• Title, Summary, Keyword: toxin

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Cultural and Physiological Conditions for T-2 Toxin Production by Fusarium sp. (Fusarium 균주의 배양 조건 및 생리적 조건에 따른 T-2 toxin의 생성 조건)

  • 홍성희;양규환
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.91-96
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    • 2000
  • The cultural and physiological conditions for the T-2 toxin [4,15-diacetoxy-8-(3-mety1butyloxy)-12,13- epoxy-trichothec-9-en-3-01, $C_{24}H_{30}O_9$] production by Fusarium spp. were studied. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) assay and the microbiological assay uslng Rhodotomla rubra were used to quantitate tbe T- 2 toxin. Among the four strains of Fusarium spp., F tn'cinctum NRRL 3299 was best for T-2 toxin production. In solid culture, white com grit medium was best for T-2 toxm production. Temperature played a critical role in the production of T-2 toxin. T-2 toxin production was favored by long duration of low-temperature incubation. The growth and toxin production were relatively high on galactose, fructose, glucose, and sucrose media, when each was used as a sole carbon source, and relatively low on sorbitol, glycerol, and lactose media. For nitrogen sources, $NH_4^(+) and NO_3^{-}were used well as a sole nitrogen source, but $NO_2^-$ was not used. Initial pH and speed of shaker also affected the production of T-2 toxin. From temperature shifting experiment, it is clear that T-2 toxin metabolic pathway is regulated by temperature-dependent enzyme depression or enzyme induction system.

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Improved Purification Process for Cholera Toxin and its Application to the Quantification of Residual Toxin in Cholera Vaccines

  • Jang, Hyun;Kim, Hyo-Seung;Kim, Jeong-Ah;Seo, Jin-Ho;Carbis, Rodney
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.108-112
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    • 2009
  • A simplified method for the purification of cholera toxin was developed. The 569B strain of Vibrio cholerae, a recognized hyper-producer of cholera toxin, was propagated in a bioreactor under conditions that promote the production of the toxin. The toxin was separated from the bacterial cells using 0.2-${\mu}m$ crossflow microfiltration, the clarified toxin was passed through the membrane into the permeate, and the bacterial cells were retained in the retentate. The 0.2-${\mu}m$ permeate was then concentrated 3-fold and diafiltered against 10 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.6, using 30-kDa crossflow ultrafiltration. The concentrated toxin was loaded onto a cation exchange column, the toxin was bound to the column, and most of the impurities were passed unimpeded through the column. The toxin was eluted with a salt gradient of phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, containing 1.0 M NaCl. The peak containing the toxin was assayed for cholera toxin and protein and the purity was determined to be 92%. The toxin peak had a low endotoxin level of $3.1\;EU/{\mu}g$ of toxin. The purified toxin was used to prepare antiserum against whole toxin, which was used in a $G_{M1}$ ganglioside-binding ELISA to determine residual levels of toxin in an oral inactivated whole-cell cholera vaccine. The $G_{M1}$ ganglioside-binding ELISA was shown to be very sensitive and capable of detecting as little as 1 ng/ml of cholera toxin.

Separation and Purification of two toxins produced by H. sativum P. K. & B. (H. sativum이 생성(生成)하는 식물(植物) 독소물질 분리(分離))

  • Lee, Sang-Sun;Vick, Brady A.;Stack, Robert W.
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.9-15
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    • 1988
  • Two kinds of toxins were demonstrated in the culture filtrate of H. sativum, and were called 'M' and 'D' toxins. The lettuce bioassay indicated that D-toxin caused less root growth inhibition than M-toxin. Chemical analysis indicated that M-toxin was a very unusual small peptide. D-toxin was shown to have chemical characteristics similar to helminthosporal based on ultraviolet, proton nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectra. D-toxin was composed of at least two isomers.

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Molecular cloning, Expression and purification of Anthrax toxin from Bacillus anthracis

  • Yoon, Moon-Young
    • Journal of Photoscience
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.323-325
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    • 2002
  • Bacillus Anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax. The major virulence factors are a poly-D glutamic acid capsule and three-protein component exotoxin, which is collectively known as anthrax toxin, protective antigen (PA, 83 kDa), lethal factor (LF, 90 kDa), and edema factor (EF, 89 kDa). These three proteins individually have no known toxic activities, but in combination with PA form two toxins (lethal toxin and edema toxin), causing different pathogenic responses in animals and cultured cells. However, it remains to be elucidated for pathogenic mechanism of anthrax toxin. In this study, we constructed toxin component in bacterial overexpression system and purified the native toxin from Bacillus anthracis delta sterne F32 using FPLC system. Recombinant toxin showed high homogeneity and rapid purification processes. Also, this recombinant toxin was comparable to B. anthracis native toxin in terms of cytotoxic effects on cultured cell lines.

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The Detection of T-2 toxin in Serum and Organ of Mouse by ELISA (ELISA법에 의한 mouse의 혈청 및 조직중의 T-2 toxin의 검색)

  • 김동술;송재영;정덕화
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.51-56
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    • 1996
  • In order to detect the T-2 toxin accumulation in the animal tissues, T-2 toxin, produced by Fusarium sporotrichioides M-1-1, was injected to mouse by 0, 1 and 2 mg per kilogram of body weight, respectively, and T-2 toxin extracted from serum and organs were analyzed by the indirected competitive ELISA. The indirect competitive ELISA established in the laboratory can be check less than 0.1 ppb level of T-2 toxin and average recovery of T-2 toxin spiked was 80~113% in animal samples such as serum, liver and kidney. After 6 weeks of treatment with 2 mg of T-2 toxin per kg body weight, T-2 toxin was accumulated in serum (133.0 ng/ml), liver(1.4 ng/g) and kidney(14.3 ng/g) of mouse injected with 2 mg of toxin per kg body weight.

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Purification of Diphtheia Toxin and the Production of Detoxificated Toxoid Vaccine (디프테리아 toxin 정제와 무독화 toxoid 백신 생산)

  • Cho, Min;Ryu, Yeon-Woo
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.248-254
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    • 1999
  • Adverse reactions after injection of diphtheria vaccine are induced by impurities present in crude toxoids that cannot be removed completely by purification of toxoids after formalization. To increase toxoid purity, toxin purification was tried before formalization. Crude toxin was purified with ultrafiltration and ion-exchange chromatography. Purified toxin purity was improved 2.9 times higher than crude toxin, and purity was 2,560 Lf/mg PN. Purified toxin was detoxified with formalin and lysine, and potency test were performed. Toxoid, prepared from toxin treated with formalin and lysine, did not show reversion to toxin and purity was higher than the toxoid purified after formalization. Therefore, we concluded that the use of toxoid vaccine prepared from toxin purified is a useful method of minimize adverse reaction after injection of diphtheria vaccine.

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Effect of T-2 Toxin on the Mitogen-Induced Blastogenesis in Chick Splenic Cell (T-2 Toxin이 병아리 비장세포의 유전질 발생에 미치는 영향)

  • Chun, Hyang-Sook;Chung, Duck-Hwa;Lee, Su-Rae
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.585-589
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    • 1994
  • The effects of T-2 toxin on mitogen-induced blastogenesis of chick splenic cells were investigated. The [$^3H$] thymidine incorporation in splenic cells stimulated by lipopolysaccharide and concanavalin A were equally inhibited as the concentration of T-2 toxin was increased. The effective dose of T-2 toxin causing a 50% reduction of [$^3H$] thymidine incorporation was inbetween 1.0 and 5.0 ng/ml for both mitogens. Mitogen-induced blastogenesis in chick splenic cells showed differences among experimental groups with different exposure time of T-2 toxin, exhibiting the most inhibition in the experimental group exposed to T-2 toxin at both embryonic and chick periods.

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Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) for Detection of Clostridium botulinum Type F Toxin (Clostridium botulinum Type F Toxin의 면역학적 효소방법에 의한 검출에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Jeong-Kug;K. H. Yang
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.205-209
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    • 1982
  • The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using the so-called "double-sandwich"technique was applied to determine Clostridium botulinum type F toxin. Polystyrene tubes were coated with horse anti-type F toxin serum and then toxin sample was added. The tubes were subsequently treated with rabbit anti-type F toxin IgG and sheep anti-rabbit serum IgG-horseradish peroxidase conjugate. By this technique, about 10 mouse intraperitoneal 50% lethal doses (ip LD/50/) of type F toxin could be detected. Low back-ground reading was achieved with the use of phosphate-buffered saline containing 0.05% Tween 20 and 1% bovine serum albumin as diluents of rabbit IgG and conjugate. Addition of EDTA in the diluents of toxin increased ELISA extinction value significantly. No cross-reaction was observed with botulinum type A and B toxin, but type E toxin gave sleight cross-reaction.

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Production and partial purification of Staphylococcus aureus alpha toxin

  • Park, Hee-myung;Oh, Tae-ho;Han, Hong-ryul
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.39 no.5
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    • pp.1028-1032
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    • 1999
  • Alpha toxin of S aureus has cytolytic activity respectively. This antigen has been received the most attention since it is a major virulence factor in pathogenesis of staphylococcal mastitis. Thus, alpha toxin has been focused as potential candidate of vaccine to minimize mastitis in cows. The purpose of this study was to develop a simple, efficient production and purification methods of sufficient amount of alpha toxin antigen from S aureus. Alpha toxin production measured by hemolytic activity was the highest at 18 hrs postinoculation in yeast extract culture medium supplemented with thiamine, nicotinic acid and casamino acid. Alpha toxin was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation (65%) and ultrafiltration. Molecular weight of the toxin was 33 kDa in the analysis with SDS-PAGE. Conclusionally, when alpha toxin was included in the vaccine, the optimal harvest time of alpha toxin was at 18 hrs after inoculation in yeast extract medium supplemented with thiamine and nicotinic acid.

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Effects of Pertussis Toxin on Macrophage Activation

  • Lim, Suck-Ihn;An, Nyeon-Hyoung
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.146-151
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    • 1992
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate capability of pertussis toxin (PT) to active mouse macrophages. The investigations were undertaken to determine whether the role played by this toxin required the A-protomer of the toxin to ADP-ribosylate a guanine nucleotide binding protein (a class I activity) or was dependent on the binding of B-oligomer of the toxin to the surface of target cells (a Class II activity). The results of these experiments have established that the mechanism of macrophage activation with PT seems to be dependent upon a Class II activity of the toxin.

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