• Title, Summary, Keyword: toxicity test

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The Toxicity Test of Water Flea by Heartbeat Measurement (물벼룩의 심장박동을 이용한 독성실험)

  • Lee, Chan-Won;Kim, In-Kyung;Jeon, Hong-Pyo
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.425-432
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    • 2007
  • The water flea has been used as a test organism of toxicity test for surface water. Toxicity test with water flea is categorized into two parts. One is acute toxicity test with observing immobility and mortality and the other is chronic toxicity test determined by survival and reproduction of water flea. Heartbeat measurement of water flea was designed as a short-term toxicity test in this study. Direct measurement of heartbeat under microscope by aid of video camera gives and early diagnosis of mortality in short time. Therefore, the effects of measuring illumination, measuring time, and non-feeding during the test on heartbeat of water flea was evaluated to establish a new test approach. Test organisms used in this study are Daphnia magna, a well standardizes toxicity test organism, and Simocephalus mixtus, a newly refined organism $IC_{50}$ values of these test organism by heartbeat measurement were compared and discussed. It was found that toxicity test by heartbeat measurement was a reproducible, easy and simple method accomplished in a few hours.

The Study on Acute°§Subacute Toxicity of Juglandis Semen Herbal-acupuncture(JsD) (호도약침(胡桃藥鍼)의 급성(急性) 아급성(亞急性) 독성(毒性)에 관(關)한 실험적(實驗的) 연구(硏究))

  • Kang, Kye-Sung;Kwon, Gi-Rok
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.85-92
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    • 2001
  • Objective : This study was purposed to investigate the acute. subacute toxicity of Herbal acupuncture with Juglandis Semen(JsD) in mice and rats. Methods & Results: Balb/c mice were injected intraperitoneally with JsD for $LD_{50}$ and acute toxicity test Sprague-Dawley rats were injected intraperitoneally with JsD for subacute toxicity test. Results: The results obtained were summarized as follows; 1. LD50 was uncountable as could not find the expired of treat group. 2. The clinical signs and body weight changes of mice treated with 0.2cc, 0.4cc JsD were not affected during the acute toxicity test. 3. In acute toxicity test of serum biochemical values of mice, total protein was increased in treat-l group, compared with normal group, and total cholesterol was increased in treat-2 group, compared with normal group.(P<0.05) 4. In subacute toxicity test, main toxic syndrome was not found. 5. The body weight was decreased in treat-2 group, compared with normal group and relative liver weight was decreased in treat-1, 2 group, compared with normal group in subacute toxicity test.(P<0.05) 6. In subacute toxicity test, WBC, MCH, MCHC were decreased in treat-2 group and RBC was increased in treat-2 group, compared with normal group in complete blood count test.(P<0.05) 7. In subacute toxicity test, treat groups were not changed serum biochemical values of rats, compared with normal group.(P<0.05) Conclusions: According to the results, Herbal-acupuncture with Juglandis Semen caused no toxicity.

A Study of Ecotoxicity Test for Byproducts of Ozone in the Ballast Water Treatment System with Ozonation

  • Park, Sung-Jin;Ha, Shin-Young;Kim, In-Soo
    • Journal of Navigation and Port Research
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    • v.35 no.9
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    • pp.741-747
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    • 2011
  • Ecological toxicity testing of the whole-effluent from the ozone ballast water treatment system was conducted as specified in the quality assurance project plans (QAPP). The growth inhibition test with microalgae, acute aquatic toxicity test with the Rotifer reproduction, toxicity test (or population growth) with the Rotifer, survival and growth toxicity test with larval fish and sediment toxicity test with amphipod were carried out to evaluate ecological toxicity on the movile test barge.

Oral Toxicity Study and Skin Sensitization Test of a Cricket

  • Ryu, Hyeon Yeol;Lee, Somin;Ahn, Kyu Sup;Kim, Hye Jin;Lee, Sang Sik;Ko, Hyuk Ju;Lee, Jin Kyu;Cho, Myung-Haing;Ahn, Mi Young;Kim, Eun Mi;Lim, Jeong Ho;Song, Kyung Seuk
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.159-173
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    • 2016
  • Crickets have been attracting considerable interest in the field of nutrition and toxicology due to the global exhaustion of food resulting from a growing population. The cricket is normally eaten in several countries after roasting, similar to the grasshopper; however, safety evaluation data on cricket powder is limited. Here, we performed general toxicity studies of cricket powder including a single, 2-week repeated dose range evaluation test, a 13-week repeated oral dose toxicity test in Sprague-Dawley rats, a single oral dose toxicity test in Beagle dogs, and a skin sensitization test in guinea pigs following the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development test guidelines 406 and 408 in addition to Good Laboratory Practice. To investigate the NOAEL and target organs of cricket powder, Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated to 4 groups: vehicle control, 1,250 mg/kg, 2,500 mg/kg, 5,000 mg/kg dose test groups and cricket powder was administered over 13 weeks after single dose and dose range finding studies in rats based on the results of the single oral administration toxicity study in rats and Beagle dogs. The results of the study showed that the NOAEL of cricket powder was over 5,000 mg/kg for both sexes of rats without adverse effects in a 13-week repeated oral toxicity study and there was no skin hypersensitivity reaction. Therefore, our results reveal that crickets can be widely used as a new substitute food or nutrient resource.

The Study on Acute and Subacute Toxicity and Sarcoma-180 Anti-cancer Effects of Armeniacae amarum semen Herbal-Acupuncture(Haeng-In) (행인약침(杏仁藥鍼)의 급성(急性) 아급성(亞急性) 독성실험(毒性實驗) 및 Sarcoma-180 항암효과(抗癌效果)에 관(關)한 실험적(實驗的) 연구(硏究))

  • Kim, Ok;Kwon, Ki-Rok
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.61-79
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    • 2002
  • Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate acute and subacute toxicity and sarcoma-180 anti-cancer effects of Herbal acupuncture with Anneniacae amarum semen (Haeng-in) in mice and rats. Method: Balble mice were injected intraperitoneany with Haeng-In extract for $LD_{50}$ and acute toxicity test. Sprague-Dawley rats were injected intraperitoneally with Haeng-In extract for subacute toxicity test. TheAnneniacae amarum semen Herbal-Acupuncture was injected on Chung-wan (CV12) of mice with Sarcoma-180 cancer cell line. Results: 1. $LD_{50}$ was uncountable as none of the subjects expired from the treatment groups during the test. 2. The clinical signs and the body weight of mice treated with 0.1cc and 0.2cc Haeng-In extract were not affected during the acute toxicity test. 3. In acute toxicity test of serum biochemical values of mice, total protein and albumin were decreased in treatment group Ⅰ. Glucose was increased, and total cholesterol was decreased in treatment groups. GPT was increased in treatment group Ⅰ. 4. In subacute toxicity test, toxic symptoms were not detected in the treatment groups. 5. In subacute toxicity test, the body weight was increased in treatment groups on 14th and 21st day. 6. In subacute toxicity test. liver weight was increased in treatment group Ⅱ, and spleen weight was increased in treatment group Ⅱ. Lung weight was increased in an the treatment groups.(p<0.05) 7. In subacute toxicity test, severe tissue injury was found in lung and liver, especially treatment group Ⅰshowed more significant lung damage compared to treatment group l. 8. In subacute toxicity test, WBC. MCH and MCHC were increased in an the treatment groups, RBC, HGB and HCT were decreased in treatment group H(p<0.05). 9. In subacute toxicity test of serum biochemical values of rats, triglyceride was decreased in all the treatment groups. ALP was decreased in treatment group Ⅰ. and creatinine was decreased in treatment group Ⅱ. BUN/CR was increased in treatment group Ⅱ(p<0.05). 10. Median survival time of Sarcoma-180 cancer cell treated with Haeng-In was increased in all the treatment groups by twenty percent, compared to the control group(p<0.05). 11. Natural killer cell activity about the Sarcoma-180 cell was decreased at the ratio of 100:1 but was increased at the ratio of 10:1. In treatment group Ⅱ, increase was found at the ratio of 100:1 and 50:1 (p<0.05). 12. Interleukin-2 productivity of the Sarcoma-180 cell was decreased in treatment group I, but was increased in treatment group Ⅱ(p<0.05). Conclusion: According to the results, we can conclude Herbal-acupuncture with Anneniacae amarum semen caused toxicity, and had effects in Sarcoma-180 cancer cell.

Short-term Toxicity Assay Based on Daphnid Feeding on the Microalga Scenedesmus subspicatus

  • Lee Sang-Ill;Park Jong-Ho;Lee Won-Ho;Yeon Ik-Jun;Lee Byoung-Chan;Cho Kyu-Seok;Choi Hyun-Ill
    • Fisheries and aquatic sciences
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.38-43
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    • 2006
  • We developed and evaluated a method of short-term acute toxicity testing based on the feeding behavior of Ceriodaphnia dubia. In prior toxicity tests, neonates of C. dubia were hatched and cultivated with the addition of yeast only for the preparation of the transparent daphnid's gut. Scenedesmus subspicatus was supplied as food after 1 to 6 h of exposure to toxicants. The effects of 1-h and 6-h exposure time on test sensitivity did not significantly differ. A comparison of the short-term l-h acute toxicity test developed in this study to the standard 48-h acute toxicity test using heavy metals, cyanide, and pentachlorophenol indicated that the 1-h test provided an acceptable sensitivity level in toxicity testing of C. dubia..

TOXICITY TEST OF NEW SOLUBILIZER FOR PACLITAXEL IN BEAGLE DOG

  • Kim, Yeo-Woon;Min, Kyung-Nan;Syrie Pang;Song, Hye-Weon;Lee, Min-Jae;Lee, Mi-Suk;Kim, Jong-Jae;Sheen, Yhun-Yhong
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology
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    • pp.89-89
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    • 2001
  • Paclitaxel is currently administered i.v. as a slow infusion of a solution of the drug in an ethanol: cremophor EL: saline admixture. However, poor solubilization and toxicity are associated with this drug therapy. We have tried to develop a new surfactant for paclitaxel to improve efficacy and reduce toxicity of solubilizer. We performed the hemolysis test for chemicals which passed the paclitaxel-stabilizing test and 5 chemicals showing relatively low hemolytic effects were tested for a single dosing toxicity test. And then aceporol 330, which showed the most favorable result, was introduced to the repeated dosing toxicity tests in mouse and beagle dog. According to data based on body weight, mortality, dissection, homological test and biochemical test, Aceporol 330 exhibited much more reduced toxicity than cremophor EL.

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The Study on Acute Subacute Toxicity and Anti-cancer Effect of K-herbal-acupuncture (K-약침(藥鍼)의 급성(急性) 아급성(亞急性) 독성실험(毒性實驗) 및 항암효과(항암효과)에 관(關)한 실험적(實驗的) 연구(硏究))

  • Kim, Kwang-Ho;Kwon, Ki-Rok
    • Journal of Pharmacopuncture
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.76-94
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    • 2003
  • Objectives : The purpose of this study was to investigate Acute$\cdot$Subacute Toxicity and Anti-cancer Effect of K-Herbal-acupuncture in mice and rats. Methods : Balb/c mice were injected intraperitoneally with K-herbal-acupuncture for $LD_{50}$ and acute toxicity test. Sprague-Dawley rats were injected intraperitoneally with K-herbal-acupuncture for subacute toxicity test. K-Herbal-acupuncture was injected on abdomen of mice with S-180 cancer cell line. Result : 1. $LD_{50}$ of K-Herbal-acupuncture was limited $4{\times}10^{-3}$ml/kg~$2{\times}10^{-3}$ml/kg by the test. 2. In acute toxicity test, all of mice were down to the moving reflex, but the weight of mice was increased in treatment group, compared with the normal group. (P<0.05) 3. In acute toxicity test of serum biochemical values of mice, glucose was increased in treatment II group, total cholesterol was increased both treatments.(P<0.05) 4. In subacute toxicity test, the clinical signs of toxication was down to the moving reflex, but it is not severe like acute toxicity test, and observed weight loss at the treatments. 5. In subacute toxicity test, liver weight was decreased compared with the normal group. (P<0.05) 6. In subacute toxicity test of complete blood count test (CBC) of rat, HCT was decreased in treatments, compared with the normal group.(P<0.05) 7. In subacute toxicity test of serum biochemical values of rat, uric acid and triglyceride were decreased, and glucose was increased in treatment groups compared with the control group. (P<0.05) 8. Median survival time was increased about $45\%$ in treatment groups compared with the control group.(P<0.05) 9. Natural killer cell activity was increased in B16F10 lung cancer model, but it was not in sarcoma-180 abdomen cancer. 10. In interleukin-2 productivity test, treatment groups didn't show significant change in lung cancer and abdomen cancer, compared with the normal group.(P<0.005) 11. In making an examination of metastatic cancer with the naked eye, melanoma metastasized in the Lung of C57BL/6 mice. The treated group showed more Melanoma than the control in the numbers and volume. Conclusion : According to the result, K-herbal-acupuncture need further study to know the function and effect in cancer.

Toxicity test of wetland sediments by Simocephalus mixtus (국내종 물벼룩 Simocephalus mixtus에 의한 습지퇴적물 독성도 측정)

  • 이찬원;권영택;윤종섭;문성원
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.11 no.9
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    • pp.851-855
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    • 2002
  • A comparison of Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia and Simocephalus mixtus toxicity test was performed to study the relative sensitivities and discrimination abilities with both pore and elutriate water of Woopo wetland sediments. Sediment risk assessment has been done by standardized preparation method of pore and elutriate water described in the joint US EPA-US Army Crops of Engineers manual. Simocephalus mixtus which was obtained from Woopo wetlands in Korea was cultured and applied to sediment toxicity test. Water quality in Woopo wetland had great site and seasonal variations. S. mixtus was more sensitive than D. magna in heavy metal toxicity test. The toxicity results with S. mixtus reflected the water quality of elutriate and pore water. The results also suggested that S. mixtus could be used as a test organism in estimating potential risk of contaminated sediments.

Potential of Marine Ciliate Mesodinium rubrum as a Standard Test Species for Marine Ecotoxicological Study (해양생태독성 평가용 표준시험생물로서 섬모충류 Mesodinium rubrum에 대한 연구)

  • An, Kyoung-Ho;Park, Gyung-Soo;Lee, Seung-Min
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.20 no.9
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    • pp.1087-1093
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    • 2011
  • The mixotrophic marine ciliate Mesodinium rubrum possesses a highly modified algal endosymbiont as a nutrition source for the species. Accordingly, we assumed that the species can reflect the ecotoxicity on marine producer (as phytoplankton) and consumer (as zooplankton) both. A series of experiments were conducted to identify the potential of the species as a standard test species for marine ecotoxicological study. The comparison of species sensitivity on reference toxic materials was made using potassium dichromate for phytoplankton and copper chloride for zooplankton. The ciliate revealed the highest sensitivity on both reference materials among the seven test species including phytoplankton, benthic copepod and rotifer species. The toxicity end point of the species was 72hr-$EC_{50}$=1.52 mg/L (as potassium dichromate) estimated by population growth inhibition (PGI), which is more sensitive than the most sensitive phytoplankton Skeletonema costatum (72hr-$EC_{50}$=3.05 mg/L). As comparison to rotifer, it also revealed higher sensitivity on copper chloride; 72hr-$EC_{50}$=0.38 mg/L for ciliate and 48hr-$EC_{50}$=0.48 mg/L for rotifer. Also, the elutriate toxicity test of various ocean disposal wastes were conducted to identify the potential of ciliate toxicity test application using industrial waste sludges. The toxicity of leather processing waste sludge was highest on the ciliate, followed by dyeing waste sludge and dye production waste sludge as an increasing order of toxicity. 72h-$EC_{50}$ of ciliate PGI test was 1.83% and that of S. costatum 3.84% for leather waste sludge which showed highest toxicity. The toxicity test results also revealed that the highest sensitivity was observed on ciliate species on ocean disposed sludge wastes. Also, ciliate toxicity test well discriminated the degree of toxicity between sludge sources; 72h-$EC_{50}$ values were 1.83% for leather processing waste sludge, 16.75% for dye production waste sludge and 27.75% for textile production waste sludge. Even the laboratory culture methods of the species were not generally established yet, the species has high potential as the standard test species for marine toxicity test in terms of the dual reflection of phyto- and zooplankton toxicity from single test, sensitivity and test replicability.