• Title, Summary, Keyword: tower stiffness

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Study on midtower longitudinal stiffness of three-tower four-span suspension bridges with steel truss girders

  • Cheng, Jin;Xu, Hang;Xu, Mingsai
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.73 no.6
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    • pp.641-649
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    • 2020
  • The determination of midtower longitudinal stiffness has become an essential component in the preliminary design of multi-tower suspension bridges. For a specific multi-tower suspension bridge, the midtower longitudinal stiffness must be controlled within a certain range to meet the requirements of sliding resistance coefficient and deflection-to-span ratio. This study presents a numerical method to divide different types of midtower and determine rational range of longitudinal stiffness for rigid midtower. In this method, influence curves of midtower longitudinal stiffness on sliding resistance coefficient and maximum vertical deflection-to-span ratio are first obtained from the finite element analysis. Then, different types of midtower are divided based on the regression analysis of influence curves. Finally, rational range for longitudinal stiffness of rigid midtower is derived. The Oujiang River North Estuary Bridge which is a three-tower four-span suspension bridge with two main spans of 800m under construction in China is selected as the subject of this study. This will be the first three-tower four-span suspension bridge with steel truss girders and concrete midtower in the world. The proposed method provides an effective and feasible tool for engineers to design midtower of multi-tower suspension bridges.

Hingeless Blade Reinforcement for Whirl Tower Test of Bearingless Hub (무베어링 허브 훨타워 시험을 위한 무힌지 블레이드 보강)

  • Kim, Tae-Joo;Yoon, Chul-Yong;Kee, Young-Joon;Kim, Seung-Ho;Jung, Sung-Nam;Dhadwal, M.K.
    • Journal of Aerospace System Engineering
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 2012
  • During helicopter rotor system development process, whirl tower test is conducted basically. For conducting whirl tower test during bearingless hub development process, design new blade or using existing blade with repair or remodeling. Because simple shape and efficient aerodynamic characteristic, BO-105 blade is used for hub system development widely. Originally BO-105 Blade is used for hingeless hub, so flap stiffness and lag stiffness on blade root area is relatively low. So appling BO-105 blade to bearingless hub whirl tower test, root area have to be reinforce. In this paper, suggest reinforcement method of BO-105 blade root area.

Seismic performance and its favorable structural system of three-tower suspension bridge

  • Zhang, Xin-Jun;Fu, Guo-Ning
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.50 no.2
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    • pp.215-229
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    • 2014
  • Due to the lack of effective longitudinal constraint for center tower, structural stiffness of three-tower suspension bridge becomes less than that of two-tower suspension bridge, and therefore it becomes more susceptible to the seismic action. By taking a three-tower suspension bridge-the Taizhou Highway Bridge over the Yangtze River with two main spans of 1080 m as example, structural dynamic characteristics and seismic performance of the bridge is investigated, and the effects of cable's sag to span ratio, structural stiffness of the center tower, and longitudinal constraint of the girder on seismic response of the bridge are also investigated, and the favorable structural system is discussed with respect to seismic performance. The results show that structural response under lateral seismic action is more remarkable, especially for the side towers, and therefore more attentions should be paid to the lateral seismic performance and also the side towers. Large cable's sag, flexible center tower and the longitudinal elastic cable between the center tower and the girder are favorable to improve structural seismic performance of long-span three-tower suspension bridges.

Dynamic Characteristic Study of Hingeless Blade Stiffness Reinforcement for Bearingless Rotor Whirl Tower Test (무베어링 로터 훨타워 시험을 위한 무힌지 블레이드 강성보강에 따른 동특성 연구)

  • Kim, Tae-Joo;Yun, Chul-Yong;Kee, Young-Joong;Kim, Seung-Ho;Jung, Sung-Nam
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Noise and Vibration Engineering Conference
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    • pp.622-627
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    • 2012
  • During helicopter rotor system development process, whirl tower test is conducted basically. For conducting whirl tower test during bearingless hub development process, design new blade or using existing blade with repair or remodeling. Because simple shape and efficient aerodynamic characteristic, BO-105 blade is used for hub system development widely. Originally BO-105 blade is used for hingeless hub, ho flap stiffness and lag stiffness on blade root area is relatively low. So applying BO-105 blade to bearingless hub whirl tower test, root area have to be reinforce. In this process, blade root area's section property will be changed. In this paper, suggest reinforcement method of BO-105 blade root area and study dynamic characteristic of bearingless rotor system with reinforcement BO-105 blade.

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Mechanical performance study and parametric analysis of three-tower four-span suspension bridges with steel truss girders

  • Cheng, Jin;Xu, Mingsai;Xu, Hang
    • Steel and Composite Structures
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.189-198
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    • 2019
  • This paper aims to study the mechanical performance of three-tower four-span suspension bridges with steel truss girders, including the static and dynamic characteristics of the bridge system, and more importantly, the influence of structural parameters including the side-main span ratio, sag-to-span ratio and the girder stiffness on key mechanical indices. For this purpose, the Oujiang River North Estuary Bridge which is a three-tower four-span suspension bridge with two main spans of 800m under construction in China is taken as an example in this study. This will be the first three-tower suspension bridge with steel truss girders in the world. The mechanical performance study and parametric analysis are conducted based on a validated three-dimensional spatial truss finite element model established for the Oujiang River North Estuary Bridge using MIDAS Civil. It is found that a relatively small side-main span ratio seems to be quite appropriate from the perspective of mechanical performance. And decreasing the sag-to-span ratio is an effective way to reduce the horizontal force subjected to the midtower and improve the antiskid safety of the main cable, while the vertical stiffness of the bridge will be reduced. However, the girder stiffness is shown to be of minimal significance on the mechanical performance. The findings from this paper can be used for design of three-tower suspension bridges with steel truss girders.

Dynamic response of layered hyperbolic cooling tower considering the effects of support inclinations

  • Asadzadeh, Esmaeil;Alam, Mehtab;Asadzadeh, Sahebali
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.50 no.6
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    • pp.797-816
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    • 2014
  • Cooling tower is analyzed as an assembly of layered nonlinear shell elements. Geometric representation of the shell is enabled through layered nonlinear shell elements to define the different layers of reinforcements and concrete by considering the material nonlinearity of each layer for the cooling tower shell. Modal analysis using Ritz vector analysis and nonlinear time history analysis by direct integration method have been carried out to study the effects of the inclination of the supporting columns of the cooling tower shell on its dynamic characteristics. The cooling tower is supported by I-type columns and ${\Lambda}$-type columns supports having the different inclination angles. Relevant comparisons of the dynamic response of the structural system at the base level (at the junction of the column and shell), throat level and at the top of the tower have been made. Dynamic response of the cooling tower is found to be significantly sensitive to the change of the inclination of the supporting columns. It is also found that the stiffness of the structure system increases with increase in inclination angle of the supporting columns, resulting in decrease of the period of the structural system. The participation of the stiffness of the tower in structural response of the cooling tower is fund to be dependent of the change in the inclination angle and even in the types of the supporting columns.

Dynamic Characteristic Study of Hingeless Blade Stiffness Reinforcement for Bearingless Rotor Whirl Tower Test (무베어링 로터 훨타워 시험을 위한 무힌지 블레이드 강성보강에 따른 동특성 연구)

  • Kim, Taejoo;Yun, Chulyong;Kee, Youngjoong;Kim, Seung-Ho;Jung, Sungnam
    • Transactions of the Korean Society for Noise and Vibration Engineering
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.105-111
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    • 2013
  • Whirl tower test is conducted basically during helicopter rotor system development process. And for whirl tower test of rotor hub system, new design blade or existing blade which is remodeled for new rotor hub system is used. Because of simple shape and efficient aerodynamic characteristic, BO-105 helicopter blade is used for helicopter rotor hub development project widely. Originally BO-105 blade is used for hingeless hub system and blade root is used to flexure. So flap stiffness and lag stiffness at blade root area is relatively low compare with airfoil area. So, in order to apply the BO-105 blade to bearingless hub, blade root area have to be reinforced. And in this process, blade root area's section property is changed. In this paper, we suggest reinforcement method of BO-105 blade root area and study dynamic characteristic of bearingless rotor system with reinforcement BO-105 blade.

Nonlinear analysis of cable-stayed spatial latticed structures

  • Zhou, Dai;Liu, Hongyu;Jin, Bo
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.415-436
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    • 2003
  • The combination of spatial latticed structures (hereafter SLS) and flexible cables, the cable-stayed spatial latticed structures (hereafter CSLS) can cross longer span. According to variation principle, a novel geometric nonlinear formulation for 3-D bar elements considering large displacement and infinitesimal rotation increments with second-order precision is developed. The cable nonlinearity is investigated and it is taken that the secant modulus method can be considered as an exact method for a cable member. The tower column with which the cables link is regarded as a special kind of beam element, and, a new simplified stiffness formulation is presented. The computational strategies for the nonlinear dynamic response of structures are given, and the ultimate load carrying capacities and seismic responses are analyzed numerically. It is noted that, compared with corresponding spatial latticed shells, the cable-stayed spatial latticed shells have more strength and more stiffness, and that the verical seismic responses of both CSLS and CLS are remarkably greater than the horizontal ones. In addition, the computation shows that the stiffness of tower column influences the performance of CSLS to a certain extent and the improvement of structural strength and stiffness of CSLS is relevant not only to cables but also to tower columns.

Dynamic Analysis of Guyed Tower Subjected to Random Waves (랜덤파랑하중에 대한 Guyed Tower의 동적 거동해석)

  • 유정선;윤정봉
    • Journal of Ocean Engineering and Technology
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.57-64
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    • 1987
  • Methods of nonlinear stochastic analysis of guyed towers are studied in this paper. Two different kinds of nonlinearities are considered. They are the nonlinear restoring force from the guying system and the nonlinear hydrodynamic force. Analyses are carried out mainly in the frequency domain using linearization techniques. Two methods for the linearization of the nonlinear stiffness are presented, in which the effects of the steady offset and the oscillating component of the structural motion can be adequately analyzed. those two methods are the equivalent linearization method and the average stiffness method. The linearization of the nonlinear drag force is also carried out considering the effect of steady current as well as oscillatory wave motions. Example analyses are performed for guyed tower in 300m water. Transfer functions and the expected maximum values of the deck displacement and the bending moment near the middle of the tower are calculated. Numerical results show that both of the frequency domain methods presented in this paper predict the responses of the sturcture very reasonably compared with those by the time integration method utilzing the random simulations wave particla motions.

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Operational Vibration Experiment and Analysis of a Small Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine Considering the Effect of Tower Stiffness (타워강성 효과를 고려한 소형 수직축 풍력발전기 운전 진동실험 및 해석)

  • Choo, Heon-Ho;Sim, Jae-Park;Ryu, Gyeong-Joong;Kim, Dong-Hyun;Kim, Bong-Yung
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Noise and Vibration Engineering Conference
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    • pp.602-606
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    • 2011
  • In this study, operational vibration experiment and analysis have been conducted for the 4-blade small vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT) including the effect of tower elastic behavior. Computational structural dynamics analysis method is applied to obtain Campbell diagram for the VAWT with elastic tower. An open type wind-tunnel is used to change and keep the wind velocity during the ground test. Equivalent reduced elastic tower is supported to the VAWT so that the elastic stiffness effect of the tower can be reflected to the present vibration experiment. Various excitation sources with aerodynamic forces are considered and the dominant operating vibration phenomena are physically investigated in detail.

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