• Title, Summary, Keyword: tower stiffness

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Stab Resistance of Aramid Fabric Reinforced with Waterborne Polyurethane Resin (수용성 PU 강화 아라미드 직물의 방검 특성)

  • Yoo, Joohwan;Ahn, Damiro;Kim, Ho Dong
    • Textile Science and Engineering
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    • v.50 no.4
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    • pp.252-257
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    • 2013
  • The stab resistance of aramid fabrics reinforced with waterborne polyurethane (PU) resin is investigated by quasi-static and drop-tower stab tests. The effect of PU resin treatment and tumbling on the stab resistance is also evaluated by flexural stiffness and pull-out tests. To achieve maximum stab resistance, it is essential to control the movement of fiber bundles in the fabric structure. It is also found that the tumbling process is a useful way to improve the flexibility of treated fabrics.

Analytical method for the out-of-plane buckling of the jib system with middle strut

  • Wang, T.F.;Lu, N.L.;Lan, P.
    • Steel and Composite Structures
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    • v.21 no.5
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    • pp.963-980
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    • 2016
  • The jib system with middle strut is widely used to achieve the large arm length in the large scale tower crane and the deployability in the mobile construction crane. In this paper, an analytical solution for the out-of-plane buckling of the jib system with middle strut is proposed. To obtain the analytical expression of the buckling characteristic equation, the method of differential equation was adopted by establishing the bending and torsional differential equation of the jib system under the instability critical state. Compared with the numerical solutions of the finite element software ANSYS, the analytical results in this work agree well with them. Therefore, the correctness of the results in this work can be confirmed. Then the influences of the lateral stiffness of the cable fixed joint, the dip angle of the strut, the inertia moment of the strut, and the horizontal position of the cable fixed joint on the out-of-plane buckling behavior of the jib system were investigated.

Identification of Stiffness Parameters of Nanjing TV Tower Using Ambient Vibration Records (상시진동 계측자료를 이용한 Nanjing TV탑의 강성계수 추정)

  • Kim Jae Min;Feng. M. Q.
    • Proceedings of the Computational Structural Engineering Institute Conference
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    • pp.291-300
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    • 1998
  • This paper demonstrates how ambient vibration measurements at a limited number of locations can be effectively utilized to estimate parameters of a finite element model of a large-scale structural system involving a large number of elements. System identification using ambient vibration measurements presents a challenge requiring the use of special identification techniques, which ran deal with very small magnitudes of ambient vibration contaminated by noise without the knowledge of input farces. In the present study, the modal parameters such as natural frequencies, damping ratios, and mode shapes of the structural system were estimated by means of appropriate system identification techniques including the random decrement method. Moreover, estimation of parameters such as the stiffness matrix of the finite element model from the system response measured by a limited number of sensors is another challenge. In this study, the system stiffness matrix was estimated by using the quadratic optimization involving the computed and measured modal strain energy of the system, with the aid of a sensitivity relationship between each element stiffness and the modal parameters established by the second order inverse modal perturbation theory. The finite element models thus identified represent the actual structural system very well, as their calculated dynamic characteristics satisfactorily matched the observed ones from the ambient vibration test performed on a large-scale structural system subjected primarily to ambient wind excitations. The dynamic models identified by this study will be used for design of an active mass damper system to be installed on this structure fer suppressing its wind vibration.

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Analytical solution for natural frequency of monopile supported wind turbine towers

  • Rong, Xue-Ning;Xu, Ri-Qing;Wang, Heng-Yu;Feng, Su-Yang
    • Wind and Structures
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    • v.25 no.5
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    • pp.459-474
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    • 2017
  • In this study an analytical expression is derived for the natural frequency of the wind turbine towers supported on flexible foundation. The derivation is based on a Euler-Bernoulli beam model where the foundation is represented by a stiffness matrix. Previously the natural frequency of such a model is obtained from numerical or empirical method. The new expression is based on pure physical parameters and thus can be used for a quick assessment of the natural frequencies of both the real turbines and the small-scale models. Furthermore, a relationship between the diagonal and non-diagonal element in the stiffness matrix is introduced, so that the foundation stiffness can be obtained from either the p-y analysis or the loading test. The results of the proposed expression are compared with the measured frequencies of six real or model turbines reported in the literature. The comparison shows that the proposed analytical expression predicts the natural frequency with reasonable accuracy. For two of the model turbines, some errors were observed which might be attributed to the difference between the dynamic and static modulus of saturated soils. The proposed analytical solution is quite simple to use, and it is shown to be more reasonable than the analytical and the empirical formulas available in the literature.

Inelastic vector finite element analysis of RC shells

  • Min, Chang-Shik;Gupta, Ajaya Kumar
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.139-148
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    • 1996
  • Vector algorithms and the relative importance of the four basic modules (computation of element stiffness matrices, assembly of the global stiffness matrix, solution of the system of linear simultaneous equations, and calculation of stresses and strains) of a finite element computer program for inelastic analysis of reinforced concrete shells are presented. Performance of the vector program is compared with a scalar program. For a cooling tower problem, the speedup factor from the scalar to the vector program is 34 for the element stiffness matrices calculation, 25.3 for the assembly of global stiffness matrix, 27.5 for the equation solver, and 37.8 for stresses, strains and nodal forces computations on a Gray Y-MP. The overall speedup factor is 30.9. When the equation solver alone is vectorized, which is computationally the most intensive part of a finite element program, a speedup factor of only 1.9 is achieved. When the rest of the program is also vectorized, a large additional speedup factor of 15.9 is attained. Therefore, it is very important that all the modules in a nonlinear program are vectorized to gain the full potential of the supercomputers. The vector finite element computer program for inelastic analysis of RC shells with layered elements developed in the present study enabled us to perform mesh convergence studies. The vector program can be used for studying the ultimate behavior of RC shells and used as a design tool.

Earthquake Response Analysis of an Offshore Wind Turbine Considering Fluid-Structure-Soil Interaction (유체-구조물-지반 상호작용을 고려한 해상풍력발전기의 지진응답해석)

  • Lee, Jin-Ho;Lee, Sang-Bong;Kim, Jae-Kwan
    • Journal of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.1-12
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    • 2012
  • In this study, an analysis method for the earthquake response of an offshore wind turbine model is developed, considering the effects of the fluid-structure-soil interaction. The turbine is modeled as a tower with a lumped mass at the top of it. The tower is idealized as a tubular cantilever founded on flexible seabed. Substructure and Rayleigh-Ritz methods are used to derive the governing equation of a coupled structure-fluid-soil system incorporating interactions between the tower and sea water and between the foundation and the flexible seabed. The sea water is assumed to be a compressible but non-viscous ideal fluid. The impedance functions of a rigid footing in water-saturated soil strata are obtained from the Thin-Layer Method (TLM) and combined with the superstructure model. The developed method is applied to the earthquake response analysis of an offshore wind turbine model. The method is verified by comparing the results with reference solutions. The effects of several factors, such as the flexibility of the tower, the depth of the sea water, and the stiffness of the soil, are examined and discussed. The relative significance of the fluid-structure interaction over the soil-structure interaction is evaluated and vice versa.

Study of seismic performance of super long-span partially earth-anchored cable-stayed bridges

  • Zhang, Xin-Jun;Yu, Cong;Zhao, Jun-Jie
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.72 no.1
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    • pp.99-111
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    • 2019
  • To investigate the seismic performance of long-span partially earth-anchored cable-stayed bridge, a super long-span partially earth-anchored cable-stayed bridge scheme with main span of 1400m is taken as example, structural response of the bridge under E1 seismic action is investigated numerically by the multimode seismic response spectrum and time-history analysis, seismic behavior and also the effect of structural geometric nonlinearity on the seismic responses of super long-span partially earth-anchored cable-stayed bridges are revealed. The seismic responses are also compared to those of a fully self-anchored cable-stayed bridge with the same main span. The effects of structural parameters including the earth-anchored girder length, the girder width, the girder depth, the tower height to span ratio, the inclination of earth-anchored cables, the installation of auxiliary piers in the side spans and the connection between tower and girder on the seismic responses of partially ground-anchored cable-stayed bridges are investigated, and their reasonable values are also discussed in combination with static performance and structural stability. The results show that the horizontal seismic excitation produces significant seismic responses of the girder and tower, the seismic responses of the towers are greater than those of the girder, and thus the tower becomes the key structural member of seismic design, and more attentions should be paid to seismic design of these sections including the tower bottom, the tower and girder at the junction of tower and girder, the girder at the auxiliary piers in side spans; structural geometric nonlinearity has significant influence on the seismic responses of the bridge, and thus the nonlinear time history analysis is proposed to predict the seismic responses of super long-span partially earth-anchored cable-stayed bridges; as compared to the fully self-anchored cable-stayed bridge with the same main span, several stay cables in the side spans are changed to be earth-anchored, structural stiffness and natural frequency are both increased, the seismic responses of the towers and the longitudinal displacement of the girder are significantly reduced, structural seismic performance is improved, and therefore the partially earth-anchored cable-stayed bridge provides an ideal structural solution for super long-span cable-stayed bridges with kilometer-scale main span; under the case that the ratio of earth-anchored girder length to span is about 0.3, the wider and higher girder is employed, the tower height-to-span ratio is about 0.2, the larger inclination is set for the earth-anchored cables, 1 to 2 auxiliary piers are installed in each of the side spans and the fully floating system is employed, better overall structural performance is achieved for long-span partially earth-anchored cable-stayed bridges.

Structural Restoration for the Electric Power Transmission Tower Damaged by Foundation Settlements (기초침하에 의해 손상된 송전철탑 구조물의 구조성능개선)

  • Lee, Ho Beom;Park, Jong Kwon;Kim, Il Soo;Jang, Il Young;Song, Jae Ho
    • Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.83-93
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    • 2013
  • Generally the capacities of electric power transmission tower's members are improved by increasing their stiffness nature through injection of grout or attachment of other structural stiffeners. Those are for upgrading their axial strength by fulfillment of proper materials into pipe members, increment of member dimension by addition of section, or a combination of the two. However the use of innovative and unusual procedures would be positively recommended for getting more stable state. It is that buckled members are replaced with lengthened and strengthened members. In providing the structural restoration procedures for the existing electric power transform tower whose main members have been damaged due to unequal foundation settlement, structural damage inspection works and numerical analyses for the damaged one and the restored one were done in detail at first. secondarily member-exchanging works using a newly-generated jacking system and strengthened members were achieved. This figures are to point clearly to inherent advantages attending the management of the towers.

Mitigation of Mechanical Loads of NREL 5 MW Wind Turbine Tower (NREL 5MW 풍력 터빈 타워의 기계적 하중 완화)

  • Nam, Yoon-Su;Im, Chang-Hee
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
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    • v.36 no.11
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    • pp.1455-1462
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    • 2012
  • As the size of a wind turbine increases, the mechanical structure has to have an increasing mechanical stiffness that is sufficient to withstand mechanical fatigue loads over a lifespan of more than 20 years. However, this leads to a heavier mechanical design, which means a high material cost during wind turbine manufacturing. Therefore, lightweight design of a wind turbine is an important design constraint. Usually, a lightweight mechanical structure has low damping. Therefore, if it is subjected to a disturbance, it will oscillate continuously. This study deals with the active damping control of a wind turbine tower. An algorithm that mitigates the mechanical loads of a wind turbine tower is introduced. The effectiveness of this algorithm is verified through a numerical simulation using GH Bladed, which is a commercial aero-elastic code for wind turbines.

Free Vibration Analysis of Lattice Type Structures by the Combination and Transfer of Stiffness Coefficient (강성계수의 조합 및 전달에 의한 격자형 구조물의 자유진동 해석)

  • 문덕홍;최명수;강화중;강현석
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Noise and Vibration Engineering Conference
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    • pp.169-175
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    • 1997
  • Recently it is increased by degrees to produce complex and large lattice structures such as bridge, tower, crane, and space structures. In general, in order to analyse these structures we have used finite element method(FEM). In this method, however, it is necessary to use a large amount of computer memory and to take long computation time. For overcoming this problem, the Authors have developed the transfer dynamic stiffness coefficient method(TDSCM) which consists on the concept of the substructure synthesis method and transfer influence coefficient method. In this paper, the new free vibration analysis method for large type lattice structure is formulated by the TDSCM. And the results obtained by TDSCM are compared with those obtained by FEM, transfer matrix method and experiment. And it is confirmed for TDSCM to be the numerical high accuracy and high speed structure analysis method.

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