• Title, Summary, Keyword: transportation fuel market

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Theoretical and Empirical Issues in Conducting an Economic Analysis of Damage in Price-Fixing Litigation: Application to a Transportation Fuel Market (담합관련 손해배상 소송의 경제분석에서 고려해야 할 이론 및 실증적 쟁점: 수송용 연료시장에의 적용)

  • Moon, Choon-Geol
    • Environmental and Resource Economics Review
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.187-224
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    • 2014
  • We present key issues to consider in estimating damages from price-fixing cases and then apply the procedure addressing those issues to a transportation fuel market. Among the five methods of overcharge calculation, the regression analysis incorporating the yardstick method is the best. If the price equation relates the domestic price to the foreign price and the exchange rate as in the transportation fuel market, the functional form satisfying both logical consistency and modeling flexibility is the log-log functional form. If the data under analysis is of time series in nature, then the ARDL model should be the base model for each market and the regression analysis incorporating the yardstick method combines these ARDL equations to account for inter-market correlation and arrange constant terms and collusion-period dummies across component equations appropriately so as to identify the overcharge parameter. We propose a two-step test for the benchmarked market: (a) conduct market-by-market Spearman or Kendall test for randomness of the individual market price series first and (b) then conduct across-market Friedman test for homogeneity of the market price series. Statistical significance is the minimal requirement to establish the alleged proposition in the world of uncertainty. Between the sensitivity analysis and the model selection process for the best fitting model, the latter is far more important in the economic analysis of damage in price-fixing litigation. We applied our framework to a transportation fuel market and could not reject the null hypothesis of no overcharge.

Distributed artificial capital market based planning in 3D multi-robot transportation

  • Akbarimajd, Adel;Simzan, Ghader
    • Advances in robotics research
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.171-183
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    • 2014
  • Distributed planning and decision making can be beneficial from the robustness, adaptability and fault tolerance in multi-robot systems. Distributed mechanisms have not been employed in three dimensional transportation systems namely aerial and underwater environments. This paper presents a distributed cooperation mechanism on multi robot transportation problem in three dimensional environments. The cooperation mechanism is based on artificial capital market, a newly introduced market based negotiation protocol. In the proposed mechanism contributing in transportation task is defined as asset. Each robot is considered as an investor who decides if he is going to invest on some assets. The decision is made based on environmental constraint including fuel limitation and distances those are modeled as capital and cost. Simulations show effectiveness of the algorithm in terms of robustness, speed and adaptability.

Future Urban Transportation Technologies for Sustainability with an Emphasis on Growing Mega Cities: A Strategic Proposal on Introducing a New Micro Electric Vehicle Segment

  • Honey, Emilio;Lee, Hojin;Suh, In-Soo
    • World Technopolis Review
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    • v.3 no.3
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    • pp.139-152
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    • 2014
  • The current transportation regime is largely based on two alternatives: (1) fixed route public transit, and (2) private ownership of internal combustion engine (ICE) powered vehicles per households. This paper analyzes one possible transportation alternative, Micro Electric Vehicles or MEVs, and compares with the ICE vehicles in terms of social, economic and environmental benefits, especially emphasizing its environmental advantage over ICE vehicles for future sustainability. While some representative models of MEVs exist in a limited market capacity, but global technical standards are generally insufficient and non-homogenous across nations, which restricts the development of the proposed transportation sector. The focus of this paper is to analyze the characteristics and potential benefits of MEVs in economical and environmental perspectives, including development status and technical standards, with a particular focus in the E.U., the U.S., Japan, and Korea. Based on the data of analysis, this paper aims to derive and propose a cooperative and adaptive global policy framework designed to speed up adoption and expansion of the global MEV market, including passenger and utility vehicles. We propose MEV to be a new mobility segment in the global transportation market because of their advantage in environmental impact, sustainability, overall cost of ownership, and safety.

Market Structure and Pricing Behavior in the Korean Transportation Fuel Market (국내 수송용 석유제품 시장의 시장구조와 가격행태)

  • Moon, Choon-Geol
    • Environmental and Resource Economics Review
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.311-342
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    • 2015
  • We evaluate two main rationales of massive policy intervention of Lee Administration in the Korean transportation fuel market: high market share of domestic refineries, perceived by the Administration as the result of high market concentration, and asymmetry in price adjustment, perceived as the result of collusion. Domestic refineries, huge in capacity and located at seaports, maintain international competitiveness in price. Considering market openness offering preferential treatment to importers, they set domestic prices competitively on the basis of MOPS prices. Yet, the price competitiveness of domestic refineries is so high that they are able to sustain high market share. We confirm that the Korean before-tax consumer prices of gasoline and diesel are lower than Japan's and the weighted averages of 27 EU countries by as much as 159KRW and 21KRW per liter in the case of gasoline and 170KRW and 63KRW in the case of diesel. Price asymmetry is caused by diverse economic and managerial reasons and, as FTC (2005) states, price asymmetry does not immediately imply exercise of market power or collusion. We analyzed price asymmetry in Korea, Japan and 14 EU countries, and found asymmetry in Korea and 11 EU countries in the case of gasoline and in Korea and 8 EU countries in the case of diesel.

Prediction of Potential $CO_2$ Reduction through Ground Transportation Modal Shift with Fu7el Type and Scenarios (연료원별 온실가스배출량을 고려한 육상교통수단에서의 Modal Shift 효과)

  • Kim, Cho-Young;Lee, Cheul-Kyu;Kim, Yong-Ki
    • Proceedings of the KSR Conference
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    • pp.521-527
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    • 2011
  • Korea announced GHG reduction goal, 30% reduction compare with 2020 BAU and reduction target for each industry sector is planning. Transportation sector also trying to make effective technical and political counterplan of allocated GHG reduction target such as material lightening, energy efficiency improvement and Modal shift technology and so on. Modal Shift is shifting low energy efficiency vehicle to high energy efficiency vehicle which is economically meaningful under current market conditions. We can get not only energy efficiency improvement but also GHG reduction effect through modal shift. Modal Shift is effectively applying and studied in logistics field in Europe and Japan and one of the Indian companies has been registered CDM project activity involving modal shift from roadways to railways for finished goods. In this study, the scenarios are developed with detail modal shift ratio and fuel type base on state of road and rail use and GHG emission factor for each fuel type from MLTM. This result can be used as basic information to improve policies and promote increasing use of train which is more environment friendly transportation vehicle.

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Feasibility Evaluation & Strategy of Replacement of Power Generation Fuel by Using Bio-diesel (바이오 디젤의 발전용 연료화 타당성 및 추진전략)

  • Hur, Kwang-Beom;Park, Jung-Keuk;Rhim, Sang-Gyu;Kim, Sung-Chul
    • New & Renewable Energy
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.32-39
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    • 2009
  • Availability of reliable and affordable energy supply is a prerequisite for economic growth. Renewables are the third largest contributor to global electricity production after coal and natural gas and account for a share of 18%. Power generating capacity from renewables has increased to around 900GW by the year 2007. Today biodiesel fuels have been in commercial use in many countries and recently the world-wide biodiesel market has experienced considerable growth, which is partly due to various tax concession programs and other financial incentives. In Korea, biodiesel has already been used for transportation fuel, but not used for power generation fuel yet Korean government has a strategy for renewable energy propagation, especially the goal of power generation amount by renewable energy is 3% of total power production by 2012. This paper focuses on the feasibility study for adaptability and strategy of using biodiesel as power generation fuel. The study also has the plan to replace the fuel of thermal power plant, gas turbine and distributed power system. As the increase of biodiesel fuel, I look forward to environment-friendly power generation and the strategy of Renewable Portfolio Standards(RPS).

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Feasibility Evaluation & Strategy of Replacement of Power Generation Fuel by Using Bio-diesel (바이오 디젤의 발전용 연료화 타당성 평가)

  • Hur, Kwang-Beom;Park, Jung-Keuk;Rhim, Sang-Gyu;Lee, Jung-Bin
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.806-812
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    • 2009
  • Availability of reliable and affordable energy supply is a prerequisite for economic growth. Renewables are the third largest contributor to global electricity production after coal and natural gas and account for a share of 18%. Power generating capacity from renewables has increased to around 900GW by the year 2007. Today biodiesel fuels have been in commercial use in many countries and recently the world-wide biodiesel market has experienced considerable growth, which is partly due to various tax concession programs and other financial incentives. In Korea, biodiesel has already been used for transportation fuel, but not used for power generation fuel yet. Korean government has a strategy for renewable energy propagation, especially the goal of power generation amount by renewable energy is 3% of total power production by 2012. This paper focuses on the feasibility study for adaptability and strategy of using biodiesel as power generation fuel. The study also has the plan to replace the fuel of thermal power plant, gas turbine and distributed power system. As the increase of biodiesel fuel, I look forward to environment-friendly power generation and the strategy of Renewable Portfolio Standards(RPS).

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Air Pollutants Control Technique Trends for Transportation Sources in Korea (우리나라 이동오염원의 제어기술의 동향과 발전방안)

  • Kim, Jeong-Soo;Eom, Myung-Do
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.477-485
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    • 2013
  • The major source of harmful air pollutants in Korea have been shifted as economy grows. Particulate matter(PM) and Sulfur dioxide ($SO_2$) emitted from industries and coal-fired domestic sectors were important pollutants in 1970's and later industrializing period of Korea. Then the characteristic of pollution was changed into so-called "developed country type pollution". Vehicles have been responsible for significant amount of Nitric oxide ($NO_x$) pollution and consequent Ozone formation in urban area since 1990's. Variety of control measures have been introduced to deal with the vehicle emissions in Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA). Emission control technologies have successfully reduced pollutants from vehicles. Three-way catalyst for vehicles fueled by gasoline and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), for example, has achieved large amount of pollutants. Compressed natural gas (CNG) urban bus have penetrated existing diesel bus market and reduces PM and $NO_x$ emissions in many Korean cities. However, diesel vehicles are still reaming as a critical emission source of urban area. Diesel vehicles gain more popularity than ever because of their better fuel efficiency and driving power. Unfortunately, it is widely known that the pollutant emissions of diesel vehicles are much larger than those of gasoline and LPG vehicles. In this note, we briefly introduce the trends of emission control strategies which are accomplished by automotive industries for about last ten years. Emission regulation, cleaner fuel, diesel particulate filter (DPF) and other measures are discussed from technical as well as legislative perspectives.

Status of Domestic Byproduct Hydrogen and Infrastructure (국내 부생수소 현황과 수소 유통 인프라)

  • Sim, Kyu-Sung;Kim, Jong-Won;Kim, Jung-Duk;Hwang, Gap-Jin;Kim, Heung-Sun
    • Transactions of the Korean hydrogen and new energy society
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.330-338
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    • 2002
  • A long-term energy system in the future is expected to be based on the ideal circulation system between water and hydrogen in the sense that the hydrogen prepared from water eventually returns to water again after its use. Currently, with respect to the hydrogen energy system, it is predicted that the turning-point at which the production cost of hydrogen will become to be lower than that of fossil fuels would be after 2010. However, fuel cell technology would be able to be practically used for the applications to the transportation vehicles and small-scale power sources from 2004, and therefore, an efficient construction of the infrastructure covering hydrogen production and supply systems would be required with short-/mid-term technologies for the $CO_2$ reduction associated with fossil fuel utilization. In this paper, the hydrogen quantity available in domestic market has been estimated focusing on the hydrogen by-produced from domestic industries, and also the infrastructure for hydrogen-driven vehicles like fuel cell cars has been reviewed.

Estimation for CDM of Power Generation by using Bio-diesel (바이오 디젤의 발전용 연료화 CDM 평가)

  • Hur, Kwang-Beom;Park, Jung-Keuk;Rhim, Sang-Kyu;Lee, Jung-Bin
    • Journal of Energy Engineering
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.132-135
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    • 2009
  • Development of biofuels like ethanol and biodiesel for commercial uses is a recent phenomenon. However, the growth of ethanol and biodiesel has been impressive during the period 2000-2007yr. Globally, production of biodiesel stands around 8.3 billion liters. Europe leads the world in biodiesel production with 80% share of the global biodiesel production total. Today biodiesel fuels have been in commercial use in many countries and recently the world-wide biodiesel market has experienced considerable growth, which is partly due to various tax concession programs and other financial incentives. In Korea, biodiesel has already been used for transportation fuel, but not used for power generation fuel yet. Korean government has a strategy for renewable energy propagation, especially the goal of power generation amount by renewable energy is 3% of total power production by 2012. This paper focuses on the estimation study for effect of using biodiesel as power generation fuel. The study also has the plan to replace the fuel of thermal power plant, gas turbine and distributed power generation system. As the increase of biodiesel fuel, I look forward to environment-friendly power generation and the strategy of Renewable Portfolio Standards(RPS).