• Title, Summary, Keyword: total acidity

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Quality Enhancement of Kimchi by Pre-Treatment with Slightly Acidic Electrolyzed Water and Mild Heating during Storage (미산성 차아염소산수와 미가열 병용 처리를 통한 원료 전처리 및 김치 저장 중 품질 확보)

  • Park, Joong-Hyun;Kim, Ha-Na;Oh, Deog-Hwan
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.269-276
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    • 2016
  • This study was conducted to determine the inactivation effects of slightly acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) on microorganisms attached to salted Chinese cabbage and food materials of kimchi, such as slice radish and green onion. In addition, changes in microbial and physicochemical quality of manufactured kimchi during storage at $4^{\circ}C$ for 4 weeks were investigated. Compared to the untreated control with tap water, total bacterial counts (TBC) of Chinese cabbage, slice radish, and green onion were reduced by 1.75, 1.68, and 1.03 log CFU/g at dipping times of 20 min, 5 min, and 10 min, respectively, upon treatment with 30 ppm SAEW at $40^{\circ}C$. Effect of microbial inhibition was higher in salted Chinese cabbage brined in 10% salt (w/v) of 30 pm SAEW at $40^{\circ}C$ than in untreated control with tap water, as indicated by 1.00 log CFU/g reduction. TBC of kimchi manufactured with materials treated with 30 ppm SAEW at $40^{\circ}C$ was not significantly affected compared to untreated control, although coliforms were remarkably reduced compared to the untreated control. At the beginning of storage (1 weeks), TBC and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) counts increased by approximately 9 and 7.66~8.18 log CFU/g, respectively, and coliforms were completely eliminated. The pH and acidity of kimchi at 2 weeks were 4.34~4.49 and 0.55~0.66%, respectively, and then slowly decreased. The texture (firmness) of kimchi decreased with storage time, but the difference was not significant. This combined treatment might be considered as a potentially beneficial sanitizing method for improving the quality and safety of kimchi.

Quality Characteristics and Evaluation of Physiological Activities of Moju Made with Hovenia dulcis Thunb. (헛개나무를 이용한 모주의 품질 특성 및 생리활성(in vivo) 효능 검증)

  • Park, Yeon-Hee;Yu, Ok-Kyeong;Bae, Cho-Rong;Cha, Youn-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.44 no.11
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    • pp.1599-1606
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    • 2015
  • The purpose of this study was to assess the quality characteristics of Moju made with Hovenia dulcis Thunb. and its physiological effects on ICR mice. According to the sensory score, we selected Moju made with 1% Hovenia dulcis Thunb. among Moju made with 0, 0.5, 1, 5, and 10% Hovenia dulcis Thunb. Compared to Moju made without Hovenia dulcis Thunb., Moju made with 1% Hovenia dulcis Thunb. had higher proportions of moisture (86.77 g/100 g) and carbohydrates (11.86 g/100 g). The mean values of the physicochemical analyses were as follows: pH 4.91, acidity 0.28, $^{\circ}Brix$ 12.63, reducing sugar 68.97, alcohol content 0.1, alcohol density 0.998. Moju made with 1% Hovenia dulcis Thunb. did not have effects on DPPH radical scavenging activity; however, superoxide dismutase activity was significantly higher than that of Moju made without Hovenia dulcis Thunb. For assessing physiological activities, 4-week-old male ICR mice were divided into six groups (n=10): normal control group (NC), ethanol-administered group (EC), EC plus low-dose Moju made with 0% Hovenia dulcis Thunb. (MCL), EC plus high-dose Moju made with 0% Hovenia dulcis Thunb. (MCH), EC plus low-dose Moju made with 1% Hovenia dulcis Thunb. (MDL), and EC plus high-dose Moju made with 1% Hovenia dulcis Thunb. (MDH). Serum triglyceride (TG) level was reduced by 11.17% and 19.61% in the MDL and MDH groups, respectively, compared to the EC group. Serum total-cholesterol levels of MDL and MDH groups were significantly lower as compared to the EC group. Serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels of the MDL and MDH groups were significantly higher than those of the EC group. Liver TG levels were significantly reduced in the MCL and MDL groups. From these results, Moju made with Hovenia dulcis Thunb. demonstrated antioxidant activity and reduction of hyperlipidemia markers. Therefore, Moju made with Hovenia dulcis Thunb. can serve as a non-alcoholic beverage and functional food source.

Optimization of Encapsulation Conditions for Fermented Red Ginseng Extracts by Using Cyclodextrin (Cyclodextrin을 이용한 발효홍삼농축액 최적 포접 조건)

  • Shin, Myung-Gon;Lee, Gyu-Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.44 no.11
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    • pp.1708-1714
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    • 2015
  • Fermented red ginseng concentrate is known as a healthy food source, whereas it has off-flavor such as bitterness and sour flavor based on fermentation. ${\beta}$- and ${\gamma}$-cyclodextrin (CD) were used to encapsulate the off-flavor of fermented red ginseng concentrate by using response surface methodology design on ${\beta}$- and ${\gamma}-CD$ combination. The reducing effects were analyzed by sensory evaluation for bitter and sour tastes, ginsenoside Rb1, and total acidity. The optimized mixing ratio of ${\beta}$- and ${\gamma}-CD$ for reducing bitterness was the least expected value of 2.07 at ${\beta}-CD$ 3.74% versus the soluble solid content of fermented red ginseng concentrate and the ${\gamma}-CD$ 20.63% mixture. The encapsulation effects of ginsenoside Rb1 were the most expected value of 96.75% at ${\beta}-CD$ 3.47% and ${\gamma}-CD$ 19.89% mixture. The encapsulation effects of sour taste were the least expected value of 5.63 at ${\beta}-CD$ 9.34% and ${\gamma}-CD$ 9.96% mixture. The encapsulation effects of lactic acid were the most expected value of 67.73% at ${\beta}-CD$ 16.0% and ${\gamma}-CD$ 13.18% mixture. Based on encapsulation and each optimized combination, the most effective entrapping ${\beta}$-and ${\gamma}-CD$ combination ratio was ${\beta}-CD$ 10% and ${\gamma}-CD$ 13%.

Formation of biogenic amines and bioactivities of Makgeolli under different fermentation conditions (발효조건에 따른 막걸리의 Biogenic Amines(BAs)의 생성과 생리활성)

  • Kang, Seung Mi;Kim, Seon Jeong;Ko, Keon Hee;Nam, Sanghae
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.402-412
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    • 2016
  • Generation of biogenic amines (BAs) and physiological activities of Makgeolli, Korean rice wine, were investigated during fermentation under different temperatures (20, 25, and $30^{\circ}C$) and time (3, 5, and 7 days). The pH was 3.96~4.36 during fermentation and the acidity increased proportionally with temperature and time. Alcohol and total phenolic contents peaked on day 5 at 25 by 9.0~9.8% and $3.01{\pm}0.07mg/g$, respectively. The organic acid mostly produced was lactic acid, which increased gradually with temperature and time. Formation of biogenic amines comprised of tryptamine and putrescine was observed during fermentation: 6.91, 11.70, and 15.63 mg/mL of tyramine on day 7 at 20, 25, and $30^{\circ}C$, respectively. Antioxidant activities from DPPH and FRAP assay were high in the order of $25^{\circ}C$>$20^{\circ}C$>$30^{\circ}C$ while that from ABTS assay was high regardless of temperature. Processed at 1 mg/mL and $30^{\circ}C$, the inhibitory effect on ${\alpha}$-amylase was $67.99{\pm}0.11$, $73.64{\pm}0.43$, and $75.51{\pm}0.26%$ on days 3, 5, and 7, respectively, which increased proportionally with temperature and time. Inhibitory activity on lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes was the highest in Makgeolli fermented on day 5 at $25^{\circ}C$. This study shows that fermentation at $25^{\circ}C$ for 5 days yields Makgeolli of the best quality with high bioactivities but no biogenic amines.

Comparison of Soil Physicochemical Properties According to the Sensitivity of Forest Soil to Acidification in the Republic of Korea (우리나라 산림토양의 산성화 민감도평가와 그에 따른 토양 이화학적 특성 비교분석)

  • Lee, Ah Lim;Koo, Namin
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.109 no.2
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    • pp.157-168
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    • 2020
  • The sensitivity of forest soil to acidification in the Republic of Korea (ROK) was evaluated based on pHH2O, cation exchange capacity (CEC), and base saturation (BS). Sensitivity to acidification was categorized into three grades: adequate level (AL, pH ≧ 4.2, CEC ≧ 15cmol/kg, BS ≧ 15%), caution level (CL, at least one indicator is below AL), and severe Level (SL, all three indicators are below AL). Soil samples were collected from the 65 stationary monitoring plots (40 × 40 ㎢), distributed throughout ROK. Only 19% of soil samples were classified as AL, while 66% and 15% were CL and SL, respectively. The median of pHH2O, CEC, BS, and Ca/Al indicator in AL soils was pH 4.64, 20.7cmol/kg, 29%, and 6.3, respectively. Moreover, BCex (K+, Mg2+, Ca2+) and available phosphorus (AP) concentration compared with a threshold value and molar ratio of BCex and AP to total nitrogen (TN) was high. This indicates that AL soils have a good nutrient condition. The molar Ca/Al ratio, an indicator for toxicity of exchangeable aluminum (Alex), was more than 1, indicating no negative impact of Alex on plant growth. On the contrary, the median of pHH2O, CEC, and BS in SL soils was pH 4.02, 13.2cmol/kg, and 10%, respectively. The Ca/Al index was less than 0.6, which indicates that negative impacts of Alex on plants were high. Furthermore, both the concentration of BCex in SL soils and the BCex/TN ratio were the lowest among the three acidity degrees. This shows that SLsoils can be degraded by soil acidification compared with less acidic soils.

Studies of Liming Effect on the Improvement of an Acid Sulphate Paddy Soil (특이산성답(特異酸性畓) 토양(土壤)의 개량(改良)을 위(爲)한 석회시용(石灰施用) 효과(?果)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Park, Young-Sun
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.193-218
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    • 1974
  • These studies were carried out for the elucidation of liming effect on the growth of rice seedlings and the chemical characteristics of an acid sulphate paddy that shows not only extremely high acidity of soil but also poor growth of rice plants, consequently low yield. Thus the liming effect on the changes of acidity, oxidation-reduction potential, and the contents of iron, aluminium, sulphate, and phosphorus fractions in the soil was investigated under the waterlogging and drying condition. The reclaimable or inhibitory effect of phosphorus, iron and aluminium on the growth of rice seedlings was also investigated under liming. The results are summarized as follows: 1. After liming, the pH of the acid sulphate subsoil decreased again on drying. 2. The oxidation-reduction potential reached a minimum after 5 days of flooding and greatly decreased on liming but increased after drying. 3. The contents of ferrous iron soluble in water-and Morgan's solution reached a maximum after 15 days of flooding and only the content of water soluble ferrous iron was greatly decreased. 4. The content of aluminium soluble in water-and Morgan's solution decreased by flooding and liming, and showed a tendency to increase on drying. 5. In the limed acid sulphate soil, the content of water soluble calcium showed a highly significant negative correlation with the content of sulphate and liming decreased sulphate content in the soil. 6. The contents of total phosphorus was 496.3 ppm in the acid sulphate topsoil and 387.5 ppm in the subsoil. The content of each phosphorus fraction was in the order of Fe-P>Occ. Fe-P>Ca-P>Occ. Al-P>Al-P and Fe-P content in the soil was the highest fraction among them. 7. Lime application increased greatly Ca-P and Al-P, and Occ. Fe-P and Occ. Al-P only slightly, but decreased Fe-P differently in each soil. 8. Effect of phosphorus on the dry matter yield of rice seedlings was great. The optimum amount of phosphorus to produce maximum dry matter yield of rice seedlings appeared to be 6.8% of maximum absorption (absorption coefficient) without liming and 10.0% with liming. 9. In rice seedlings liming increased the content and uptake of calcium and silica but decreased those of iron and aluminium. Phosphorus application increased the content and uptake of phosphorus and decreased iron while the application of iron and aluminium increased their contents and uptake but decreased those of phosphorus. 10. Liming greatly alleviated such toxicity of iron and aluminium. 11. When phosphorus was applied, the dry matter yield of rice seedlings showed highly significant positive correlations with uptake of phosphorus, calcium and silica each. When iron and aluminium were applied, dry matter yields indicated significant positive correlations with the contents or uptake of calcium and silica each, but significant negative correlations with the content or uptake of iron and aluminium. 12. Under the application of phosphorus and lime, dry matter yields showed significant positive correlations with pH and Morgan's extractable calcium each of the soil samples after harvest. Under the application of lime, iron and aluminium, dry matter yields showed significant positive correlations with pH, calcium and silica each, but negative correlations with iron and aluminium contents each of the soil samples after harvest.

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Quality Properties of Chonggak Kimchi Fermented at different Combination of Temperature and Time (발효 온도와 시간 조합을 달리한 총각김치의 품질 특성)

  • Kang, Jeong-Hwa;Kang, Sun-Hee;Ahn, Eun-Sook;Chung, Hee-Jong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.18 no.6
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    • pp.551-561
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    • 2003
  • To determine the conditions of the fermentation and storage for Chonggak kimchi in kimchi refrigerator, prepared Chonggak kimchi took into kimchi refrigerators which were controlled at four different modes of the fermented temperature and time, and fermented and kept for 16 weeks. The pH in Chonggak kimchi fermented at $20^{\circ}C$ for 24 hours/stored at $-1^{\circ}C$ dropped greater than all of kimchi fermented at other combinations, and the changes of pH at any combinations were not greater than those in Baechu kimchi, because pH in Chonggak kimchi did not dropped below 4.5. Acidities in Chonggak kimchi were greatly increased at higher temperature. The acidity in Chonggak kimchi during the first week of fermentation was lower than that in Baechu kimchi and then it was rather higher because of the addition of waxy rice paste. In texture, puncture force of Chonggak kimchi was decreased slowly until 8 weeks of fermentation and then did not changed much and the highest values showed in Chonggak kimchi stored directly at $-1^{\circ}C$ without any fermentation. In sensory evaluation, the scores for the carbonated flavor and the sourness were the highest in Chonggak kimchi fermented at $20^{\circ}C$ for 24 hours/stored at $-1^{\circ}C$, but the lowest in Chonggak kimchi stored directly at $-1^{\circ}C$ without any fermentation because of some undesirable flavors. The lowest hardness showed in Chonggak kimchi fermented at highest temperature and the best hardness was in Chonggak kimchi fermented at $5^{\circ}C$ for 3 days or 6 days/stored at $-1^{\circ}C$. The appearance was the best in Chonggak kimchi fermented at $20^{\circ}C$ for 24 hours/stored at $-1^{\circ}C$ and the worst was in Chonggak kimchi stored directly at $-1^{\circ}C$ without any fermentation. The overall acceptability of Chonggak kimchi fermented at $20^{\circ}C$ for 24 hours/stored at $-1^{\circ}C$ was good after 4 weeks of fermentation, but in Chonggak kimchi fermented at $5^{\circ}C$ for 3 days or 6 days/stored at $-1^{\circ}C$ it was good after 6 weeks. Total microbial counts in most of Chonggak kimchi were reached to a maximum number within 7 days, and then decreased similarly at all modes. Leuconostoc spp. and Lactobacillus spp. increased to maximum number of $1.48{\times}10^9\;and\;5.62{\times}10^9$, respectively, in Chonggak kimchi fermented for 7 days. Yeast counts showed a increasing trend not depends on fermenting temperature and they were lower counts than those in Baechu kimchi. Waxy rice paste which added to Chonggak kimchi resulted in increasement of glucose as a carbon source and stimulated to reproduce the microbes in Chonggak kimchi.

A Study on the Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Acid Sulfate Soil in Kimhae Plain (김해평야(金海平野)에 분포(分布)된 특이산성토(特異酸性土)(답)(沓)의 이화학적성질(理化學的性質)에 관(關)한 조사연구(調査硏究))

  • Park, N.J.;Park, Y.S.
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.15-26
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    • 1969
  • The study on physico-chemical characteristics of the acid sulfate soil present in Kimhae plain was carried out with 28 surface and subsoils from lower and higher produtive area and two representative profile samples from the areas reclaimed a few decades ago and around 10 years ago respectively. 1. There are no differences in soil texture between lower and higher productive soils being mostly silty clay loam and silty clay. 2. Very significant differences in pH, degree of base saturation and extractable aluminium content are observed; lower pH, lower degree of base saturation and higher aluminium in the lower productive soils and subsoils. The pH and degree of base saturation of these soils are extremely low whereas aluminium content is very high compared to ordinary paddy soil. 3. Cation exchange capacity of these soils are slightly higher than ordinary paddy soils. In higher productive soils, exchangeable calcium and magnesium are of same order, whereas in lower productive soils magnesium content is appreciably higher than calcium. 4. Though the soil is derived from marine and estuarine sediment, the soluble salt content is not high. There are only few lower productive surface soils and subsoils having Ec values of the saturation extracts higher than 4 mmhos but lower than 9 mmhos/cm. 5. Organic matter content of these soils is a bit higher compared to ordinary paddy soils, but, nitrogen content is comparatively low. C/N ratio of these soils is around 12. 6. Sulfur content is considerably higher but oxidizable sulfur is found to be very low. Total sulfur is generally high in subsoils and lower productive soils. 7. Active iron and available silica are slightly higher than ordinary paddy soils but easily reducible manganese is very low. Almost no differences are also observed between lower and higher productive soils. 8. Available phosphorus content is extremely low in particular, regardless of higher or lower productive soils. 9. The two representative profiles from the area of earlier reclamation and recent one show that samples from earlier reclaimed area contain less amount of free acids, sulfur compounds, toxic aluminium and soluble salts etc. than the other. This indicate greater leaching and possible addition of lime for a longer period of time. 10. From the results obtained, it can be concluded the higher productivity of group I soils is due to the greater leaching and neutralisation of acidity by liming materials, It can also be concluded that the productivity of both types can be increased by addition of liming materials and improvement of drainage facilities.

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The Qualitiy Characteristics of Kimchi added Vinegar, Mustard and Leaf Vegetables (식초, 겨자, 잎채소를 첨가한 김치의 품질특성)

  • Pak, Hee-Ok;Sohn, Chun-Young
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.841-849
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    • 2013
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the quality characteristics of Kimchi, prepared with seasoning fluid, vinegar, and mustard extract to inhibit the proliferation of microorganisms and extend the edible period during fermentation at $25^{\circ}C$. We also added perilla leaf, endive, and mustard leaf to Kimchi to improve the flavor. The pH of control Kimchi fluid over 1 day after Kimchi processing, was $5.40{\pm}0.01$ and that of the experimental groups in which vinegar and mustard extract were added was $4.51{\pm}0.01{\sim}4.52{\pm}0.01$, which was lower than that of the control. As the fermentation progresses, the pH of the control decreased rapidly and that of the experimental groups decreased slowly. The initial titratible acidity of the control was low and 3 days later reached $0.95{\pm}0.04$. However, that of the experimental groups was $0.42{\pm}0.01{\sim}0.43{\pm}0.02$ and 5 days later reached a level similar to that of the control. The salinities of the Kimchi juice of both the control and the experimental groups were $2.67{\pm}0.06{\sim}2.80{\pm}0.10$% after 1 day and decreased during fermentation. The amount of lactic acid bacteria of the control was $8.17{\pm}4.01{\times}10^8cfu/g$, 1 day after the Kimchi processing and that of the experimental groups was $2.70{\pm}2.08{\times}10^7{\sim}3.63{\pm}2.80{\times}10^7cfu/g$. After 3 days, these were $3.13{\pm}1.94{\times}10^{11}cfu/g$ and $2.47{\pm}2.23{\times}10^9{\sim}8.03{\pm}3.71{\times}10^9cfu/g$, respectively. According to the result of sensory evaluation, throughout the entire period of the experiment, all sensory items such as color, odor, taste, texture, and total acceptability of the experimental groups were better than those of the control group (p<0.05). Especially, Kimchi in which perilla leaf was added was the best. With the addition of vinegar and mustard extract to the Kimchi, microorganism proliferation was inhibited and the edible period was extended. The minerals, vitamins and antioxidants of leaf vegetables could therefore be obtained.

Management Guidelines on the Large Old Trees as the Natural Monuments in Seoul, Incheon, and Gyeonggi Province through the Analysis of the Growing Environment (생육환경 분석을 통한 서울·인천·경기지역 천연기념물 노거수의 관리방안)

  • Lee, Seung Je
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.88-99
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    • 2009
  • This study was conducted to formulate management guidelines for Natural monumental old trees in Korea through survey of tree vigor and analysis of growing environments. A total of 20 old trees designated as natural monuments in Seoul, Incheon, and Gyeonggi Province were surveyed. The biological characteristics were surveyed with 4 items of species, ages and height of trees. The surrounding environments were surveyed with 2 items of location types and surroundings. The root conditions were surveyed with 2 items of denudation and molding depth. The health conditions were surveyed with 5 items of withering rate, cavity size, bark breakaway rate, damages by blight and insects, and growing tips. The soil conditions were surveyed with 6 items of PH, organic contents, valid phosphoric acid, transposal cations(K, Ca) and soil compaction. On the basis of outcomes of these research items, mutual relations among locations, growings and soil conditions of old trees were analyzed by carring out cross tabulation, correlation, and simple and multiple regression. Management guidelines were presented searching the factors effecting on the health of the monumental old trees. On the biological characteristics, the old trees designated as natural monuments were Pinus bungeana(4 trees), Juniperus chinensis(3 trees), Ginkgo biloba(3 trees), Poncirus trifoliata(2 trees). Actinidia arguta, Wisteria floribunda, Thuja orientalis, Quercus mongolica, Sophora japonica, Fraxinus rhynchophylla, Zelkova serrata, and Pinus densiflora. The tree height ranged from 4.2 to 39.2m, and root collar rounds ranged from 1.01 to 15.2m. On the surrounding environments, The location types ; Gardens(4), historical sites(5), residental sections(3) open agricultural fields(3), mountain hills(3), and near ocean beaches(1) and stream site(1). The surroundings ; 75% denudation of roots, molded more than 10cm except 4 trees(25%). On the health conditions, 1)Withering rate ; Ginkgo biloba(20%) in Yongmoon temple, (5%) in Saki-ri, kanwha-gun, and others had no withering rate. 2) Cavity size ; all subject had $5{\sim}100cm^3$ of cavity. 3) Bark breakaway rate ; Pinus bungeana in Soosong-dong, in the shrine of Confucius, in Samchung-dong, especially high rate of cavity(5~50%) in Seoul area and in Saki-ri, Kangwha-gun were high 45% brakeaway rate. 4) Damages by blight and insects was slight due to managements. 5Growing tips ; In cases of Juniperus chinensis in Changdeok palace and SunnogDang, seoul, growing tips were 1/2, presumably cause by air pollution, and in cases of Fraxinus rhynchophylla in Paju city and Pinus densiflora in BacksaDorip-ri, Icheon city, growing tips were fine, presumably because there were no moldings. On the Soil conditions, Soil pH ranged from 5.2 to 8.3, organic matter contents from 12% to 56%, phosphorus contents from 104 to 618ppm, soil compaction ranged from 7 to 28mm( among them, Denudation was severe with 21~28mm soil compactions in cases of Pinus bungeana in Soosong -dong, Thuja orientalis in Samchung -dong, Ginkgo biloba in the shrine of Confucius and in Yongmoon temple.) Results of cross tabulation, correlation, and regression analysis showed that molding depth was the most serious factor to deteriorate the tree vigor and cambium conductivity. In addition, soil acidity, organic matter contents, disease and insect damages and cambial detachment were also related to the tree vigor. Additional research of these relationships will be needed to conduct more detailed studies. Based on the relationships between the tree vigor and growing environments, it is considered that old trees should be managed to give them more growing spaces and less abuses. Also, molded soils should be removed and further soil-molding around the tree collar should be prohibited. For the construction of systematic management and removal of harmful factors, appropriative management according to spices, persistent monitering of damaged cases and construction of management system through the accumulation of data on the relationships of soil conditions are required.