• Title, Summary, Keyword: tower stiffness

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Wind tunnel investigation on flutter and buffeting of a three-tower suspension bridge

  • Zhang, Wen-ming;Ge, Yao-jun
    • Wind and Structures
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.367-384
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    • 2017
  • The Maanshan Bridge over Yangtze River in China is a new long-span suspension bridge with double main spans of $2{\times}1080m$ and a closed streamline cross-section of single box deck. The flutter and buffeting performances were investigated via wind tunnel tests of a full bridge aeroelastic model at a geometric scale of 1:211. The tests were conducted in both smooth wind and simulated boundary layer wind fields. Emphasis is placed on studying the interference effect of adjacent span via installing a wind deflector and a wind separating board to shelter one span of the bridge model from incoming flow. Issues related to effects of mid-tower stiffness and deck supporting conditions are also discussed. The testing results show that flutter critical wind velocities in smooth flow, with a wind deflector, are remarkably lower than those without. In turbulent wind, torsional and vertical standard deviations for the deck responses at midspan in testing cases without wind deflector are generally less than those at the midspan exposed to wind in testing cases with wind deflector, respectively. When double main spans are exposed to turbulent wind, the existence of either span is a mass damper to the other. Furthermore, both effects of mid-tower stiffness and deck supporting conditions at the middle tower on the flutter and buffeting performances of the Maanshan Bridge are unremarkable.

Study of structural parameters on the aerodynamic stability of three-tower suspension bridge

  • Zhang, Xin-Jun
    • Wind and Structures
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.471-485
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    • 2010
  • In comparison with the common two-tower suspension bridge, due to the lack of effective longitudinal restraint of the center tower, the three-tower suspension bridge becomes a structural system with greater flexibility, and more susceptible to the wind action. By taking a three-tower suspension bridge-the Taizhou Bridge over the Yangtze River with two main spans of 1080 m as example, effects of structural parameters including the cable sag to span ratio, the side to main span ratio, the deck's dead load, the deck's bearing system, longitudinal structural form of the center tower and the cable system on the aerodynamic stability of the bridge are investigated numerically by 3D nonlinear aerodynamic stability analysis, the favorable structural system of three-tower suspension bridge with good wind stability is discussed. The results show that good aerodynamic stability can be obtained for three-tower suspension bridge as the cable sag to span ratio is assumed ranging from 1/10 to 1/11, the central buckle are provided between main cables and the deck at midpoint of main spans, the longitudinal bending stiffness of the center tower is strengthened, and the spatial cable system or double cable system is employed.

Resistance Increasing Factor of Connected-pile Foundation for Transmission Tower in Clay (점토지반에 근입된 송전철탑 연결형 말뚝기초의 저항력증가계수)

  • Kyung, Doo-Hyun;Lee, Jun-Hwan;Paik, Kyu-Ho;Kim, Dae-Hong
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.28 no.8
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    • pp.31-41
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    • 2012
  • Pile foundation for transmission tower constructed in weak ground can cause the damage of the tower due to the different settlement between the foundations. In Japan and USA, connected-pile foundations whose 4 foundations are connected each other by beams were used for transmission tower (TEPCO 1988, IEEE 2001). Resistance increasing factors for connected-pile foundation signify increasing amount of resistance due to the effect of connected-pile material. In this study, we performed model lateral load tests of connected-pile foundations for transmission tower and found the resistance increasing factors for connected-pile foundation. The tests were performed in silty clay, and the resistance increasing factors were founded in various conditions that lateral load directions and height, the stiffness of beams in the connected-pile foundations were changed. The resistance increasing factors from our research were presented as a function of normal lateral loading height and normal stiffness of the connected-pile material. The resistances which were estimated from the resistance increasing factors were similar to measured values.

Finite Element Analysis for Transmission Tower Behavior Characteristic by Connection Beam Stiffness (수치해석을 이용한 송전철탑 연결형 기초의 연결보 강성에 따른 거동 특성)

  • Choi, YoungHo;Kyung, DooHyun;Lee, JunHwan
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.219-227
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    • 2013
  • This study analyzed the effect of performance connected-type foundations of behavior and the connected beams according to the characteristics into soft clay transmission tower foundation. For this purpose, the finite element analysis model was built and connected to the transmission tower foundation mat and the contact area of the connection beam by the percentage change in the behavior and resistance characteristics were analyzed and finite element verification of the validity of the analytical model was conducted using connected-type transmission tower results of the model experiments constructed, and effective connected-type transmission tower basis of the behavior of connected beams were selected by analyzing the effect due to the increase of the stiffness. In addition, weak analysis by connected beam self-bending moment distribution was conducted.

Basic Properties Test and Non-rotating Dynamic Test of Helicopter Rotor (헬리콥터 로터 블레이드의 기본 물리량 및 비회전 동특성 시험)

  • Yun, Chul Yong;Kim, Taejoo;Kee, Young-Jung;Sim, Heon-Su;Kim, Seung-Ho
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Noise and Vibration Engineering Conference
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    • pp.103-108
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    • 2013
  • This paper describes basic properties tests and non-rotating dynamic test for rotor blade, flexbeam, and torque tube of which bearingless rotor in helicopter consists. A basic properties test are bending and twist test to find the flap stiffness, lag stiffness, and twist stiffness of specimens. The purpose of dynamic test is to find natural frequencies and modes in non-rotating state. The test results are used to update the analysis model. The updated analysis results using rotorcraft comprehensive code match the tests quite well. The updated model input based on the tests will be utilized to analysis the conditions of rotating whirl tower test before the whirl test and will be compared with the whirl tower test results.

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Response evaluation and vibration control of a transmission tower-line system in mountain areas subjected to cable rupture

  • Chen, Bo;Wu, Jingbo;Ouyang, Yiqin;Yang, Deng
    • Structural Monitoring and Maintenance
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.151-171
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    • 2018
  • Transmission tower-line systems are commonly slender and generally possess a small stiffness and low structural damping. They are prone to impulsive excitations induced by cable rupture and may experience strong vibration. Excessive deformation and vibration of a transmission tower-line system subjected to cable rupture may induce a local destruction and even failure event. A little work has yet been carried out to evaluate the performance of transmission tower-line systems in mountain areas subjected to cable rupture. In addition, the control for cable rupture induced vibration of a transmission tower-line system has not been systematically conducted. In this regard, the dynamic response analysis of a transmission tower-line system in mountain areas subjected to cable rupture is conducted. Furthermore, the feasibility of using viscous fluid dampers to suppress the cable rupture-induced vibration is also investigated. The three dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) model of a transmission tower-line system is first established and the mathematical model of a mountain is developed to describe the equivalent scale and configuration of a mountain. The model of a tower-line-mountain system is developed by taking a real transmission tower-line system constructed in China as an example. The mechanical model for the dynamic interaction between the ground and transmission lines is proposed and the mechanical model of a viscous fluid damper is also presented. The equations of motion of the transmission tower-line system subjected to cable rupture without/with viscous fluid dampers are established. The field measurement is carried out to verify the analytical FE model and determine the damping ratios of the example transmission tower-line system. The dynamic analysis of the tower-line system is carried out to investigate structural performance under cable rupture and the validity of the proposed control approach based on viscous fluid dampers is examined. The made observations demonstrate that cable rupture may induce strong structural vibration and the implementation of viscous fluid dampers with optimal parameters can effectively suppress structural responses.

Stability evaluation of foundation settlement of power transmission tower (송전철탑의 기초침하에 대한 안정성 평가)

  • Lee, Dae-Soo;Cho, Hwa-Kyung;Kim, Dae-Hong;Ham, Bang-Uk
    • Proceedings of the Korean Geotechical Society Conference
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    • pp.687-696
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    • 2005
  • Safety diagnosis was conducted to evaluate the long-term stability evaluation of power transmission tower of which deformation of the upper structural elements occurred. To assess the cause of the structural deformation, field investigation including BIPS, down-hole test, concrete pile coring and finite element analysis were carried out. From these studies, the major cause of deformation was found due to the heavily fractured layer and weathered soil topography at the pile tip area. The cement-milk grouting method was proposed to reinforce these weak zone around the pile tip area. Also, the increase of cross-section and stiffness for steel members of upper tower structures was suggested. Instrumental monitoring was proposed as well to verify reinforcing effect.

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A Reliability Analysis of a Guyed Tower (Guyed Tower의 신뢰성 해석)

  • Tae-B.,Ha;Hang-S.,Choi
    • Bulletin of the Society of Naval Architects of Korea
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.29-35
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    • 1987
  • As offshore activities move into deeper ocean, conventional fixed-base platforms drastically increase in size and cost, One of alternatives available is a guyed tower, in which environmental loads are supported by guylines instead of structural members. The guying system of the guyed tower is designed on one hand to be stiff enough to limit the structural displacement in normal operations, but on the other hand to be soft enough to permit large slow sways during the presence of design-level storms. This compliancy provides an efficient means of withstanding harsh environment so that the disproportionate increase in size of deep water platforms can be kept to a rational limit. Novel configurations contain always some degrees of potential risks mainly due to the lack of experience. The most critical hazard inherent to a guyed tower may be the pullout of anchor piles. Once it happens, the guyline fails to function and it may eventually lead to the total collapse of the system. It is the aim of this paper to discuss and quantify the anchor-pullout risk of a guyed tower. A stochastic analysis is made for evaluating the first-upcrossing probability of the tension acting on anchor piles over the uplift capacity. Nonlinearities involved in the mooring stiffness and hydrodynamics are taken into account by using time-domain analysis. A simplified two dimensional dynamic model is developed to exemplify the underlying concept. Real hurricane data in the Gulf of Mexico spanning over 70 years are incorporated in a numerical example of which result clearly indicates highly potential risk of anchor pullout.

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Resonance Analysis According to Initial Tower Design for Floating Offshore Wind Turbine (부유식 해상풍력발전기 타워의 초기 형상에 따른 공진 해석)

  • Kim, Junbae;Shin, Hyunkyoung
    • Journal of Wind Energy
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.57-64
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    • 2018
  • To maximize power generation and reduce the construction cost of a commercial utility-grade wind turbine, the size of the wind turbine should be large. The initial design of the 12 MW University of Ulsan(UOU) Floating Offshore Wind Turbine(FOWT) was carried out based on the 5 MW National Renewable Energy Laboratory(NREL) offshore wind turbine model. The existing 5 MW NREL offshore wind turbines have been expanded to 12 MW UOU FOWT using the geometric law of similarity and then redesigned for each factor. The resonance of the tower is the most important dynamic responses of a wind turbine, and it should be designed by avoiding resonance due to cyclic load during turbine operations. The natural frequency of the tower needs to avoid being within the frequency range corresponding to the rotational speed of the blades, 1P, and the blade passing frequency, 3P. To avoid resonance, vibration can be reduced by modifying the stiffness or mass. The direct expansion of the 5 MW wind turbine support structure caused a resonance problem with the tower of the 12 MW FOWT and the tower length and diameter was adjusted to avoid a match of the first natural frequency and 3P excitation of the tower.

Experimental Investigation on the Energy Dissipation of Friction-type Reinforcing Members Installed in a Transmission Tower for Wind Response Reduction (송전철탑의 풍응답 감소를 위한 마찰형 보강기구의 에너지 소산특성 분석 실험)

  • Park, Ji-Hun;Moon, Byoung-Wook;Lee, Sung-Kyung;Min, Kyung-Won
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Noise and Vibration Engineering Conference
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    • pp.568-577
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    • 2007
  • Friction-type reinforcing members (FRM) to enhance the resistance to wind loads of a transmission tower through both stiffness strengthening and damping increase are energy dissipation devices that utilize bending deflection of a tower leg. In this paper, the hysteretic behavior of the transmission tower structure with FRMs was experimentally investigated through cyclic loading tests on a half scale substructure model. Firstly, the variation of friction forces and durability of the FRM depending on the type of Friction-inducing materials used in the FRM were examined by performing the cyclic loading tests on the FRM. Secondly, Cyclic loading tests of a half-scale two-dimensional substructure model of a transmission tower with FRMs were conducted. Test results show that the FRM, of which desired maximum friction force is easily regulated by adjusting the amplitude of the torque applied to the bolts, have stable hysteretic behaviors and it is found that there exists the optimum torque depending on a design load by investigating the amount of energy dissipation of the FRMs according to the increase of torque.

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