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The Effect of Feeding Whole-crop Barley Silage and Grass Hay on Productivity and Economic Efficiency in Elk (Cervus canadensis) (청보리 사일리지 및 목건초 급여가 엘크 사슴의 생산성 및 경제성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Sang Woo;Suh, Sang Won;Kim, Dong Hoon;Kim, Jae Hwan;Kim, Young Sin;Kim, Kwan Woo;Yoon, Sei Hyung
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.52-57
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    • 2013
  • This study was conducted to determine the effect of dietary whole-crop barley silage on the daily feed intake, daily weight gain, velvet antler yield and economic efficacy in elk during growth. A total of 21 elk (average BW 303 kg, 5 years old) were allotted randomly to three treatments. The three treatments were T1 (hay diet), T2 (whole-crop barley silage), and T3 (50% hay + 50% whole-crop barley silage). The average daily weight gain of T3 was higher than the others throughout the entire experimental period. The average daily feed intake of elk in decreasing order was as follows; T1>T3>T2. The velvet antler yield was higher in T3 group (8,585 g) compared with T1 (8,037 g) and T2 (7,713 g). However, there were no significant differences in the average daily feed intake, average daily weight gain, or velvet antler yield (p>0.05). In economic efficacy, T3 was gained about 29~43% more value than T1 or T2. In conclusion, the mixed feeding of 50% hay and 50% whole-crop barley silage was more effective than feeding hay of barley alone, in terms of average daily weight gain, velvet antler yield, and economic efficacy in elk.

Variation in Population Size of Mudfish by Agricultural Practices in Paddy Fields (논 생태계에서 영농방법에 따른 미꾸라지개체군의 변동 요인 분석)

  • Han, Min-Su;Cho, Kwang-Jin;Nam, Hyung-Kyu;Kang, Kee-Kyung;Na, Young-Eun;Kim, Miran;Kim, Myung-Hyun
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.24-34
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    • 2013
  • BACKGROUND: This study was carried out to compare population size of mudfish (Misgurnus mizolepis) between the agricultural practices and to investigate the causes of its differences. We also provided basic information for sustainable use of mudfish population in paddy fields. METHODS AND RESULTS: Mudfish and benthic invertebrates which are diet of mudifish were investigated from 8 sites of organic and conventional rice paddy fields in South Korea. Total number of mudfish were 1,882 individuals in survey sites. Mudfish population were 2.4 times larger in organic paddy fields (1,333 individuals) than in conventional paddy fields (549 individuals). The population size of mudfish was larger in Mungyeong-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do and Anseong-si, Gyeonggi-do with relatively better environmental conditions than the other 5 sites including Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do, Cheongyang-gun, Chungcheongnam-do, Gunsan-si, Jeollabuk-do, Gimje-si, Jeollabuk-do, Hwasun-gun, Jeollanam-do, Hamyang-gun, Gyeongsangnam-do. Benthic invertebrates collected from survey sites were 74 species, 68 genera, 46 families, 19 orders, 6 classes and 3 phyla. According to agricultural practices, benthic invertebrates were identified 66 species, 62 genera, 41 families, 17 orders, 6 classes and 3 phyla in organic paddy fields while there were 66 species, 60 genera, 42 families, 18 orders, 6 classes and 3 phyla in conventional paddy fields. Dominant invertebrates were Chironomidae sp., Branchiopoda sp., Ostracoda sp., and Copepoda sp. There were no differences in dominant species between organic and conventional paddy fields. Population size of mudfish tended to increase with the population size of Chironomidae sp., Branchiopoda sp., Ostracoda sp., and Copepoda sp. But, only population of Chironomidae sp. and Copepoda sp. statistically related to population size of mudfish. The number of individuals of mudfish (Misgurnus mizolepis) was higher at the low rate of urban area than any other surveyed region and was affected by appearance ratio of main preys such as Chironomidae sp. and Ostracoda sp. CONCLUSION(S): The population size of mudfish in rice paddy fields could be affected by environmental conditions and agricultural practices such as organic and conventional methods.

Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Yacon(Polymnia sonchifolia) By-products and Pine Needle Powder on Growth Performance and Meat Quality of Chicken Thigh Meat (야콘 부산물과 솔잎 분말을 사료에 첨가 급여한 육계의 생산성 및 닭 다리육의 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Chang-Ill;Kim, Young-Jik
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.187-195
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    • 2013
  • This study was investigated the effects of dietary supplementation of Yacon by-products and pine needle powder on growth performance, carcass characteristics, pH, TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substance), WHC (water holding capacity), shear force, and meat color of chicken thigh meat. Broiler chicks were fed diets for five weeks containing 0% Yacon by-products and pine needle powder (Control), 0.5% Yacon by-products powder (T1), 1.0% Yacon by-products powder (T2), 0.5% pine needle powder (T3), and 1.0% pine needle powder (T4). There was no significant difference in growth performance among treatments, but mortality was decreased in diets by the supplementation of Yacon by-products and pine needle powder than that of control. The chicken fed control diet had higher cholesterol. LDL-cholesterol. triglyceride compared to those chicken fed Yacon by-products and pine needle powder regardless of concentrations, and HDL-cholesterol of control was lower than treatment. The pH and TBARS were significantly decreased by the supplementation of Yacon by-products and pine needle powder compared to the control (P<0.05), especially, pine needle powder group was significantly more effective in improving freshness compared to other test groups (P<0.05). The WHC and shear force were not significantly different. CIE $L^*$ and $a^*$ value of test groups showed significantly higher value compare to the control, however, no difference in the CIE $b^*$ values was observed among test groups. In conclusion, a supplementation of Yacon by-products and pine needle powder were effective in decreasing pH, TBARS, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol and increasing HDL-cholesterol concentration. Pine needle powder supplementation was most effective (T3 and T4).

Development of Lotus Root Bugak with Plasma Lipid Reduction Capacity by Addition of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten or Green Tea as a Coloring Agent (백년초 및 녹차 가루 첨가 연근 부각의 지질저하 기능성)

  • Kim, Mijeong;Hong, Sun Hee;Chung, Lana;Choe, Eunok;Song, Yeong-Ok
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.43 no.3
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    • pp.333-340
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    • 2014
  • The purpose of this study was to develop functional lotus root bugak with plasma lipid reduction capacity by controlling the color of batter used for bugak preparation. Lotus root, nearly colorless, was selected to observe color effects. Gardeniae fructus (GF), Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten (OF), and green tea (GT), which are colored yellow, red, and green, respectively, were used as coloring agents. Fermented glutinous rice was prepared naturally during winter season by placing glutinous rice and water (1:2, w/w) together in a crock pot for 7 days. Coloring materials (10%, w/w) were blended with glue made from fermented glutinous rice flour to prepare the batter. Cooked lotus root was then mixed with a 1.1-fold amount of batter (w/w) and dried at room temperature. Lotus root bugak (LRB) is pan-fried with un-roasted sesame oil, which is traditionally used as frying oil in Korea. Low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout ($LDLr^{-/-}$) mice (n=36) were fed an atherogenic diet (AD) containing various types of LRB (10 g%) for 10 weeks. Plasma triglyceride, total cholesterol, and LDL-C concentrations decreased significantly in mice fed LRB prepared with OF batter (OFB) and GT batter (GTB) (P<0.05). Protein expression levels of fatty acid synthase (FAS) and 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) in the OFB and GTB groups were suppressed compared with the LRB group (P<0.05). In accordance with the results on FAS and HMGCR expression, sterol regulatory element binding protein-I and II (SREBP-I and II), which are responsible for the regulation of FAS and HMGCR gene expression, respectively, were down-regulated compared to the LRB group (P<0.05). In conclusion, the plasma lipid reduction activities of OFB and GTB could be mediated through down-regulation of FAS and HMGCR mRNA expression via suppression of regulatory molecules, SREBP-I and II, in $LDLr^{-/-}$ mice.

The association of snack consumption, lifestyle factors, and pediatric obesity with dietary behavior patterns in male adolescents (남자 청소년의 식행동 패턴에 따른 간식 섭취, 생활 습관 요인 및 비만과의 연관성 연구)

  • Kim, Min-Ji;Song, SuJin;Park, So Hyun;Song, YoonJu
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.48 no.3
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    • pp.228-235
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: Along with the adaptation of a Western dietary pattern and low physical activity, pediatric obesity is increasing in Korea, especially for boys. The aim of this study was to identify dietary behavior patterns and examine the snack consumption, dietary habit, and pediatric obesity by pattern groups. Methods: Boys aged 15~19 years were recruited from one high school in Seoul. A questionnaire including dietary behaviors and lifestyle factors was administered and height and weight were measured. A total of 932 boys participated except boys who had missing or incomplete response (n = 30). Three dietary behavior patterns were identified by cluster analysis; 'Healthy pattern', 'Mixed pattern' and 'Unhealthy pattern'. Results: Snack consumption differed according to dietary behavior patterns group. The healthy and mixed patterns showed higher frequencies of white milk and fruit consumption while the unhealthy pattern as well as the mixed patterns showed higher frequencies of sweetened snack and ice cream consumption. Food availability at home of each food differed according to pattern groups but showed a similar trend with food consumption. Regarding dietary habits, the mixed pattern showed higher proportion of taking dietary supplement and eating dessert while the unhealthy pattern showed lower proportion of eating regular meals and appropriate amount of meals. When the healthy pattern was set as a reference group, the odds ratio of pediatric obesity was 1.11 (CI 0.65-1.87) in the mixed pattern group and 1.88 (CI 1.14-3.10) in the unhealthy pattern group. Conclusion: In conclusion, dietary behaviors including snack consumption and lifestyle factors were connected. Unbalanced diet and undesirable dietary practice are important determinants in pediatric obesity.

Growth Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Two Different Broiler Strains by Different Levels of Metabolizable Energy (사료 내 대사 에너지 수준 차이가 계통이 다른 육계의 성장과 도체 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Jong-Seol;Kwon, Jung-Taek;Kim, Je-Hun;Oh, Sung-Taek;Lee, Bo-Keun;Zheng, Lan;Jung, Moon-Sung;An, Byoung-Ki;Kang, Chang-Won
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.195-205
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    • 2012
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different levels of dietary ME on growth performance and carcass characteristics in two different strains of broiler chicken. A total of one thousand, 1-day-old A strain and R strain male chicks were randomly assigned into 8 treatments in a $2{\times}4$ factorial arrangement. They were fed iso-nitrogenic (CP 21%) crumbled diets formulated to contain metabolizable energy (ME) 2,950 to 3,250 kcal/kg in increment of 100 kcal/kg in the starter phase (1 to 21d) and iso-nitrogenic (CP 19%) pelleted diets containing same ME levels as in the finishing phase (22 to 38d). The body weight (BW) gain of chicks fed the lower ME diets (2,950 or 3,050 kcal/kg) were higher than those of the higher ME groups. The dietary energy level showed significant effects on feed intake and feed conversion rate (FCR) from 1 to 38 days of age (p<0.05). With the increment of dietary energy, feed intake tended to be reduced, whereas FCR was improved in the two strains of broiler chickens. The lowest FCR was observed at 3,250 kcal/kg diet groups in both of the two strains from 1 to 38 days of age. Feed intake and BW gain during 38 days were significantly affected by the strain factor. Increasing dietary energy up to 3,250 kcal/kg had no effect on the relative weights of breast meat and abdominal fat. The dietary energy and strains showed significant effects on the dressing percentage. There were no significant differences in various blood profiles except for GPT activity.

Effect of Dietary Crude Protein and Amino Acid Contents on Growth Performance and Carcass Characteristics in Korean Native Ducks (사료의 조단백질 및 아미노산 함량이 토종오리의 성장과 도체 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kwon, Hyung Joo;Choo, Yun Kyung;Oh, Sung Taek;Kim, Hak Kyu;Kang, Chang Won;An, Byoung Ki
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.351-359
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    • 2013
  • This study was undertaken to assess dietary crude protein (CP) and amino acid (AA) concentrations for growth performance and carcass characteristics in Korean native ducks. In a $2{\times}3$ factorial arrangement, 1-d-old Korean native male ducks were allotted to 6 dietary treatments in a completely randomized design. Experimental diets contained 23 or 21% CP with 1.31/1.09, 1.21/1.00, 1.11/0.91 and 1.11/0.91, 1.02/0.83, 0.92/0.75 AA (Lysine/Total sulfur amino acid, Lysine/TSAA), respectively, from 0 to 3 wk of age. From 4 to 8 wk of age, experimental diets had 19 or 17% of diet; each contained 1.00/0.79, 0.94/0.75, 0.88/0.71 and 0.88/0.71, 0.82/0.67, 0.76/0.63 AA (Lysine/TSAA), respectively. Each dietary treatment has 6 replicates and feed and water were provided ad libitum. Body weight (BW), feed intake and uniformity were measured at 3 wk and 8 wk and carcass characteristics were evaluated at 8 wk of age. As CP increased from 21 to 23%, the BW and BW gain significantly increased (P<0.05) during 0 to 3 wk of age. From 4 to 8 wk of age, BW, feed intake, BW gain, feed conversion rations (FCR) and uniformity were not different (P>0.05) between treatments. Carcass yield and relative weights of liver, spleen, right breast and leg per 100 of BW were not different (P>0.05) between treatments. The meat color, shear force value, cooking loss and pH were not affected by dietary treatments (P<0.05). Korean native ducks require relatively low levels of dietary CP and AA for late growth and carcass yield due to low daily weight gain. This suggests the possible differences in CP and AA needs between Korean native ducks and commercial breeds from foreign breeding companies, especially late growth stage.

Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Codonopsis pilosula Extract Powder on the Productivity and Immunity in Sows and Piglets (임신돈 사료 내 만삼추출분말의 첨가 급여가 모돈과 자돈의 생산성 및 면역력에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Ki-Hyun;Kim, Kwang-Sik;Kim, Jo-Eun;Jung, Hyun-Jung;Lee, Sung-Dae;Sa, Soo-Jin;Hong, Joon-Ki;Hur, Tai-Young;Park, Jun-Cheol;Kim, Young-Hwa
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.423-435
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    • 2013
  • The Codonopsis pilosula is traditional oriental herb associated with immune-modulatory functions and has anti-inflammatory properties and antioxidative activity. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of Codonopsis pilosula extract powder (CEP) on the immunity and productivity in sows and piglets. A total of 20 pregnant sows were randomly assigned to two dietary treatments, which was given a corn-soybean meal diet with 0% and 0.5% CEP from 40 days prepartum to weaning (25 days postpartum). The immune system of piglets was expected to build up, because the feeding of CEP might increase the colostrum contents in sows. We also predicted that the growth performance of piglets also could be increased by some compensation effects due to the increased immunity of piglets. In results, immunities of sows and piglets as well as growth performance of piglets were not affected by the supplementation of CEP. The correlation between the colostrum and the serum on the IgG contents tended to have a positive correlation, although there was no significant (coefficient, 0.435; P=0.102). This result suggests that the supplementation of CEP may increase IgG contents in sows and piglets and contribute to improve immunity of piglets. In conclusion, it is thought that the physiologically active substances of CEP did not influence to the immune synergic effects in vivo of sows. Thus, the metabolic and action mechanism of the physiologically active substances of CEP should be explored to evaluate the availability of CEP as a feed additive for the immunomodulator.

A Study on the Dietary Quality Assessment among the Elderly in Jeonju Area (전주지역 노인의 식사의 질 평가에 관한 연구)

  • 김인숙;유현희;서은숙;서은아;이형자
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.352-367
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    • 2002
  • In order to assess the quality of dietary intake among the elderly, a survey was conducted during Jucy-August, 1999, of 230 subjects who were 65 years or older and who were living in Jeonju City. Results of the analysis of the data are as follows : Regarding Dietery Variety Score (DVS), the average number of food items consumed per person was significantly higher for males (19.6) than for females (17.7). The intake of plant food was higher than animal food for both sexes the proportion of plant versus animal foods consumed by fresh weight was 85 : 15 for males and 89 : 11 for females. Diet Diversity Score (DDS) is determined by how many from five food groups (cereal, meat, dairy, vegetable and fruit) consumed per day while Korean Diet Diversity Score (KDDS) is determined by how many from five different food groups (cereal, meat, vegetable, dairy and oil) consumed per day. The subjects'average DDS and KDDS were 4.0 and 3.5 for males, and 3.7 and 3.2 for females, respectively. Overall, the distribution of DDS was lower than that of KDDS. The average Meal Balance Score (MBS : Apply the KDDS at breakfast, lunch and dinner) was 9.1 for malts and 8.1 for females. Average daily caloric intake for males and females was 1,740 kcal and 1,433 kcal, which was 84.0% and 80.9% of the RDA, respectively. Average daily protein intake for males and females, at 67 g and 49 g (100.7% and 88.3% of the RDA), respectively, was satisfactory. However, intakes of calcium and vitamin A were below 75% of the RDA (calcium : 62.7% for males and 55.3% for females ; vitamin A : 60.7% for males and 53.9% far females). The average proportional contribution of protein/fat/carbohydrate (PFC) to total calorie intake was 15.8 : 15.7 : 68.5 for males and 13.8 : 13.2 : 73.0 for females. Distribution of energy for each meal (breakfast : lunch : afternoon snack : dinner : night snack) was 29.2 : 32.4 : 5.0 : 31.2 : 2.2 among males and 30.5 : 33.5 : 4.5 : 28.6 : 2.91 among females. The Index of Nutritional Quality (INQ) was above 1 for protein, phosphorus, iron, vitamin B$_1$, niacin, and vitamin C. However, the INQ of calcium and vitamin A were below 1 among both males and females, and the INQ of vitamin B$_2$was below l among females. The Nutrient Adequacy Ratio (NAR = nutrient intake %RDA) was below 1 for all nutrients, and the NAR of vitamin A were the lowest among 9 nutrients (protein, calcium, phosphorus, iron, vitamin A, vitamin B$_1$, vitamin B$_2$, niacin, vitamin C) for both males and females, with values of 0.52 and 0.42, respectively. The second and third lowest NAR values were for calcium(males: 0.68: females: 0.54) and vitamin B$_2$(males: 0.77: females: 0.67). Values of Mean Adequacy Ratio (MAR = sum of 9 NARs/9) for males (0.82) were higher than for females (0.73). These results indicate that the intakes of calcium and vitamin A were severely inadequate. The results of a stepwise multiple regression analysis, where the DVS or MAR were the dependent variables and the DDS, KDDS, and MBS were independent variables, indicated that DDS is a more useful variable than KDDS in determining the quality of meals of the elderly.

Effect of Smoking and Drinking Habits on the Nutrient Intakes and Health of Middle and High School Boy Students (남자 중.고생의 흡연과 음주습관이 영양소 섭취 및 건강상태에 미치는 영향)

  • Shin, Kyung-Ok;An, Chang-Hun;Hwang, Hyo-Jeong;Choi, Kyung-Soon;Chung, Keun-Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.38 no.6
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    • pp.694-708
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    • 2009
  • The principal objective of this study was to determine the effects of smoking & drinking on the diet, nutrient intake, and overall health. A sample of 262 youths, aged 16 to 18 year-old, was randomly selected from Seoul and its vicinity. The subjects participated by answering survey questions including general questions, questions regarding health, smoking & drinking habits, dietary habits, nutrient intake, physical characteristics, and smoking cessation plans. The average height, weight, and BMI of the subjects were $173.5{\pm}6.8\;cm$, $64.8{\pm}11.8\;kg$, and $21.4{\pm}3.7\;kg/m^2$, respectively. Among the subjects, 88% appeared to be interested in health and 43.5% of youth asserted that the best way to keep healthy was to engage in regular exercise. Among 63 smokers, 52 students (82.5%) used alcoholic beverages while 11 students (17.5%) did not use alcoholic beverages, meaning that smoking was a causative factor in drinking. 55.6% of youth reported beginning to smoke in middle school, and 38.1% of them asserted that curiosity was the motive for smoking. The youth reported that the craving for smoking was highest when hungry, and the best place to smoke was the restroom. 20 students (69.0%) answered that the only way to quit smoking was just to stop. 12 students (44.4%) reported that the main reason for failures in smoking cessation attempts was a lack of intention or willpower. 87.1% of all subjects answered that they were inclined to quit smoking, and 56.7% of them would be interested in attending a smoking cessation program if they had the opportunity. Among the smoking and drinking group, 50% of drinkers began to drink in high school, and the reason for drinking given was peer pressure-40% of drinkers answered that they wished to quit drinking. 34.4% of students appeared to have breakfast everyday, but 16.4% of students answered that they had quit eating breakfast. 52.5% of all students reported that the principal reason for overeating was the presence of one's favorite food, and the smoking and drinking group reported overeating more frequently than other groups (p<0.05). 72.6% of all subjects reported eating interim meals $1{\sim}2$ times daily, 36.4% of smokers ate carbonated beverages, 38.5% ate ice cream as a interim meal, and 38.5% of the drinking and smoking groups ate fruits, 26.9% of them ate fried foods, and some of them ate fast foods as a interim meal. Among smokers, the ratio of eating fat-rich foods, and meats such as kalbi and samgyupsal more than two times per week was higher, and 54.3% of smokers ate ice cream, cookies, and carbonated beverages more than two times per week (p<0.05). The total nutrient intake of the $15{\sim}19$-year youth group was much higher than the standard value. The energy intake of the smoking group and the drinking and smoking group was significantly higher than that of the normal group (p<0.05). Intakes of phosphorus (p<0.05), cholesterol (p<0.05), and sodium (p<0.05) were the highest among all groups. Accordingly, it is recommended that practical education programs be implemented to teach young students to resist peer pressures to smoke and drink. Additionally, education that acknowledges the importance of nutrition is necessary to avoid preferential eating and overeating due to smoking and drinking.such education can also teach students to eat a balanced diet and improve their physical development.