• Title, Summary, Keyword: triglycerides

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Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid Decreases Plasma Triglycerides with Mixed Effects on the Indices of $\beta$-oxidation

  • Cha, Youn-Soo
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.30 no.9
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    • pp.1067-1072
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    • 1997
  • One known effect of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids is their ability to decrease plasma triglycerides. However, identification of the specific n-3 fatty acids and the underlying mechanisms responsible for this change remains uncertain. This present study was designed to evaluate the effects of moderate levels of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (22 :6(n-3)) on modulating plasma triglyderides. Male CD-1 mice were maintained for 15 days on identical diets containing either docosahexahexaenoic acid ethyl ester(1.5%, w/w) or linoleic acid(18 : 2(n-6)) ethyl ester (1.5%, w/w) . Plasma triglycerides were 40% lower in the docosahexaenoic acid group than in the linoleic acid group. Hepatic carnitine palmitoyltransferase activity (a key regulatory enzyme for mitocondria $\beta$-oxidation) was not significantly different between the dietary groups. However, plasma acid soluble acylcarnitine levels (which increase with increasing $\beta$-oxidation )were significantly higher in the decosahexaenoic acid group. This data suggests that plasma triglyceride levels are lower in mice fed diets containing moderate levels of docosahexaenoic acid compared to linoleic acid, but this effect on plasma triglycerides is not modulated through an augmentation of mitochondrial $\beta$-oxidation.

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The Relationship between Serum Lipid Levels and Psychologic Characteristics (혈청 지질 농도와 심리적 특성의 관련성)

  • Lee, Jun-Suk;Lee, Jang-Han;Yang, Byung-Hwan;Ji, Yong-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.194-202
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    • 2001
  • Objectives : Many studies have shown an association between serum lipid concentrations and psychologic characteristics. However, conflicting results have also been reported. This study was designed to find the relationship between serum lipid levels(cholesterol and triglycerides) and psychologic characteristics(impulsiveness, aggressiveness, depressiveness) in adolescents. Methods : Serum cholesterol concentration, serum triglycerides concentration, complete blood count, electrolytes, liver function test, and blood sugar level were measured by overnight fasting blood sampling and urinalysis was also conducted in 407 high school students. Impulsiveness level was measured by Barratt Impulsiveness Scale(BIS). Aggressiveness level was measured by Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory(BDHI). Depressiveness level was measured by Beck Depression Inventory(BDI). Serum cholesterol was measured by standard enzymatic assay and serum triglycerides was measured by Boehringer Mannheim method. Results : 1) Low cholesterol group(<15 percentile) were found to have significantly higher BIS score than high cholesterol group(>85 percentile) in female. Female low cholesterol group were also found to have significantly higher motor impulsivity score, a subscale of BIS, than high cholesterol group. 2) High triglycerides group(>85 percentile) were found to have significantly higher BDI score than low triglycerides group(<15 percentile) in male and female separately. Especially, male high triglycerides group were also found to have significantly higher BIS and motor impulsivity score than low triglycerides group. Conclusion : These results support the previous hypothesis that serum lipid levels(cholesterol and triglycerides) affect human psychologic characteristics.

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The Pharmacological Study on Ginkgoic Acid, a Component of Ginkgo Biloba L. Fruit (은행성분(銀杏成分) Ginkgoic Acid의 약리학적(藥理學的) 연구(硏究))

  • Han, Dae-Sup
    • The Korean Journal of Pharmacology
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.27-30
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    • 1972
  • The effect of the Ginkgoic acid on the amounts of total cholesterol and triglycerides in serum from rabbit was observed. Ginkgoic acid was obtained from Ginkgo biloba L. fruits, and it was subcutaneously administered to the three days fasted rabbits. After three days starvation, the amounts of total cholesteral and triglycerides in serum of the rabbit were markedly increased. The increased amounts of total cholesteral and triglycerides were gradually decreased by administration of Ginkgoic acid, and were returned to the control levels after 4 days. According to the above results, it would be concluded that Ginkgoic acid influences for the recovery of the increased amounts of total cholesterol and triglycerides by abnormal metabolism to normal on rabbit.

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Hyperlipidemia effect of garlic using mean difference of meta analysis (메타분석에서 평균차를 이용한 마늘의 항-고지혈증 효과)

  • Yun, A-Reum;Choi, Ki-Heon
    • Journal of the Korean Data and Information Science Society
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.413-421
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    • 2011
  • The present study was carried out to summarize the effect of garlic in the hyperlipidemia rats by meta-analysis related studies. The association measure to test effect of garlic was the mean difference (MD). In this particular fixed-effect model of mean difference, body weight, liver weight, kidney weight and heart weight were significantly decreased (p < 0.05). Also, blood glucose, plasma total cholesterol, plasma triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, liver cholesterol, liver triglycerides were significantly decreased. HDL-cholesterol was significantly increased. In this case of heterogeneous variable, random effect model was applied. In this model, liver weight, blood glucose, plasma total cholesterol, plasma triglycerides, LDL-cholesterol, liver cholesterol, liver triglycerides were significantly decreased. HDL-cholesterol was significantly increased. According to the meta-regression analysis, duration of injection was significantly for kidney weight, testis weight, plasma total cholesterol, plasma triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, LDLcholesterol, liver cholesterol, liver triglycerides.

Determination of Carnitine Renal Threshold and Effect of Medium-Chain Triglycerides on Carnitine Profiles in Newborn Pigs

  • Heo, K.N.;Odle, J.;Lin, X.;van Kempen, T.A.T.G.;Han, In K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.237-242
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    • 2001
  • Colostrum deprived, newborn pigs (N=12, $1.64{\pm}0.05kg$) were used to study the renal threshold of carnitine, and effects of emulsified medium-chain triglyceride (MCT, tri-8:0) feeding on kinetics of plasma carnitine and urinary carnitine excretion. An arterial catheter was inserted through an umbilical artery, and a bladder catheter was inserted via the urachus. Piglets were oro-gastrically gavaged with one of six carnitine levels (0, 60, 120, 180, 240, $480{\mu}mol/kg\;W^{0.75}$) with (+MCT) or without medium-chain triglycerides (-MCT) in 0.9% NaCl solution. Blood was sampled into heparinized tubes at 0, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 14, and 20 h after gavage, and urine was collected and pooled into 1 h or 2 h composite samples to determine free- and short-chain carnitine concentrations. Plasma from the 12 newborn piglets before gavage contained $10.6{\pm}1.2{\mu}mol/L$ free carnitine and $7.2{\pm}0.6{\mu}mol/L$ acid-soluble acyl carnitine. The renal threshold for carnitine was similar between the MCT and the +MCT group (42.6 13.1 and $46.4{\pm}2.0{\mu}mol/L$, respectively), but the correlation between plasma free carnitine and urinary excretion was altered. Plasma free carnitine linearly increased with increasing carnitine dosage (-MCT group, $R^2=0.95$, p<0.001; +MCT group, $R^2=0.91$, p<0.001), but was decreased by 50% when medium-chain triglycerides were fed. The peak in plasma free carnitine concentration was depressed by medium-chain triglycerides feeding also. Therefore, the plasma and urinary short-chain/free carnitine ratio of the +MCT group was increased by 100% and 40%, respectively (p<0.01). Feeding of medium-chain triglycerides may delay plasma carnitine elevation via altering the kinetics of absorption. Similarly, the plasma and urinary short-chain/free carnitine ratio were affected by interaction between medium-chain triglycerides and time (p<0.01). The present study suggests that an oral carnitine dose over $480{\mu}mol/kg\;W^{0.75}$ may be needed to reach the free carnitine renal threshold within a short period, especially when provided together with medium-chain triglyceride.

Triglycerides and C-peptide are Increased in Obese Type 2 Diabetic Patients (비만 제2형 당뇨병 환자에서 중성지방과 C-peptide 증가)

  • Kim, Hee-Seung;Song, Min-Sun;Yoo, Yang-Sook
    • Journal of Korean Biological Nursing Science
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.41-49
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    • 2002
  • Aim To evaluate blood pressure, blood glucose and serum lipid level in obese and nonobese type 2 diabetic patients. Methods 206 obese(76 male, 130 female) and 442 nonobese(208 male, 234 female) type 2 diabetic patients underwent fasting blood glucose, 2-hour postprandial blood glucose, $HbA_1c$ total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, microalbuminuria, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and C-peptide were measured. Diabetes was diagnosed according to the American Diabetes Association(ADA)criteria. Obesity was defined as body mass index(BMI, kilograms per meters squared)${\geq}25$. Results In male, systolic blood pressure, triglycerides, microalbuminuria and C-peptide were significant higher in obese than nonobese patients. Fasting blood glucose were significantly lower in obese than nonobese patients. Diastolic blood pressure, 2-hour postprandial blood glucose, $HbA_1c$, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine were no difference between 2 groups. In female, triglycerides and C-peptide were significant higher in obese than nonobese patients, Blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, 2-hour postprandial blood glucose, $HbA_1c$, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, microalbuminuria, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine were no difference between 2 groups. Conclusion Our present study supports that increased triglycerides play a major role in increasing the risk of coronary heart disease(CHD) in obese women type 2 diabetic patients.

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The Effect of Crude Drug Preparation Containing Capricornidis Cornu on the Amount of Lipids in Serum from Rabbit (영양각(羚羊角)(Capricornidis Cornu)제제(製劑)가 가토혈청중(家兎血淸中) 지질함량(脂質含量) 변화(變化)에 미치는 영향(影響) (II))

  • Jung, Jee-Chang;Park, Tae-Gwan;Han, Dae-Sup
    • The Korean Journal of Pharmacology
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.29-35
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    • 1971
  • The effect of Capricornidis Cornu (C.C) on the amount of total cholesterol, triglycerides, and phospholipid in serum from rabbit were observed. The preparations were extracted by methanol, and extracted samples were oraly adminstrated to the rabbits fasted for three days. After three days starvation, the amounts of total cholesterol and triglycerides in serum of the rabbit were markedly increased, while phospholipid was slightly decreased. The amount of total cholesterol and triglycerides were gradually decreased by adminstration of the extracted samples and were returned to the control leveles after 15 days. However, the amount of phospholipid was increased to higher than the control levels by adminstraion of the drug. According to the above results, it would be concluded that the extract of C.C. and crude drug preparation containing C.C. influences for the recovery of the increased amounts of total cholesterol and triglycerides by abnormal metabolism to the normal on rabbit.

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Troglitazone Lowers Serum Triglycerides with Sexual Dimorphism in C57BL/6J Mice

  • Jeong Sun-Hyo;Yoon Mi-Chung
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.65-72
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    • 2006
  • Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are widely used antidiabetic drugs that activate the nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ${\gamma}(PPAR{\gamma})$, and thereby improve the metabolic abnormalities linking hypertriglyceridemia to diabetes, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular disease. To determine whether the $PPAR{\gamma}$ ligand troglitazone regulates lipid metabolism with sexual dimorphism, we examined the effects of troglitazone on circulating lipids, body weight and the expression of hepatic genes responsible for lipid metabolism in both sexes of C57BL/6J mice. Compared to mice fed a low fat control diet, both sexes of mice fed a troglitazone-treated low fat diet for 14 weeks did not exhibit changes in body weight gain, serum total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels. However, serum triglycerides were significantly reduced in both sexes of mice, although these effects were more pronounced among males. Furthermore, troglitazone regulated the expression of hepatic genes critical for lipid and lipoprotein metabolism, the magnitudes of which were much higher in males compared to females, as evidenced by results for increased acyl-CoA oxidase and decreased apolipoprotein C-III mRMA levels. These results suggest that $PPAR{\gamma}$ activator troglitazone may exert sexually dimorphic control of serum triglycerides in part through the differential activation of $PPAR{\gamma}$ in liver between male and female mice.

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Brassinosteroid-like Activity of Monoglyceride Analogues (Monoglyceride 관련물질의 Brassinosteroid-like 생물활성)

  • Park, Jong-Dae;Park, Keun-Hyung
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.357-360
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    • 1997
  • The biological activity of monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides and free fatty acids were investigated by the rice inclination test that is specific bioassay for brassinosteroids. The experimental results revealed that some diglycerides, triglycerides and free fatty acids as well as monoglycerides showed positive response. ${\alpha}-Monoolein$ and diolein as active principles showed higher activity than indole-3-acetic acid at the same concentration. From the results, it can be confirmed that the active principles are related to olein which especially have a high activity.

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Effects of Fenofibrate on Adipogenesis in Female C57BL/6J Mice

  • Jeong Sunhyo;Choi Won Chang;Yoon Michung
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2005
  • Fibrates are a class of hypolipidemic agents whose effects are mediated by activation of a specific transcription factor called the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor $\alpha\;(PPAR\alpha).\;PPAR\alpha$ regulates the pathways of lipid catabolism such as fatty acid oxidation and the triglyceride metabolism, resulting in the treatment of hyperlipidemia. The decreased levels of plasma triglycerides by fibrates are responsible for hypertrophy and hyperpalsia of adipose cells. To determine whether fenofibrate regulates adipogenesis in female C57BL/6J mice, we measured the effects of fenofibrate on not only body weight, adipose tissue mass and serum triglycerides, but also the histology of adipose tissue and the expression of adipocyte marker genes. Fenofibrate did not inhibit high fat diet-induced increases in body weight, adipose tissue mass and serum triglycerides. Furthermore, fenofibrate did not cause the changes in the size and number of adipocytes and the expression of adipocyte-specific genes such as leptin and $TNF\alpha$. Therefore, this study demonstrates that fenofibrate does not affect adipogenesis in female mice.

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