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Changes in Agricultural Extension Services in Korea (한국농촌지도사업(韓國農村指導事業)의 변동(變動))

  • Fujita, Yasuki;Lee, Yong-Hwan;Kim, Sung-Soo
    • Journal of Agricultural Extension & Community Development
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.155-166
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    • 2000
  • When the marcher visited Korea in fall 1994, he was shocked to see high rise apartment buildings around the capitol region including Seoul and Suwon, resulting from rising demand of housing because of urban migration followed by second and third industrial development. After 6 years in March 2000, the researcher witnessed more apartment buildings and vinyl house complexes, one of the evidences of continued economic progress in Korea. Korea had to receive the rescue finance from International Monetary Fund (IMF) because of financial crisis in 1997. However, the sign of recovery was seen in a year, and the growth rate of Gross Domestic Products (GDP) in 1999 recorded as high as 10.7 percent. During this period, the Korean government has been working on restructuring of banks, enterprises, labour and public sectors. The major directions of government were; localization, reducing administrative manpower, limiting agricultural budgets, privatization of public enterprises, integration of agricultural organization, and easing of various regulations. Thus, the power of central government shifted to local government resulting in a power increase for city mayors and county chiefs. Agricultural extension services was one of targets of government restructuring, transferred to local governments from central government. At the same time, the number of extension offices was reduced by 64 percent, extension personnel reduced by 24 percent, and extension budgets reduced. During the process of restructuring, the basic direction of extension services was set by central Rural Development Administration Personnel management, technology development and supports were transferred to provincial Rural Development Administrations, and operational responsibilities transferred to city/county governments. Agricultural extension services at the local levels changed the name to Agricultural Technology Extension Center, established under jurisdiction of city mayor or county chief. The function of technology development works were added, at the same time reducing the number of educators for agriculture and rural life. As a result of observations of rural areas and agricultural extension services at various levels, functional responsibilities of extension were not well recognized throughout the central, provincial, and local levels. Central agricultural extension services should be more concerned about effective rural development by monitoring provincial and local level extension activities more throughly. At county level extension services, it may be desirable to add a research function to reflect local agricultural technological needs. Sometimes, adding administrative tasks for extension educators may be helpful far farmers. However, tasks such as inspection and investigation should be avoided, since it may hinder the effectiveness of extension educational activities. It appeared that major contents of the agricultural extension service in Korea were focused on saving agricultural materials, developing new agricultural technology, enhancing agricultural export, increasing production and establishing market oriented farming. However these kinds of efforts may lead to non-sustainable agriculture. It would be better to put more emphasis on sustainable agriculture in the future. Agricultural extension methods in Korea may be better classified into two approaches or functions; consultation function for advanced farmers and technology transfer or educational function for small farmers. Advanced farmers were more interested in technology and management information, while small farmers were more concerned about information for farm management directions and timely diffusion of agricultural technology information. Agricultural extension service should put more emphasis on small farmer groups and active participation of farmers in these groups. Providing information and moderate advice in selecting alternatives should be the major activities for consultation for advanced farmers, while problem solving processes may be the major educational function for small farmers. Systems such as internet and e-mail should be utilized for functions of information exchange. These activities may not be an easy task for decreased numbers of extension educators along with increased administrative tasks. It may be difficult to practice a one-to-one approach However group guidance may improve the task to a certain degree.

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A Study on the Dimensions, Surface Area and Volume of Grains (곡립(穀粒)의 치수, 표면적(表面積) 및 체적(體積)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Park, Jong Min;Kim, Man Soo
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.84-101
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    • 1989
  • An accurate measurement of size, surface area and volume of agricultural products is essential in many engineering operations such as handling and sorting, and in heat transfer studies on heating and cooling processes. Little information is available on these properties due to their irregular shape, and moreover very little information on the rough rice, soybean, barley, and wheat has been published. Physical dimensions of grain, such as length, width, thickness, surface area, and volume vary according to the variety, environmental conditions, temperature, and moisture content. Especially, recent research has emphasized on the variation of these properties with the important factors such as moisture content. The objectives of this study were to determine physical dimensions such as length, width and thickness, surface area and volume of the rough rice, soybean, barley, and wheat as a function of moisture content, to investigate the effect of moisture content on the properties, and to develop exponential equations to predict the surface area and the volume of the grains as a function of physical dimensions. The varieties of the rough rice used in this study were Akibare, Milyang 15, Seomjin, Samkang, Chilseong, and Yongmun, as a soybean sample Jangyeobkong and Hwangkeumkong, as a barley sample Olbori and Salbori, and as a wheat sample Eunpa and Guru were selected, respectively. The physical properties of the grain samples were determined at four levels of moisture content and ten or fifteen replications were run at each moisture content level and each variety. The results of this study are summarized as follows; 1. In comparison of the surface area and the volume of the 0.0375m diameter-sphere measured in this study with the calculated values by the formula the percent error between them showed least values of 0.65% and 0.77% at the rotational degree interval of 15 degree respectively. 2. The statistical test(t-test) results of the physical properties between the types of rough rice, and between the varieties of soybean and wheat indicated that there were significant difference at the 5% level between them. 3. The physical dimensions varied linearly with the moisture content, and the ratios of length to thickness (L/T) and of width to thickness (W/T) in rough rice decreased with increase of moisture content, while increased in soybean, but uniform tendency of the ratios in barley and wheat was not shown. In all of the sample grains except Olbori, sphericity decreased with increase of moisture content. 4. Over the experimental moisture levels, the surface area and the volume were in the ranges of about $45{\sim}51{\times}10^{-6}m^2$, $25{\sim}30{\times}10^{-9}m^3$ for Japonica-type rough rice, about $42{\sim}47{\times}10^{-6}m^2$, $21{\sim}26{\times}10^{-9}m^3$ for Indica${\times}$Japonica type rough rice, about $188{\sim}200{\times}10^{-6}m^2$, $277{\sim}300{\times}10^{-9}m^3$ for Jangyeobkong, about $180{\sim}201{\times}10^{-6}m^2$, $190{\sim}253{\times}10^{-9}m^3$ for Hwangkeumkong, about $60{\sim}69{\times}10^{-6}m^2$, $36{\sim}45{\times}10^{-9}m^3$ for Covered barley, about $47{\sim}60{\times}10^{-6}m^2$, $22{\sim}28{\times}10^{-9}m^3$ for Naked barley, about $51{\sim}20{\times}10^{-6}m^2$, $23{\sim}31{\times}10^{-9}m^3$ for Eunpamill, and about $57{\sim}69{\times}10^{-6}m^2$, $27{\sim}34{\times}10^{-9}m^3$ for Gurumill, respectively. 5. The increasing rate of surface area and volume with increase of moisture content was higher in soybean than other sample grains, and that of Japonica-type was slightly higher than Indica${\times}$Japonica type in rough rice. 6. The regression equations of physical dimensions, surface area and volume were developed as a function of moisture content, the exponential equations of surface area and volume were also developed as a function of physical dimensions, and the regression equations of surface area were also developed as a function of volume in all grain samples.

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The Characteristics and Operation System of the Staff Officials at Jongbusi (Court of the Royal Clan) in the Late Joseon Period - Based on Jongbusi nangcheong seonsaengan (Register of Staff Officials at the Court of the Royal Clan) Kept at Jangseogak Archives (조선 후기 종부사(宗簿寺) 낭청(郎廳)의 실태 및 운영체계 - 장서각 소장 『종부사낭청선생안(宗簿寺郎廳先生案)』을 중심으로 -)

  • Kim, Dong-geun
    • (The)Study of the Eastern Classic
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    • no.69
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    • pp.83-114
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    • 2017
  • The purpose of this article is to analyze the standings of working-level officials belonging to Jongbusi (Court of the Royal Clan) holding the rank of "jeong" and below between the 18th and mid-19th Century. Jongbusi, which was headed by a Grade-3 official, was in charge of the compilation of royal genealogy and supervision of royal relatives. During the late Joseon Period, its officials were composed of its chief, jeong, jubu (Grade-6 official), and jikjang (Grade-7 official). By 1864, it was incorporated into Jongchinbu (Office of the Royal Relatives). Jongbusi nangcheong seonsaengan (Register of Staff Officials at the Court of the Royal Clan), which is preserved at the Jangseogak Archives of the Academy of Korean Studies, lists the officials who served at the office between 1794 and its incorporation into Jongchinbu in 1864. The register also includes the officials' ranks, names, DOBs, family clans, their ranks in the offices they were transferred from, their ranks in the office they were transferred to, etc. Those interested view it as a precious relic that provides valuable information on the officialdom of the dynasty. A majority of the officials who served at Jongbusi were those who passed the higher civil service examination. Many of them at the level of jikjang were those who passed the licentiate examination. Their designation as an official was part of the "muneum" system, which granted official posts to descendants of those who accomplished a distinguished service for the country or served as a high-ranking official. They were those transferred from equal or lower positions in another office. Many of jubu-level officials of Jongbusi were those transferred from honorable and important posts of other offices or local administrative offices. Many of jikjang-level officials of Jongbusi were those who previously served as dosa (assistant officials) at Uigeumbu (Bureau of Crime Investigation) headed by a Grade-1 official. The officials' transfer to an office with a lower position like Jongbusi appears to have been for the provision of placing them in working-level positions rather than letting them remain in positions only carrying an honorary title. As for the transfer of officials of Jongbusi to other offices, many of those with the rank of jeong were transferred to lower positions. Supposedly it was because not many Grade-3 positions were vacant. Many of them were transferred to honorable and important posts. Some of them were also transferred to positions at local government offices, supposedly to avoid an excess of personnel at the central government. Those at the level of jubu or jikjang of Jongbusi were transferred to equal or higher posts in other offices. Particularly, most of those holding the position of jikjang (Grade-7) were transferred to higher posts. The family clan that produced the largest number (10%) of Jongbusi officials was the Jeonju Yi Clan, which produced the largest number of those who passed the higher civil service examination. It was also found that the top 20 family clans produced about half of the entirety of Jongbusi officials. According to the aforesaid Jongbusi nangcheong seonsaengan, about 90% of the cases of promotion of Jongbusi officials occurred after the revision of Seonwon boryak (Royal Genealogy of the Joseon Dynasty). It is speculated that the supervision of royal family members, one of the two leading functions assigned to Jongbusi, was suspended in the late Joseon Period. The relevant function does not appear even in chronicles pertaining to the Joseon Dynasty. The reason being had something to do with the sharp decrease in the number of royal family members during the reign of King Injo (r. 1623-1649). Their number was decreased to the extent that royal ceremonies could not be adequately carried out. Naturally, the meaning of supervising royal family members faded. Witnessing such a sorry state of the royal family, Heungseon Daewongun, King Gojong's father who served as the regent, incorporated Jongbusi into Jongchinbu in an effort to enhance the status and authority of the royal family.

Distribution of Hydrometeors and Surface Emissivity Derived from Microwave Satellite Observations and Model Reanalyses (위성관측(MSU)과 모델 재분석 자료에서 조사된 대기물현상과 표면 방출율의 분포)

  • Kim, Tae-Yean;Yoo, Jung-Moon
    • Journal of the Korean earth science society
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    • v.23 no.7
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    • pp.552-564
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    • 2002
  • The data of satellite-observed Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) channel 1 (Ch1) brightness temperature and General Circulation Model (GCM) reanalyses over the globe have been used to investigate low tropospheric hydrometeors and microwave surface emissivity during the period from January 1981 to December 1993. The average of GCM Ch1 temperature has been reconstructed from three kinds of reanalyses, based on the MSU weighting function. Since the GCM temperature mainly corresponds to the thermal state of the lower troposphere without the difference in the emissivity between ocean and land, it is higher in summer than in other seasons over the regions. The MSU temperature over the ocean shows its maximum at the ITCZ and the SPCZ due to hydrometeors. Over high latitude ocean, the temperature is enhanced because of sea ice emissivity, while it is reduced over the land. The seasonal displacement of the ITCZ and the SPCZ systematically appeared in the difference of Ch1 temperature between the GCM and the MSU. The difference values decrease in the regions of the ITCZ, the SPCZ, and the sea ice because of the increase of the MSU temperature. According to the local minima of the values, the ITCZ moves norhward to 9 N in fall, and the SPCZ moves southward to 12 S in boreal fall and winter. The sea ice in the northern hemisphere is extended southward to 53 N in winter, while the ice in the southern hemisphere, northward to 58 S in boreal summer. We also have discussed the separated contribution from hydrometeors and surface emissivity to the MSU Ch1 temperature, utilizing radiative transfer theory. The increase of 4-6K in the temperature over the ITCZ is inferred to result from hydrometeors of 1-1.5mm/day, and furthermore the increase of 10-30K over the high latitude ocean, ice emissivity of 0.6-0.9.

Genetic Analyses of Heading and Maturing Dates and Their Relationship to Freezing Resistance in Barley (보리 출수기와 성숙기의 유전분석 및 내동성과의 관계)

  • 천종은;강석원
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.47 no.6
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    • pp.395-401
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    • 2002
  • The combination of early heading time, maturing time and short grain-filling period is very important to develop early varieties in winter barley. The 4 parental half diallel crosses (parents, $F_1$s, $F_2$s) were cultivated at the field. The heading date was from April 3 to 26, maturing date from May 15 to 27 and grain-filling period from 31 days to 42 days, showing that the varietal differences about the 3 traits were remarkable. According to half diallel cross analyses, Dongbori 1 for heading time (late heading) was dominant, but Oweolbori (early heading) was recessive, showing partial dominance with high additive component of genetic variance. Dongbori 1 for maturing time was dominant, but Oweolbori was recessive, showing partial dominance with high additive variance. Reno for grain-filling period (short grain-filling period) was dominant, but Oweolbori (long grain-filling period) was recessive with additive, and partial dominance. There were highly significant mean squares for both GCA and SCA effects on the heading and maturing times, and GCA/SCA ratios for all traits were high, showing the additive gene effects more important. Sacheon 6 and Oweolbori had greater GCA effects for early heading and maturing times, and Dongbori 1 and Reno had greater GCA effects for late times. GCA effects were highly significant in $F_1$ and $F_2$ generations, showing high GCA/SCA ratios (7.02). The heading and maturing times in field were positively correlated with antifreeze proteins concentrations, accumulation, resistance to photoinhibition and winter survival, respectively) but the grain-filling period did negatively correlated with the trails.

The changes of economic though (The trial of supply-side economics) (경제사상의 변화 (공급측면 경제학의 시험))

  • 서홍석
    • Journal of Applied Tourism Food and Beverage Management and Research
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    • v.8
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    • pp.89-121
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    • 1997
  • Many of the measures and policies advocated by supply-siders, such as lower taxation, less government intervention, more freedom from restrictive legislation and regulation, and the need for increased productivity can be found in writing the classical economist. Nor is supply-side economics a complete divorcement from Keynesian analysis. In both camps the objectives are the same-high level employment, stable prices and healthy economic growth, the means or suggestions for attaining the objectives, however, differ. Consequently, recommended economic policies and measures are different. keynesians rely primarily on the manipulation of effective demand to increase output and employment and to combat inflation. They assume ample resources to be available in order that supply will respond to demand. The supply-siders emphasize the need to increase savings, investment, productivity and output as a means of increasing income. Supply-siders assume that the increase in income will lead to an increase in effective demand. Keynesians suggest that savings, particularly those not invested, dampen economic activity. Supply-siders hold that savings, or at least an increase in after-tax income, stimulates work effort and provides funds for investment. Perhaps keynesians are guilty of assuming that most savings are not going to be invested, whereas supply-siders may erroneously assume that almost all savings will flow into investment and/ or stimulate work effort. In reality, a middle ground is possible. The supply-siders stress the need to increase supply, but Keynes did not preclude the possibility of increasing economic activity by working through the supply side. According to Keynes' aggregate demand-aggregate supply framework, a decrease in supply will increase output and employment. It must be remembered, however, that Keynes' aggregate supply is really a price. Lowering the price or cost of supply would there by result in higher profit and/ or higher output. This coincides with the viewpoint of supply-siders who want to lower the cost of production via various means for the purpose of increasing supply. Then, too, some of the means, such as tax cuts, tax credits and accelerated depreciation, recommended by suply-siders to increase productivity and output would be favored by Keynesians also as a means of increasing investment, curbing costs, and increasing effective demand. In fact, these very measures were used in the early 1960s in the United State during the years when nagging unemployment was plaguing the economy. Keynesians disagree with the supply-siders' proposals to reduce transfer payments and slow down the process of income redistribution, except in full employment inflationary periods. Keynesians likewise disagree with tax measures that favored business as opposed to individuals and the notion of shifting the base of personal taxation away from income and toward spending. A frequent criticism levied at supply-side economics is that it lacks adequate models and thus far has not been quantified to any great extent. But, it should be remembered that Keynesian economics originally was lacking in models and based on a number of unproved assumptions, such as, the stability of the consumption function with its declining marginal propensity to consume. Just as the economic catastrophe of the great depression of the 1930s paved the way for the application of Keynesian or demand-side policies, perhaps the frustrating and restless conditions of the 1970s and 1980s is an open invitation for the application of supply-side policies. If so, the 1980s and 1990s may prove to be the testing era for the supply-side theories. By the end of 1990s we should have better supply-side models and know much more about the effectiveness of supply-side policies. By that time, also, supply-side thinking may be more crystallized and we will learn whether it is something temporary that will fade away, be widely accepted as the new economics replacing Keynesian demand analysis, or something to be continued but melded or fused with demand management.

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Effect of Adenovirus-p53 to Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cell Lines (Adenovirus-p53이 비소세포폐암세포 성장에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구)

  • 박종호;이춘택;김주현
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.31 no.12
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    • pp.1134-1146
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    • 1998
  • Background: The tumor suppressor gene p53 is one of the most frequently altered genes in human tumors, including those of the lung. There is now a compelling evidence that wild-type p53 can negatively influence cell growth by causing G1 arrest or by inducing apoptosis. The possibilities of using p53 for gene therapy are also gathering much interest. Material and Method: Our approach towards understanding p53 function would be to study the biological consequences of overexpression of wild-type p53 in normal and tumor cells by using adenovirus vectors capable of giving high levels of the p53 gene product in cells. We have used this vector containing wild-type p53 to infect tumor cells with different p53 status (null, mutant, or wild-type) to confirm that expression of p53 in null or mutant cell lines becomes possible by Adenovirus-p53 transduction, to examine the effects of high levels of p53 expression on the growth properties of tumor cells, to evaluate the role of apoptosis in p53-mediated biological effects, and to examine the effect of Adenovirus-p53 on the tumorigenicities of the lung cancer cell lines in vitro. Result: The results of our study showed that cells expressing endogenous mutant p53 and those devoid of p53 expression altogether were significantly more sensitive to Adenovirus-p53-mediated cytotoxicity compared to tumor cells expressing endogenous wild-type p53 and that overexpression of wild-type p53 induced programmed cell death. Also we knew that Adenovirus-p53 significantly reduced tumor colony formation of human non-small cell lung cancer cell lines, and decreased the growth of pre-formed colonies in vitro. Conclusion: These results suggest that adenovirus is an efficient vector for mediating transfer and expression of tumor suppressor genes in human non-small cell lung cancer cells and that the tumor cells null for p53 or expressing mutant p53 readily undergo apoptosis by Adenovirus-p53.

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The Effect of the Serum Progesterone and Estradiol Levels of hCG Administration Day on the Pregnancy and Fertilization Rate in IVF-ET Patients (체외수정 과배란 유도에서 hCG 주사 당일의 혈청 Progesterone과 Estradiol 농도가 수정율 및 임신율에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Eun-Sook;Lee, Sang-Hoon;Bae, Do-Hwan
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.51-59
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    • 1996
  • Controlled Ovarian hyperstimulation(COH) is generally used to obtain synchronous high quality oocytes in in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer(IVF-ET). Many investigators have studied the relationship between serum hormone levels and outcomes of IVF-ET because there is no accurate estimation method of oocyte quality. Early premature luteinization of follicles before oocyte retrieval is the most troublesome problem in COH for IVF-ET. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists(GnRH-a) are used as adjuncts with gonadotropins for COH in patients undergoing in IVF. The possible benefits of GnRH-a pretreatment include improving oocyte quality, allowing a more synchronous cohort of follicles to be recruited, and preventing premature lueinization hormone surges. In COH of IVF cycles, we investigated whether an elevated progesterone(P4) level on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin(hCG) administration indicates premature luteinization and is associated with a lower fertilization rate. Many investigators have studied that the lower fertilization rates seen in patients with elevated P4 levels might result from an adverse effect of P4 on the oocytes. We hypothesizes that serum P4 levels around the day of hCG may be helpful prediction of out come in IVF-ET cycles. Success rates after COH of IVF-ET cycles are dependent upon many variable factors. Follicular factors including the number of follicles, follicular diameters and especially serum estradiol(E2) levels as an indirect measurement of follicular function and guality have been thought to influence the outcomes of IVF-ET. To assess whether serum P4 and E2 levels affect the fertilization and pregnancy rate, we reviewed the stimulation cycles of 113 patients (119 cycles) undergoing IVF-ET with short protocol with GnRH-a, from March 1993 to August 1994 retrospectively. The serum P4 and E2 levels were compared on the day of hCG in the pregnant group, 45 patients(47 cycles) and in the non-pregnant group, 68 patients (72 cycles) respectively. The serum E2 level in non-pregnant group was $1367{\pm}875.8$ pg/ml which was significantly lower than that of pregnant group, $1643{\pm}987.9$ pg/ml( p< 0.01 ). And the serum P4 level in non-pregnant group was $2.1{\pm}1.4$ ng/ml which was significantly higher than that of pregnant group, $1.0{\pm}0.7$ ng/ml( p< 0.001 ). The fertilization rate was $61.3{\pm}21.3%$ in pregnant group which was higher than that of non-pregnant group, $41.1{\pm}20.2%$ (p< 0.01). We suggest that the serum levels of P4 and E2 on the day of hCG administration are additional parameters that predict the outcomes of IVF-ET cycles.

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The Risk Implication of Ownership Structure: Focused on Korean Life Insurance Companies (유배당보험상품에 대한 재무론적 분석)

  • Lee, Kun-Ho;Wee, Kyeong-Woo;Jun, Sang-Gyung
    • The Korean Journal of Financial Management
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.147-181
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    • 2007
  • Our article investigates the risk implication of ownership structure in life insurance companies. We set up a model to identify the priority structure of policyholder's and shareholder's cashflow claims, and to derive its implications. Current literature on this issue has focused on the agency paradigm or the risk-sharing efficiency. Fama and Jensen(1983a, 1983b) and Mayers and Smith(1981, 1986, 1988, 1990, 1994) argue that the survival of both the corporate and the mutual form of organization is due in part to the relative efficiencies in controlling agency problems. With regard to insurance business, agency problems arise because of the three functions inherent in the organizations:manager, risk-bearer(owner), and policyholder. Stock insurers are characterized by the potentially complete separation of all three functions while mutual insurers merger the policyholder with the ownership function. Doherty and Dionne(1993) and Doherty(1991) concentrate their analysis on differences in the efficiency of risk sharing between participating and non-participating policies. They argue that when the undiversifiable risk has higher portion in business risk, combining policy and equity claims into a single package is a more efficient risk-sharing contract than a simple prepaid risk-transfer. Among various methods for assembling the policy/equity package, Doherty and Dionne(1993) and Doherty(1991) suggest that policy/equity package offered by the mutual is the most efficient risk-sharing arrangement. There has been a controversy on the property of participating policies sold by life insurance corporations in Korea. Some scholars argue that participating policyholders of Korean life insurance companies have shared the cashflow risk with shareholders. They emphasize that insurance firms have used dividend reserves to supplement for equity deficits. Thus, they argue that the economic entities of Korean life insurance companies are mutual companies though their legal entities are corporations. Our article explicitly sets up each stakeholder's cashflow claim in stock and mutual insurers, and thus identify risk differences in shareholder and policyholder. Using our model, we could derive direct implications on the controversy. Our model shows that life insurance companies would sell participating policies since policyholders would have the incentive to share the risk inherent in their primary claims with equityholders. And there exists a fundamental difference in shareholder's risk and equityholder's.

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Importance of Carbon Monoxide Transfer Coefficient (KCO) Interpretation in Patients with Airflow Limitation (기류제한 환자의 일산화탄소확산능 해석에서 폐용적 보정의 의의)

  • Seo, Yong Woo;Choi, Won-Il;Lee, Jeong Eun;Park, Hun Pyo;Ko, Sung Min;Won, Kyoung Sook;Keum, Dong Yoon;Lee, Mi-Young;Jeon, Young June
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.59 no.4
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    • pp.374-379
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    • 2005
  • Background : The single-breath carbon monoxide diffusion capacity (DLCO) and the per unit alveolar volume (KCO; $D_LCO/VA$) gave discordant values when there was an abnormal alveolar volume (VA). However, the clinical significance of the discordant values in patients with airflow limitation has not been examined. This study investigated the $D_LCO$ and KCO changes after improving the airflow limitation. Methods : The baseline $D_LCO$ and KCO with lung volume were measured in patients with an airflow obstruction. The effective alveolar volume was measured using the single-breath $CH_4$ dilution method. The patients divided into two groups according to the baseline values: (1) increased KCO in comparison with the $D_LCO$ (high discordance) (2) decreased or not increased KCO in comparison with the $D_LCO$ (low discordance). The diffusion capacity and lung volume were measured after treatment. Results : There was no significant difference in the baseline lung volumes including the $FEV_1$ and FVC between the two groups. The $FEV_1$ and FVC were significantly increased in the high discordance group compared with the low discordance group after treating the airflow limitation. The $D_LCO$ and alveolar volume were significant higher in the high discordance group compared with the low discordance group while the TLC was not. Conclusion : The discordance between the $D_LCO$ and KCO could be translated into an airflow reversibility in patients with an airflow limitation.