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Physiological Role of a Multigrain Diet in Metabolic Regulations of Lipid and Antioxidant Profiles in Hypercholesteremic Rats -Multigrain diet in hyperlipemia-

  • Vasant, Rupal A.;Patel, Namrata D.;Karn, Sanjay S.;Narasimhacharya, Amaravadi V.R.L.
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.34-40
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    • 2014
  • Objectives: The objective of the present study was to investigate the lipid and the antioxidant regulatory potential of a multigrain diet in laboratory animals with reference to lipid profiles, tissue lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status. Methods: Two types of diets, with or without addition of cholesterol, were used in the study - a commercial diet and a formulated multigrain diet (with Sorghum vulgare, Avena sativa, Pennisetum typhoideum, Oryza sativa, Eleusine coracana and Zea mays grains). After a 10-week period of feeding the diets to albino rats the plasma, liver and fecal lipid profiles and the hepatic and renal antioxidant status of the animals that were fed the commercial and the formulated diets (with and without cholesterol addition) were assessed. Results: The commercial diet supplemented with cholesterol elevated the levels of plasma total lipids, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), as well as the atherogenic index (AI). The high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) content and the antioxidant profiles (total ascorbic acid, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase reduced glutathione) declined along with increases in lipid peroxidation. The formulated diet (with and without addition of cholesterol) was found to be more efficient than the commercial diet in controlling plasma, hepatic and fecal lipid profiles, as well as hepatic and renal lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status, than of the hypercholesteremic animals. Conclusion: The multigrain diet used in the present study is effective in countering the hyperlipidemia and oxidative stress caused by high cholesterol intake.

Effects of Replacing Lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) Hay with Fresh Citrus Pulp on Ruminal Fermentation and Ewe Performance

  • Sparkes, J.L.;Chaves, A.V.;Fung, Y.T.E.;van Ekris, I.;Bush, R.D.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.197-204
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    • 2010
  • Two studies were conducted to determine the effects of replacing 30% (% in diet DM) of lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) hay with citrus pulp in Merino ewe diets: i) an in vitro study which measured ruminal fermentation; and ii) an in vivo study in which twelve Merino ewes pre- and post-lambing were fed experimental diets in a cross-over design over 120 days to evaluate effects on ewe performance (i.e. DM intake, average daily gain (ADG) and wool growth). In both the in vitro and in vivo studies, the control treatment consisted of lucerne (91.3% in diet DM), lupins (8.3% in diet DM) and phosphate (0.42% in diet DM), while the citrus pulp treatment consisted of lucerne (57.7% in diet DM), lupins (9.5% in diet DM), phosphate (0.48% in diet DM) and fresh citrus pulp (32.3% in diet DM). Data were analysed using the mixed model procedure of SAS. In the in vitro study, gas production, total volatile fatty acid (VFA) yield, proportion of propionic acid to total VFA and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) were higher (p<0.02) in the citrus pulp treatment compared to the control treatment. In contrast, in vitro ammonia production, pH and the acetate to propionate ratio were lower (p<0.03) for the citrus pulp treatment compared to the control treatment. In the in vivo study, DM intake of ewes fed the citrus pulp diet was lower than their control ewe counterparts throughout both the pre- and post-lambing periods (928.9 vs. 1,115.0 g/d pre-; 1,285.0 vs. 1,620.3 g/d post-lambing, p<0.01), however ADG was similar (p = 0.12). Wool growth parameters and lamb performance did not differ (p>0.32) between treatments. In summary, the in vitro study demonstrated that the replacement of 30% of a lucerne diet with fresh citrus pulp improved total VFA yield, increased total gas production and improved IVDMD, while decreasing the production of ammonia, acetic acid and rumen pH. In addition, the in vivo study demonstrated that the replacement of 30% of a lucerne diet with fresh citrus pulp pre- and post-lambing decreased intake but did not affect ewe performance in terms of ADG and wool growth. These findings, of course, would be of significant interest to sheep producers endeavouring to control cost of feed ingredients whilst maintaining productivity.

Effectiveness of Nutrition Education on Dietary Habits and Diet Quality in the Weight Loss and Weight Gain Groups in College Women (영양교육에 의한 체중감소군과 체중증가군의 식습관 및 식사의 질 평가 - 여대생을 대상으로 -)

  • Lee, Seung-Hee;Chang, Nam-Soo
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.40 no.5
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    • pp.463-474
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    • 2007
  • This study attempted to evaluate the effectiveness of nutrition education especially high nutrient density diet, which promotes low carbohydrate, high protein and fiber. Sixty nine college students participated in the 8 week weight management program with nutrition education. After the program, forty six experienced a small amount of weight loss (WL group, 1.3 kg), but twenty three did not (WG group). The WL group's dietary habits and diet quality improved significantly. The INQ of nutrients and MAR significantly increased only in the WL group. The total DQI-I score significantly increased from 71.1 to 75.3 in the WL group, but it did not in the WG group. The total dietary habit scores significantly increased in both groups, but the changes in the dietary habit scores were greater than the WG group in the WL group. After the program, total cholesterol and triglyceride level decreased significantly in the WL group (p < 0.05). These results show that nutrition education which focuses on a nutrient density diet could help improve dietary habits, diet quality, total cholesterol, and the triglyceride level in college women.

The Effect of Dietary Sucrose on the Lipid Metabolism of Rat Fed by Low Protein Diet (Sucrose의 섭취가 저단백식이로 성장하는 흰쥐의 체내 지방대사에 미치는 영향)

  • 조희래
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.103-107
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    • 1980
  • This study was conducted to compare the effect of dietary sucrose and starch on the lipid metabolism of Rat fed by low protein diet for 3 and 6 weeks periods. Forty male weanling Spargue-Dawley rats weighing 52.7 grams each, after being adopted for 2 days with standard diet, were blocked into 8 groups and fed experimental diet as designed. Experimental diet were composed of two different levels of proteins, 6% designed as low protein diet and 15% designed as standard protein diet. In each group, the content of serum lipid, serum cholesterol and liver lipid were measured. The results of this experiment were summerized as follows. 1. liver lipid content was tended to be high in the sucrose group of low protein fed animal. 2. the content of total serum lipid was tended to be high in the sucrose group, and this tendency was showed statistical significance in the animals fed by low and standard protein after 6 weeks of experimental period. 3. The difference in the total serum cholesterol content between the sucrose and starch group was not significant

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Effects of Astragali Radix on the Diet-induced Hyperlipidemia in Rats (황기가 흰쥐의 식이성 고지혈증에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Hak-Joon;Kim, Jeung-Beum
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.575-579
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    • 2008
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Astragali Radix on the diet-induced hyperlipidemia in rats. Hyperlipedemia was induced in rats with high fat diet. Rats were divided into 4 groups, normal group(supplied enough water and feeds only), high fat diet administered group(supplied high fat diet for 4 weeks, Control group) and Astragali Radix administered group(supplied high fat diet and Astragali Radix lyophilization extract for 4 weeks, 178.6 mg/kg(rat) in sample A, 297.8 mg/kg(rat) in sample B). Body weight, liver weight and serum lipid levels were evaluated. The water extract of Astragali Radix decreased body weight, liver weight, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglyceride and phospolipid in high fat diet induced hyperlipidemia in rats, and increased HDL-cholesterol.

Fruiting Body Extracts of Paecilomyces tenuipes Ameliorate Lipid and Antioxidant Metabolism in Rats Fed a High Fat-Cholesterol Diet

  • Park, Eun-Ju;Park, Nam-Sook;Park, Hae-Ryong;Jin, Byung-Rae;Lee, Sang-Mong
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.710-714
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    • 2006
  • The present study examined the lipid lowering and antioxidant activity of Paecilomyces tenuipes. Eight week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed one of the three diets, a reference diet without cholesterol addition (NC), a high fat (17 g/ 100 g)-high cholesterol (1 g/100 g) diet (HC) and a HC diet supplemented with 3% P. tenuipes (PT) for 30 days. Total lipid and total cholesterol were reduced significantly by 33 and 37%, respectively, in the PT diet group compared with controls. A similar reduction was found for low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels, while plasma high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and triglyceride (TG) concentrations were not significantly different among groups. Hepatic total lipid and total cholesterol levels, but not hepatic TG levels, were significantly decreased in the PT group compared to the HC group. The administration of P. tenuipes increased the plasma total antioxidant potential and decreased the levels of lipid peroxidation. These results suggest that P. tenuipes exerts significant health benefits through the modulation of physiological functions including a variety of atherogenic lipid profiles and antioxidants in hypercholesterolemia.

Effects of cranberry powder on serum lipid profiles and biomarkers of oxidative stress in rats fed an atherogenic diet

  • Kim, Mi-Joung;Jung, Ha-Na;Kim, Ki-Nam;Kwak, Ho-Kyung
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.2 no.3
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    • pp.158-164
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    • 2008
  • This study investigated that the antioxidative effect of freeze-dried cranberry powder against protein and lipid oxidation and ameliorative effect of serum lipid profile in rat fed atherogenic diet. Six weeks old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the following four groups: normal diet group with 5% com oil(control), atherogenic diet group with 5% com oil, 10% lard, 1% cholesterol, and 0.5% sodium cholate(HFC), atherogenic plus 2% cranberry powder diet group(HFC+C2), and atherogenic plus 5% cranberry powder diet group(HFC+C5), and respective diet and water were fed daily for 6 weeks. After the experimental period, the serum lipid profile, such as total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglyceride, ferric reducing ability of plasma(FRAP), plasma phenolics content, superoxide dismutase(SOD) activity, serum protein carbonyl and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances(TBARS) levels were examined. Total phenolic compound and total flavonoid levels in freeze-dried cranberry powder were 9.94 mg/g and 8.12 mg/g, respectively. Serum total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels were not significantly different for cranberry powder treatment, but serum HDL-cholesterol level was significantly increased in HFC+C5 group compared with HFC group. Plasma FRAP value tended to be increased by cranberry powder treatment though there was no significant difference. Plasma total phenol concentrations and SOD activities were not significantly different among all groups. Serum protein carbonyl and TBARS levels were significantly decreased in HFC+C5 group compared with HFC group. Overall results suggested that freeze-dried cranberry powder might have the serum lipid improving effect, as well as anti oxidative effect demonstrated by its protective effect against protein and lipid oxidation.

Gene Expression Profile in the Liver Tissue of High Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice

  • Minho Cha;Bongjoo Kang;Kim, Kyungseon;Woongseop Sim;Hyunhee Oh;Yoosik Yoon
    • Nutritional Sciences
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.8-16
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    • 2004
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the gene profiles that were up- or down-regulated in the livers of high-fat diet-induced obese mice and $db_-/db_-$ mice with deficient leptin receptor. C57/BL6 normal mice and $db_-/db_-$ mice, respectively, were divided into two groups and fed a standard or high-fat diet for four weeks. Liver weight was unchanged in the normal mice but the high-fat diet led to a 10% weight increase in the $db_-/db_-$mice. Adipose tissue mass increased by about 88% in the normal mice that were fed a high-fat diet and by about 17% in the $db_-/db_-$mice on the high-fat diet. In terms of serum lipids, total cholesterol significantly increased in mice on the high-fat diet. Microarray analysis was carried out using total RNA isolated from the livers of standard or high-fat diet-fed mice of the normal and $db_-/db_-$ strains. The change of gene expression was confirmed by RT-PCR. About 1.6% and 6.8% of total genes, respectively, showed different expression patterns in the normal mice fed the high-fat diet and $db_-/db_-$ mice. As a result of microarray, many genes involved in metabolism and signal pathways were shown to have different expression patterns. Expression of Mgst3 gene increased in the livers of normal and $db_-/db_-$ mice that were fed a high-fat diet. Wnt7b and Ptk9l were down-regulated in the livers of the normal mice and $db_-/db_-$ mice that were fed a high-fat diet. In conclusion, a high-fat diet induced obesity and affected gene expression involved in metabolism and signal pathway.

Fitness of Diet-Related Factors Explaining the Self-Rated Health (SRH) in Rural Older Adults with Discriminant Analysis (판별분석에 의한 주관적 건강 평가에 영향을 미치는 식사관련 요인의 적합성 검증)

  • Cha, Myeong-Hwa;Heo, Seong-Ja;Youn, Hyun-Sook
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.723-732
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    • 2008
  • The purpose of this study was to identify the influence of diet related factors, such as diet behaviors, food intake, and nutrient intakes, on self-rated health (SRH). Also, in order to determine fitness of classification for SRH reflecting diet related factors, this study surveyed older adults in Gyeongnam province. A total of 101 responses were collected using the interview survey method. The self- rated health of rural older adults was poor as reported by 49.5%. The level of self-rated health was found to be related to the frequencies of coffee and snack, use of sugar and vegetable in diet, the amount of total food intake, and cholesterol intake. The result of discriminant analysis, which was conducted to assess the adequacy of SRH classification and to determine the class of observation, showed frequency of coffee and use of vegetable in diet among 47 variables as predictive variables for explaining SRH. The fitness of self-rated health function was high to 47.7%. Therefore, diet-related factors were ascertained to be important variables to predict SRH.

The Effect of Vesitable Oils on the Serum Cholesterol in Rats (식이중(食餌中) 여러가지 식물성(植物性) 지방(脂肪)이 혈청(血淸) Cholesterol에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Lee, Yong-Ock;Cho, Chung-Soon;Oh, Hea-Yong
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.67-75
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    • 1985
  • The present study was designed to compare the effect of soybean oils and corn oils on serum levels of total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and free cholesterol in cholesterol-fed rats. The results are as fellows: 1. The average body weight gain in soybean oil diet group was lower than that of the control group. 2. The food efficiency ratio in soybean oil diet group was lower than corn oil diet group. 3. The serum levels of total cholesterol in soybean oil diet group than that in corn oil diet group. 4. The serum levels of free cholesterol in soybean oil diet group was lower than that in corn oil diet group. 5. The serum levels of HDL-cholesterol in soybean oil diet group than that in corn oil diet group. 6. The serum levels of VLDL-, LFL-cholesterol in soybean oil diet group was lower than that in corn oil diet group.