• Title, Summary, Keyword: toxic anion

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Clinical Review of Toxic Alcohol Poisoning Cases in Korea (독성 알코올 중독 환자에 대한 고찰)

  • Rhee, Nu-Ga;Chung, Sung-Phil;Park, In-Cheol;Lee, Kyeong-Ryong;Kim, Hyun-Jin;Kim, Gun-Bea;Cho, Young-Soon;Kwon, In-Ho;Kim, Seung-Whan
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.15-21
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    • 2012
  • Purpose: Toxic alcohols are responsible for accidental and suicide motivated poisonings, resulting in death or permanent sequelae for the afflicted patients. Major therapeutic modalities in these cases include treatment with alcohol dehydrogenase inhibitors and extracorporeal elimination. There have been a number of case reports of toxic alcohol intoxication in Korea. The purpose of this study was to review the clinical characteristics of patients suffering toxic alcohol intoxication. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients who presented with toxic alcohol intoxication at 8 emergency departments (ED) from Jun 2005 to Nov 2011. Patients who ingested methanol, isopropyl alcohol, ethylene glycol, and other alcohols except ethanol, were included in this study. The clinical characteristics of these patients were analyzed to include anion and osmolar gap, and estimated concentration of alcohol in the body. Results: During the study period, 21 patients were identified who had ingested toxic alcohol (methanol; 12 patients, ethylene glycol; 9 patients). At ED arrival, the mean anion gap was $18.7{\pm}6.9$ and the osmolar gap was elevated in 13 patients. Oral and IV ethanol were administrated to 11 patients in order to inhibit alcohol dehydrogenase. Extracorporeal elimination procedures such as hemodialysis were performed in 9 patients. There were no fatalities, but the one patient suffered permanent blindness. Conclusion: This study found that ethylene glycol and methanol were the substances ingested which produced toxic alcohol intoxication. The patients presented with high anion gap metabolic acidosis and were typically treated with oral ethanol and hemodialysis.

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Superoxide Anion Radical: Principle and Application (슈퍼옥사이드 음이온 라디칼 화학과 응용)

  • Kwon, Bum Gun;Yoon, Jeyong
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.593-602
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    • 2009
  • For a long time, there is much interest in the superoxide anion radical as one of reactive oxygen species (ROS) not only in the basic research field of chemistry and physics but also in the life science (or biotechnology). Recently, it is becoming ever more vital since the toxic property of nanomaterials as well as advanced oxidation processes (AOP) frequently employed for controlling pollutants are connected with the formation of superoxide anion radicals. Despite many researches on superoxide anion radical, the quantitative information of its presence and its detailed reaction mechanism in aqueous environments remains largely unclear, causing the controversy and confusion. In this review paper, we attempted to summarize the physicochemical property, mechanisms, and applications of superoxide anion radical. In addition, we briefly incorporated the important application of superoxide anion radical in AOP, nanomaterials, and life science (or biotechnology).

Preparation of Anion Exchange Membranes for Electrodialysis by Impregnating Porous Polyethylene Films with Crosslinked Poly(vinylbenzyl ammonium chloride)s (다공성 폴리에틸렌 필름에 가교된 poly(vinylbenzyl ammonium chloride)를 충진한 전기투석용 음이온 교환 복합막의 제조)

  • Kim, Jeong-Hoon;Lee, Jung-Soo;Yoo, Min-Chul;Chang, Bong-Jun;Kang, Ho;Lee, Soo-Bok
    • Membrane Journal
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.138-145
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    • 2008
  • A series of anion exchange composite membranes were prepared and characterized for electro-dialysis process used in the removal of toxic anion and cation polutants in groundwater or wastewater. The membranes were prepared as follows; first, porous poly(ethylene) (PE) substrates were fully impregnated with monomer mixtures with various ratio of vinylbenzylchloride (VBC), divinylbenzene (DVB) and ${\alpha},\;{\alpha}$-azobis(isobutyronitrile) (AIBN). Second, they were thermally polymerized to yield crosslinked poly(VBC-DVB)/PE composite membranes. Finally, the membranes were treated in trimethylamine (TMA)/acetone to give $-N^+(CH_3)_3$-containing poly(VBC-DVB)/PE membranes. The basic membrane properties such as ion exchange capacity (IEC), electric resistance and water content of the resulting membranes were measured as a function of VBC/DVB and TMA/Acetone content. As a result, the composite membranes showed lower electric resistance, lower water content and higher IEC than commercial anion exchange membranes (AMX, Astom) due to thin PE substrates, indicating that the composite membranes could be successfully applied to the electrodialysis for water treatment.

Reevaluation of the Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) by Cochlodinium polykrikoides as a Fish Killing Factor; Comparison with Chattonellla marina

  • Kim, Dae-Kyung;Oda, Tatsuya;Muramatsu, Tsuyoshi;Honjo, Tsuneo
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Fisheries Technology Conference
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    • pp.206-207
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    • 2001
  • Cochlodinium polykrikoides is one of the most harmful red tide dinoflagellates and is highly toxic to fish. Red tides due to this dinoflagellate have been reported in Korea, Japan, and other countries, and frequently cause severe damage to fish farming. Recently study has suggested that C. polykrikoides generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide anion ($O_{2-}$) and hydrogen peroxide ($H_2O_2$), and the ROS-mediated ichthyotoxicity has been proposed. (omitted)

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Effects of Deep-Sea Water on Superoxide Anion Radical Scavenging Activity of Chitosan Oligosaccharide (해양심층수가 키토산올리고당의 Superoxide Anion Radical 소거에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Min-Gu;Chun, So-Young;Lee, Kyu-Shik;Nam, Kyung-Soo
    • Journal of Chitin and Chitosan
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.23-27
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    • 2017
  • In this study, we investigated the effect of deep-sea water (DSW) on chitosan oligosaccharide (COS-L)-mediated superoxide anion radical scavenging activity using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. At first, we observed anti-oxidative activity of COS-L in a concentration-dependent manner ($25{\sim}750{\mu}g/mL$). Also, superoxide scavenging activity of DSW was found in a hardness-dependent manner (hardness 250~1,000). The concentrations of COS-L and the hardness of DSW used in the experiment were not found to be toxic to the HaCat cells, respectively. Based on the results, we evaluated effects of DSW on superoxide scavenging activity of COS-L ($250{\mu}g/mL$). Then, COS-L was dissolved in DSW of various hardness and then the mixtures were added in 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO) solution. Next, the mixtures added in DMPO solution were exposed with ultraviolet light to produce superoxide. The result showed that superoxide anion radical scavenging activity induced by COS-L ($250{\mu}g/mL$) were significantly increased by DSW with hardness dependently (the range of hardness was 250, 500, 750 and 1,000, respectively). These data suggest that mixtures of COS-L ($250{\mu}g/mL$) and DSW should increase superoxide scavenging activity by spin trap. Consequently, DSW effectively enhanced superoxide scavenging activity of COS-L.

Sorption of Arsenate by the Calcined Mg-Al Layered Double Hydroxide (소성된 Mg-Al Layered Double Hydroxide에 의한 비소(V)의 흡착)

  • Seo, Young-Jin;Kang, Yun-Ju;Choi, Jung;Kim, Jun-Hyeong;Park, Man
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.41 no.6
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    • pp.369-373
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    • 2008
  • Special concern has been given to the elevated arsenic content in soils because of its high mobility and toxicity. Layered double hydroxide (LDH) which has a high anionic exchange capacity is another potential anion adsorbent for toxic anions such as arsenic, chromate and selenium etc. The uptake of arsenate from aqueous solutions by the calcined Mg-Al LDH has been investigated. The sorption capacity was about 530 mmol/kg. Sorption isotherm was defined as L-type in which arsenate was removed by LDH through anion uptake reaction. Arsenate sorption by the calcined Mg-Al LDH was occurred by reconstruction of LDH's framework. Competitive adsorption revealed that Mg-Al LDH had higher selectivity for arsenate than for sulfate. These results strongly suggest that calcined Mg-Al LDH has a promising potential for efficient removal of toxic metal oxides like arsenates from aqueous environments.

The Adsorption Characteristics of Heavy Metals by Acrylic Fibers Treated with Hydroxylamine (II) - Properties of Cu(II) Adsorption and its Chelates - (하이드록실 아민으로 처리한 아크릴 섬유의 중금속 흡착특성 (II) -구리 (II)흡착과 그 키일레이트의 성질-)

  • Chin Young-gil;Choi Suk-chul
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.128-136
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    • 1989
  • In order to investigate a practical application of fibrous adsorbents to heavy metal ions, amidoxime fibers, as a particular class of solid chelate agents, were prepared by hydroxylamine treatment for acrylic fibers in a recipe of neutralization. Among the important problems from plant effluents are toxic concentrations of heavy metals such as copper. Accordingly, the properties of Cu (II) adsorption and its chelates were studied. The results obtained are as follows; The fibrous adsorbents have the property of increasing the swelling volumes by amidoximation. The adsorption of Cu (II) ion is characterized by an endothermic reaction, which is estimated as the plus values in the enthalpy change ($\delta$H=1.30 Kcal/mol. and 3.14 Kcal/mol.). The Cu (II) ions are adsorbed in the range of pH $3\~8$ and the maximum adsorptions are occurred about pH 8. Owing to the anions $(NO_3^-,\;Cl^-)$ of copper salts, amidoxime fibers form 1:1 and 2:1 (ligand: metal) chelating complexes with Cu (II). The nitrate anion chelates to amide I (NH) of amidoxime groups and the chlorine anion does to nitrosyl (NO). These effects relate to the crystallization of the complex and the thermal property.

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Rhodamine derivative synthesis: dual-detectable chemosensor

  • Son, Young-A;Kim, Hyung-Joo;Park, June-Min;Lee, A-Reum;Lee, Jun-Hee;Lee, Do-Hyun
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Dyers and Finishers Conference
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    • pp.29-29
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    • 2012
  • Rhodamine chromophore/fluorophore have been attracted to many researchers due to its excellent photophysical properties. In this study, we have designed and synthesized a strong emissive fluorescent dye chemosensor for toxic elements. A rhodamine-based sensor was prepared by incorporation the rhodamine fluorophore and several functional host groups with high affinity to hazardous metal and anion. This sensor shows a high selectivity and an excellent sensitivity and is a dual-responsive colorimetric and fluorescent metal/anion-specific sensor. In addition, the 1:1 binding mode was proposed based on Job's plot method. Finally, computational calculation was simulated and calculated to approach for HOMO/LUMO of this dye chemosensor.

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TOXICITY IDENTIFICATION AND CONFIRMATION OF METAL PLATTING WASTEWATER

  • Kim, Hyo-Jin;Jo, Hun-Je;Park, Eun-Joo;Cho, Ki-Jong;Shin, Key-Il;Jung, Jin-Ho
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.16-20
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    • 2007
  • Toxicity of metal plating wastewater was evaluated by using acute toxicity tests on Daphnia magna. To identify toxicants of metal plating wastewater, several manipulations such as solid phase extraction (SPE), ion exchange and graduated pH adjustment were used. The SPE test had no significant effect on baseline toxicity, suggesting absence of toxic non-polar organics in metal plating wastewater. However, anion exchange largely decreased the baseline toxicity by 88%, indicating the causative toxicants were inorganic anions. Considering high concentration of chromium in metal plating wastewater, it is thought the anion is Cr(VI) species. Graduated pH test showing independence of the toxicity on pH change strongly supports this assumption. However, as revealed by toxicity confirmation experiment, the initial toxicity of metal plating wastewater (24-h TU=435) was not explained only by Cr(VI) (24-h TU = 725 at $280\;mg\;L^{-1}$). Addition of nickel($29.5\;mg\;L^{-1}$) and copper ($26.5\;mg\;L^{-1}$) largely decreased the chromium toxicity up to 417 TU, indicating antagonistic interaction between heavy metals. This heavy metal interaction was successfully predicted by an equation of 24-h $TU\;=\;3.67\;{\times}\;\ln([Cu]\;+\;[Ni])\;+\;79.44$ at a fixed concentration of chromium.