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A Method for Maintaining Good Kimchi Quality during Fermentation (김치의 저장 중 품질 유지를 위한 방안 개발)

  • Bang, Byung-Ho;Seo, Jeong-Sook;Jeong, Eun-Ja
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.51-55
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    • 2008
  • Colour and texture are the most difficult quality aspects of Kimchi to maintain during storage. Therefore, this study investigated how to maintain superior quality Kimchi during fermentation without changes in color and texture. By examining differences between samples covered with vinyl(A group) and not covered with vinyl(B group) and assessing pH, total acidity, total viable cell count, total lactic acid bacteria cell count and sensory characteristics. The results are indicated that pH, total acidity, total viable cell and total lactic acid bacteria were similar between group A and B. Group A showed higher sensory score for colour, taste, texture and acceptability than group B(p<0.001). Covering the Kimchi with vinyl appeared to have a similar effect as when Kimchi is kept in a Kimchi-pot under stones or the outer leaves of vegetables making it possible to maintain good color and texture during storage. In conclusion, even though, it is not practical to use Kimchi-pots within urban settings today, vinyl coverings may offer the same effects.

A Study on Kimchi Development Using Device-Mashed Vice Materials (마쇄한 부재료를 사용한 김치 개발에 관한 연구)

  • Jeong, Eun-Ja;Seo, Jeong-Sook;Bang, Byung-Ho
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.288-292
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    • 2008
  • To save cost and time in Kimchi manufacture, the use of raw red-pepper paste and device-mashed vice materials, in place of dried red-pepper powder, was examined. Two kinds of Kimchi were prepared: One with dried red pepper powder and device-not mashed vice materials and the other with raw red pepper paste and device-mashed vice materials. Then pH, total acidity, total viable cell counts, total lactic acid bacteria and sensory characteristics were evaluated. Comparisons of the two Kimchis, indicated that changes in pH, total acidity, the total number of viable cells and total lactic acid bacteria were similar between the two groups. The acceptability score of the Kimchi made using the raw red pepper paste and device-mashed vice materials was slightly lower than that of Kimchi made using the dried red-pepper powder. This color was indistinctly changed since the vice materials were mashed and mixed. In conclusion, the results indicate that when manufacturing Kimchi using device-mashed vice materials, Kimchi of better quality can be made by adding dried red-pepper powder.

Effects of Different Growing Regions on Quality Characteristics, Bioactive Compound Contents, and Antioxidant Activity of Aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) in Korea

  • Hwang, Eun-Sun;Thi, Nhuan Do
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.255-262
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    • 2016
  • The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different growing regions on quality characteristics, total bioactive compound contents, and in vitro antioxidant activity in aronia. Aronia grown in 3 different regions (Sangjoo, Ulju, and Youngcheon) in Korea was obtained and used fresh or as a freeze-dried powder. No statistically significant differences were observed for moisture, ash, crude lipid, and crude protein contents in aronia sampled from the 3 different regions. Aronia grown in Sangjoo had the highest total acid content and the lowest sugar content and pH value. Conversely, aronia grown in Youngcheon possessed the lowest total acid content and the highest sugar content and pH value. Aronia grown in Sangjoo possessed relatively high levels of polyphenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanins, as well as high antioxidant activity in comparison with aronia produced in other regions. Aronia grown in Youngcheon scored the highest for taste and overall acceptability in sensory evaluations, which may be related to the high sugar content and pH, and the low total acidity of the fruits. It is possible that higher sugar contents and pH, and lower total acidity in the aronia grown in Youngcheon result in more preferable sensory characteristics. However, they also contain relatively low levels of total polyphenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanins, and have low antioxidant activity as measured by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical scavenging assays.

The Preparation of Mushroom Pieties and Change in Quality during Storage (버섯 피클(Fickle) 제조 및 저장 중의 품질변화)

  • 김상철;김소연;하효철;박경숙;이재성
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.11 no.5
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    • pp.400-408
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    • 2001
  • The mushroom pickles were prepared as a processed mushroom product. The changes in pH, total acidity, brix. color and texture of the mushroom pickles (Lentinus edodes, Pleurotus ostreatus, Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus eryngii) were measured during storage at 4$^{\circ}C$. In addition, sensory evaluations on the mushroom pickles were performed. While the pH of Lentinus edodes and Pleurotus ostreatus pickles declined slowly, the pH of Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus eryngii pickles declined rapidly during storage. The total acidity of Lentinus edodes pickles rose slowly, while the acidity Pleurotus ostreatus, Agaricus bisporus and Pleurotus eryngii pickles rose rapidly. As for the color of mushroom pickles, "L" , "a" and "b" values changed slightly. The changes in texture were determined by a rheometer Hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess and brittleness of Lentinus edodes pickles were lower than those of the other mushroom pickles. In the sensory evaluation of mushroom pickles, Lentinus edodes showed higher acceptability ratings than the other mushrooms in taste, color, clearness, texture and overall acceptability. This study showed that among the mushrooms tested, Lentinus edodes was the most acceptable mushroom pickle for storage.

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Effect of High Vanillin Treatment on Storage Quality of Fresh-cut Apples

  • Chung, Hun-Sik;Toivonen, Peter M.A.;Moon, Kwang-Deog
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.636-640
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    • 2009
  • The effect of post-cut vanillin treatment at high concentrations on changes of quality and microorganism in fresh-cut apples was studied. Apples (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. Fuji) were sliced, treated by dipping in different vanillin solution, 0, 40, 80, and 120 mM, packed in polyethylene bag, and then stored for up to 3 weeks at $4^{\circ}C$. Changes in total aerobic bacteria, yeast and molds, browning, soluble solids, and titratable acidity during storage were investigated. Growth of total aerobic bacteria throughout storage was strongly inhibited by vanillin regardless of treatment concentrations. Growth of yeast and molds was inhibited by vanillin of all concentrations until 2 weeks of storage. Levels of browning index, soluble solids, and titratable acidity were not significant difference among the treatment conditions until 2 weeks of storage. However, when stored for 3 weeks, browning index increased more at 80 or 120 mM vanillin, while soluble solids and titratable acidity more be decreased by 120 mM vanillin as compared with other treatment conditions. These results show that the usage of vanillin in processing of fresh-cut apples had a limitation for maintaining quality.

Physicochemical Properties of Dongchimi Added with Gatt (Brassica juncea)

  • Park, Jung-Eun;Moon, Sung-Won;Jang, Myung-Sook
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.21-27
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    • 2005
  • To improve Dongchimi (watery radish kimchi) quality and preservation, 0, 3, 5, 10, and 15% of gatt (Brassica juncea; leaf mustard) per radish was added. Chemical characteristics were determined during fermentation at $10^{\circ}C$ for 45 days. Total acidity increased slowly by addition of gatt during initial fermentation period, and 15% treatment showed lowest total acidity. Total vitamin C content increased initially in all treatments depending on gatt content, and decreased thereafter. Period for reaching maximum value was delayed by addition of gatt. Highest total vitamin C was found in 15% treatments. In the case of reducing sugar, 5% treatment showed highest contents. Lactic, succinic, and tartaric acid contents consistently increased during fermentation, while those of malic and citric decreased. Turbidity and total solid contents of Dongchimi liquid increased in all treatments as fermentation proceeded, although the extent was rather suppressed by addition of gatt. Colorimetric lightness values decreased, while the initial increased and then decreased in redness and yellowness. Addition of gatt at above 15% weight level per radish accelerated fermentation at the later fermentation stage thus it should be avoided. Most changes in typical characteristics of fermentation were similar depending on treatments. More acceptable Dongchimi could be prepared by fermenting at 5% gatt concentration under given conditions.

Microbial Change and Fermentation Characteristics during Samjung-Hwan Natural Fermentation (천연발효 경과에 따른 삼정환의 미생물 변화 및 발효특성)

  • Shin, Na Rae;Wang, Jing-Hua;Lim, Dongwoo;Lee, Myeong-Jong;Kim, Hojun
    • Journal of Korean Medicine for Obesity Research
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.123-130
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    • 2015
  • Objectives: Samjung-hwan (SJH), a well-known traditional fermented herb formula recorded in Dongui Bogam, has been commonly used for prolonging life for four hundred years in Eastern Asia. However, fermented SJH has not been investigated in terms of microbial ecology until present time. Methods: SJH was fermented for five weeks and fermentation characteristics during SJH fermentation were performed including pH, acidity and microbial profiling. Also, we measured total polyphenol and total flavonoid contents and 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity. In order to select starter candidate, several lactic acid bacteria were isolated from fermented SJH. Results: pH of fermented SJH was decreased from 4.7 to 3.0 and acidity was increased from 0.45% to 1.72%. Also, fermented SJH increased antioxidant indicator such as total polyphenol and total flavonoid as well as DPPH free radical scavenging activity. Lactobacillus brevis was increased, Pseudanabaena sp. was decreased, and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis was stable during 5-week fermentation of SJH. L. brevis and L. plantarum were isolated from fermented SJH. Conclusions: Fermented SJH for four weeks had optimal effect on antioxidant and fermentation characteristics such as pH, acidity and microbial profile. Further studies are required to develop starter and analyze functional compounds in oder to produce standardized SJH.

Optimization of Fermentation Process for Acetic Acid Production (초산 생성을 위한 발효공정의 최적화)

  • Shin, Jin-A;Oh, Nam-Soon
    • Food Engineering Progress
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.217-221
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    • 2010
  • Various conditions of acetic acid fermentation by Acetobacter aceti B20 strain were investigated and evaluated to optimize the fermentative production of acetic acid. The effects of the initial ethanol concentration on growth and acid productivity in a flask and fermentor were also studied. The growth of A. aceti B20 strain was inhibited as the concentration of ethanol increased. However, the highest total acidity and fermentation yield were 5.34% and 56.1%, respectively when the initial concentration of ethanol was 7% in the batch fermentation. Although the concentration of initial glucose influenced the growth rate of B20 strain, it did not influence the total acidity in the flask culture. When the agitation speed increased, the growth, total acidity and fermentation yield were all improved. In fed-batch fermentation, total acidities and fermentation yields were 7.14-8.76% and 39.1-53.0%, respectively, and their values mostly depended on the feeding methods.

Organic Acids and Fatty Acids of Honey Harvested in Kangwon Area (강원도산 잡화벌꿀의 유기산 및 지방산 특성에 관한 연구)

  • 김복남;김택제;최홍식
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.52-58
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    • 1991
  • Physico-chemical properties including the composition of organic acids and fatty acids in native bee-honey and foreign bee-honey harvested in Kangwon area were studied with the emphasis on the honey which was collected form wild flowers nd mixed flowers sources for honey nectars. the major organic acids were considered as acetic acid formic acid and valeric acid in volatile acids and gluconic acid maleic acid malic acid quinic acid and citric acid in non-volatile fraction in both of native bee-honey and foreigr bee-honey. Some naturally occuring fatty acids({{{{ { C}_14{ } }}}}-{{{{ {C }_{20 } }}}}) were observed with the principal fatty acids of myristic aicd linolenic acid and palmitic acid and palmitic acid in the various honey, The characteristics of moisture content pH viscosity free acidity lactone and total acidity were also analyzed and discussed.

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Analysis of Correlations between Mineral Contents in Waters and Sensory Characteristics of Coffee (물의 미네랄 함량과 커피 관능 특성에 관한 상관 분석)

  • Eo, Hee-Ji;Kim, Joo-Shin
    • Culinary science and hospitality research
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.105-115
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    • 2017
  • Water is an essential ingredient to brew coffee. Mineral contents in the water can affect both water quality and taste quality of coffee. The effects of minerals in the water on sensory characteristics of coffee were investigated in different water samples (A: Arisu, B: Claris, C: Spring water, D: Samdasoo, E: Evian, Distilled water as control). Based on the results of quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA), there were statistically significant (p<0.01) in flavor, acidity, bitterness, sweetness, body and aftertaste according to different water samples used to brew coffee. The canonical correlation analysis of minerals (Ca, Mg, Na, K) and taste (acidity, bitterness, sweetness) indicated that there were highly correlated in the relationship between bitterness and Mg content. A strong negative relationship was shown between bitterness and acidity, sweetness. A result of preference test using hedonic scale showed an inverse linear relationship between taste quality and total mineral contents.