mostly, PP treatment showed the slowest quality changes upon storage at $5^{\circ}C$. However, due to small package Kimchi's fast consumption system, the appropriate choice of packaging material must consider the product's turnover ratio. Further, the varieties of small package Kimchi should be diversified according to different consumer preferences by offering Kimchi with different maturity levels. Further, since the leading consumer base ranges in age from the teens to thirties, the development of various products targeting such consumers is necessary.

Fermentative Properties of Taurine added Kimchi (타우린을 첨가한 김치의 발효 특성)

  • Kim Mi-Sook;Jeong Yoon-Hwa
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.438-442
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    • 2004
  • This study was conducted to investigate the chemical and microbiological properties of taurine added Kimchi during fermentation at 20℃. A control group was salted with 10% brine solution, and a taurine group was salted with 10% brine solution including 5 % taurine and was divided into two groups depending on added taurine concentration after brining; 0% taurine (Taurine I) and 3 % taurine added (Taurine II). The pH of Kimchi was markedly decreased over time in all groups and there was no significant difference between groups. Total acidity was the highest in Taurine II followed by Taurine I and. control group during five days of fermentation. The number of total microbe and lactic acid bacteria showed increase similarly in all groups.

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Physicochemical Characteristics and Storage Stabilities of Sauces with added Yuza(Citrus Junos) Juice (유자액을 이용한 소스의 이화학적 특성 및 저장성)

  • 유경미;서우영;서한석;김완수;박재복;황인경
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.403-408
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    • 2004
  • The purposes of this study were to investigate the physicochemical characteristics and storage stabilities of various sauces with added Yuza(Citrus Junos). Yuza consisted of three parts: peeled (46.17%), fleshed (43.74%) and seeded (10.09%). Yuza juice revealed 11.33% extraction yield, pH 2.85, 4.18% total acidity, 11 $^{\circ}$Brix, 1.16% transmittance and 2.63 $^{\circ}$Brix/acid ratio. Five kinds of sauces with added Yuza juice were Yuza red pepper paste sauce, Yuza soybean sauce for meat, Shabu shabu Yuza sauce, Korean Yuza vegetable sauce and Japanese Yuza soybean sauce. These sauces showed slight changes in pH, total acidity, total bacterial counts and overall sensory characteristics during storage period (60 days). In conclusion, Yuza juice could be applied to various sauces, which remained usable for 60 days.

Effects of Level of Salted Shrimp on the Characteristics of Kimchi during Storage (새우젓 첨자 수준에 따른 김치의 저장중 특성 변화)

  • 신명희
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.193-200
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    • 1993
  • This study was conducted to examine the effects of the level of salted shrimp on the characteristics of kimchi fermented at 2$0^{\circ}C$ for one day and then stored at 4$^{\circ}C$ for 3 or 6 days. The sensory characteristics, pH, total acidity and salt content of kimchi, prepared to have an equal intensity of salty taste, with three levels of salted shrimp and NaCl, were measured. Instron universal testing machine also was used to examine the firmness of kimchi. As the level of salted shrimp and storage periods increased, intensity of translucency, sour odor, carbonic mouthfeel, toughness and sour taste of kimchi increased while firmness and crispness decreased. There was no significant difference in pH among the kimchies. However, total acidity of kimchi increased as the level of salted shrimp increased and the storage period was extended.

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