• Title, Summary, Keyword: tower stiffness

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Hybrid nonlinear control of a tall tower with a pendulum absorber

  • Orlando, Diego;Goncalves, Paulo B.
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.46 no.2
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    • pp.153-177
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    • 2013
  • Pendulums can be used as passive vibration control devices in several structures and machines. In the present work, the nonlinear behavior of a pendulum-tower system is studied. The tower is modeled as a bar with variable cross-section with concentrated masses. First, the vibration modes and frequencies of the tower are obtained analytically. The primary structure and absorber together constitute a coupled system which is discretized as a two degrees of freedom nonlinear system, using the normalized eigenfunctions and the Rayleigh-Ritz method. The analysis shows the influence of the geometric nonlinearity of the pendulum absorber on the response of the tower. A parametric analysis also shows that, with an appropriate choice of the absorber parameters, a pendulum can decrease the vibration amplitudes of the tower in the main resonance region. The results also show that the pendulum nonlinearity cannot be neglected in this type of problem, leading to multiplicity of solutions, dynamic jumps and instability. In order to improve the effectiveness of the control during the transient response, a hybrid control system is suggested. The added control force is implemented as a non-linear variable stiffness device based on position and velocity feedback. The obtained results show that this strategy of nonlinear control is attractive, has a good potential and can be used to minimize the response of slender structures under various types of excitation.

Soil-structure interaction analysis for the offshore wind tower with bucket foundation (버켓기초를 가진 해상풍력타워의 지반-구조물 상호작용해석)

  • Lee, Gyehee;Kim, Sejeong;Phu, Tranduc
    • Journal of the Society of Disaster Information
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.244-252
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    • 2014
  • In this study, seismic responses of the offshore wind tower supported by bucket foundation are analyzed in consideration of soil-structure interaction. The program SASSI is used as analyzing tool and an artificial seismic input for soft soil is used as input motion. The H/R ratio of bucket, the stiffness of bucket foundation and the soil stiffness are considered as parameters and its effects are estimated. The responses of structure are obtained at the base and the nacell. As results, the effects of H/R ratio, the stiffness of bucket and the stiffness of site are generally denoted different response tendency at the base and the nacell. However, these whole responses of the base and the nacell are much lager than that of rock site. Therefore, the consideration of this phemomia affect to the response of offshore wind tower with bucket foundation largely.

Structural health monitoring of Canton Tower using Bayesian framework

  • Kuok, Sin-Chi;Yuen, Ka-Veng
    • Smart Structures and Systems
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    • v.10 no.4_5
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    • pp.375-391
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    • 2012
  • This paper reports the structural health monitoring benchmark study results for the Canton Tower using Bayesian methods. In this study, output-only modal identification and finite element model updating are considered using a given set of structural acceleration measurements and the corresponding ambient conditions of 24 hours. In the first stage, the Bayesian spectral density approach is used for output-only modal identification with the acceleration time histories as the excitation to the tower is unknown. The modal parameters and the associated uncertainty can be estimated through Bayesian inference. Uncertainty quantification is important for determination of statistically significant change of the modal parameters and for weighting assignment in the subsequent stage of model updating. In the second stage, a Bayesian model updating approach is utilized to update the finite element model of the tower. The uncertain stiffness parameters can be obtained by minimizing an objective function that is a weighted sum of the square of the differences (residuals) between the identified modal parameters and the corresponding values of the model. The weightings distinguish the contribution of different residuals with different uncertain levels. They are obtained using the Bayesian spectral density approach in the first stage. Again, uncertainty of the stiffness parameters can be quantified with Bayesian inference. Finally, this Bayesian framework is applied to the 24-hour field measurements to investigate the variation of the modal and stiffness parameters under changing ambient conditions. Results show that the Bayesian framework successfully achieves the goal of the first task of this benchmark study.

Stability of Water Tower with a Relatively Small Footing (상대적으로 작은 기초를 갖는 급수탑의 안정성)

  • Oh Sang-Jin;Jin Tae-Ki
    • Proceedings of the Computational Structural Engineering Institute Conference
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    • pp.963-968
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    • 2006
  • The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the stability of water tower with a relatively small footing. The water tower is modeled that the column carrying a container is supported by a rotational spring at the base and is of constant cross-section, with a weight per unit length of column axis. The column model is based on the Bernoulli-Euler beam theory. The Runge-Kutta method and Determinant Search method are used to perform the integration of the governing differential equation and to determine the critical values(critical own weight. and critical buckling load), respectively. The critical buckling loads are calculated over a range of system parameters: the rotational stiffness parameter, the dimensionless radius of container and the own weight parameter of the column. The relation between the rotational stiffness parameter and the critical own weight parameter of the column is analyzed.

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Operational Vibration Experiment and Analysis of a Small Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine Considering the Effect of a Tower Stiffness (타워강성 효과를 고려한 소형 수직축 풍력발전기 운전 진동실험 및 해석)

  • Choo, Heon-Ho;Sim, Jae-Park;Oh, Min-Woo;Kim, Dong-Hyun
    • The KSFM Journal of Fluid Machinery
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.5-9
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    • 2013
  • In this study, operational vibration experiment and analysis have been conducted for the 4-blade small vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT) including the effect of tower elastic behavior. Computational structural dynamics analysis method is applied to obtain Campbell diagram for the VAWT with elastic tower. An open type wind-tunnel is used to change and keep the wind velocity during the ground test. Equivalent elastic tower is used to support the VAWT so that the effect of elastic stiffness of the tower can be considered in the present vibration experiment. Various excitation conditions with wind loads are considered and the dominant operating vibration phenomena are physically investigated in detail.

Bayesian structural damage detection of steel towers using measured modal parameters

  • Lam, Heung-Fai;Yang, Jiahua
    • Earthquakes and Structures
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.935-956
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    • 2015
  • Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) of steel towers has become a hot research topic. From the literature, it is impractical and impossible to develop a "general" method that can detect all kinds of damages for all types of structures. A practical method should make use of the characteristics of the type of structures and the kind of damages. This paper reports a feasibility study on the use of measured modal parameters for the detection of damaged braces of tower structures following the Bayesian probabilistic approach. A substructure-based structural model-updating scheme, which groups different parts of the target structure systematically and is specially designed for tower structures, is developed to identify the stiffness distributions of the target structure under the undamaged and possibly damaged conditions. By comparing the identified stiffness distributions, the damage locations and the corresponding damage extents can be detected. By following the Bayesian theory, the probability model of the uncertain parameters is derived. The most probable model of the steel tower can be obtained by maximizing the probability density function (PDF) of the model parameters. Experimental case studies were employed to verify the proposed method. The contributions of this paper are not only on the proposal of the substructure-based Bayesian model updating method but also on the verification of the proposed methodology through measured data from a scale model of transmission tower under laboratory conditions.

Hingeless Blade Flexure Bending Stiffness Reinforcement for Whirl Tower Test (훨타워 시험 수행을 위한 무힌지 블레이드 플렉셔 굽힘 강성 보강)

  • Kim, Taejoo;Kee, Youngjoong
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Aeronautical & Space Sciences
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    • v.42 no.5
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    • pp.390-397
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    • 2014
  • BO-105 helicopter applies hingeless rotor hub system and blade root uses a flexure of hingeless rotor hub system. So bending stiffness reinforcement for flexure was conducted for preparation of whirl tower test using BO-105 blade. Bending moment of flexure area was calculated with FE modeling of section shape for stiffness reinforcement of flexure and thickness of composite material for reinforcement was chosen. Flexure bending stiffness reinforcement was conducted and bending stiffness measurement test was performed before and after bending stiffness reinforcement. And the test data are compared with analysis results.

Dynamic Analysis of Guyed Tower Subjected to Wave Forces (파랑하중에 대한 Guyed Tower의 동적해석)

  • Ryu, Jung Sun;Yun, Chung Bang
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.87-94
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    • 1985
  • Dynamic analysis of guyed tower is presented in this paper. The scope of the study is twofold. The one is to determine an efficient analysis method to include the nonlinearity of the mooring system and the nonlinear hydrodynamic wave forces. The other is to investigate the sensitivity of two major design parameters, that is the stiffness of mooring system and the fixity condition of the tower at mud line. Time history analysis method utilizing mode superposition is mainly considered. However several other methods are also used for the purpose of comparison. Analyses are carried out using the Lena Guyed Tower, which is the first structure of this kind, as a standard structure.

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System identification of the suspension tower of Runyang Bridge based on ambient vibration tests

  • Li, Zhijun;Feng, Dongming;Feng, Maria Q.;Xu, Xiuli
    • Smart Structures and Systems
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.523-538
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    • 2017
  • A series of field vibration tests are conducted on the Runyang Suspension Bridge during both the construction and operational stages. The purpose of this study is devoted to the analysis of the dynamic characteristics of the suspension tower. After the tower was erected, an array of accelerometers was deployed to study the evolution of its modal parameters during the construction process. Dynamic tests were first performed under the freestanding tower condition and then under the tower-cable condition after the superstructure was installed. Based on the identified modal parameters, the effect of the pile-soil-structure interaction on dynamic characteristics of the suspension tower is investigated. Moreover, the stiffness of the pile foundation is successfully identified using a probabilistic finite model updating method. Furthermore, challenges of identifying the dynamic properties of the tower from the coupled responses of the tower-cable system are discussed in detail. It's found that compared with the identified results from the freestanding tower, the longitudinal and torsional natural frequencies of the tower in the tower-cable system have changed significantly, while the lateral mode frequencies change slightly. The identified modal results from measurements by the structural health monitoring system further confirmed that the vibrations of the bridge subsystems (i.e., the tower, the suspended deck and the main cable) are strongly coupled with one another.

Foundation Design the 151 story Incheon Tower in Reclamation Area

  • Abdelrazaq, Ahmad;Badelow, Frances;Kim, Sung-Ho;Park, Yung-Ho
    • Proceedings of the Korean Geotechical Society Conference
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    • pp.157-171
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    • 2009
  • A 151 storey super high-rise building located in an area of reclaimed land constructed over soft marine clay in Songdo, Korea is currently under design. This paper describes the design process of the foundation system of the supertall tower, which is required to support the large building vertical and lateral loads and to restrain the horizontal displacement due to wind and seismic forces. The behaviour of the foundation system due to these loads and foundation stiffness influence the design of the building super structure, displacement of the tower, as well as the raft foundation design. Therefore, the design takes in account the interactions between soil, foundation and super structure, so as to achieve a safe and efficient building performance. The site lies entirely within an area of reclamation underlain by up to 20m of soft to firm marine silty clay, which overlies residual soil and a profile of weathered rock. The nature of the foundation rock materials are highly complex and are interpreted as possible roof pendant metamorphic rocks, which within about 50m from the surface have been affected by weathering which has reduced their strength. The presence of closely spaced joints, sheared and crushed zones within the rock has resulted in deeper areas of weathering of over 80m present within the building footprint. The foundation design process described includes the initial stages of geotechnical site characterization using the results of investigation boreholes and geotechnical parameter selection, and a series of detailed two- and three-dimensional numerical analysis for the Tower foundation comprising over 172 bored piles of varying length. The effect of the overall foundation stiffness and rotation under wind and seismic load is also discussed since the foundation rotation has a direct impact on the overall displacement of the tower.

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