• Title, Summary, Keyword: triple layer model

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An Effective Quasi-static Modeling of the Piezoelectric Benders (압전 벤더의 효과적인 모델링 기법)

  • Park, Jong-Kyu;Moon, Won-Kyu
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.133-142
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    • 2004
  • In this article, the constitutive relations of three types of piezoelectric benders, which are a unimorph bender, a bimorph bender and a triple-layer bender, are derived based on the beam theory under the quasi-static equilibrium condition. The relation coefficients are described as the geometry and material properties of the benders. More general constitutive relations involving fixed-free, fixed-roll, and fixed-simply supported boundary conditions under the inconsistent length condition between the piezoelectric layer and the nonpiezoelectric one are discussed. The complicated constitutive relations can be easily calculated and checked by using the symbolic function in ‘Mathematica’. The relation coefficients for the benders are plotted in three dimensional graph using the developed program.

Investigation on the Turbulence Structure of Reattaching Separated Shear Layer Past a Two-Dimensional Vetrical Fenc(I) (2次元 垂直壁을 지니는 再附着 剝離 斷層 의 亂流構造 에 관한 硏究 (I))

  • 김경천;정명균
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.403-413
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    • 1985
  • Hot-wire measurements of second and third-order mean products of velocity fluctuations have been made in the separated, reattached, and redeveloping boundary layer behind a vertical fence. Mean velocity, wall static pressure distributions have also been measured in the whole flow field. Upstream of the reattachment point, the separated shear layer developes as a free mixing layer, but the gradient of the maximum slope thickness, turbulent intensities and the Reynolds shear stress are higher than that of the mixing layer due to initial streamline curvature and the effects of highly turbulent recirculating flow region. In the reattachment region, Reynolds shear stress and triple products near the surface is far more rapid than the decrease of the shear stress; that is the presence of the solid wall has a marked effect on the apparent gradient diffusivity of intensity or shear stress and throws doubts upon the usefulness of the simple gradient diffusivity model in this region.

Triple-layer Surface Complexation Modeling on the Adsorption of cs-137 and Sr-90 onto Kaolinite: Effect of Groundwater Ions and pH (캐올리나이트의 셰슘-137 및 스트론튬-90 흡착에 대한 삼중층 표면복합반응 모델링: 지하수 이온성분 및 pH의 영향)

  • 정찬호;박상원;김수진
    • Journal of the Mineralogical Society of Korea
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.106-116
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    • 1998
  • The adsorption of Cs-137 and Sr-90 onto kaolinite in prescence of major groundwater cations (Ca2+, K+, Na+) with different concentrations was simulated by using triple-layer surface complexation model (TL-SCM). The site density (8.73 sites/nm2) of kaolinite used for TL-SCM was calculated from it's CEC and specific surface area. TL-SCM modeling results indicate that concentrations dependence on 137Cs and 90Sr adsorption onto kaolinite as a function of pH is best modeled as an outer-sphere surface reaction. This suggests that Cs+ and Sr2+ are adsorbed at the $\beta$-layer in kaolinite-water interface where the electrolytes, Nacl, KCl and CaCl2, bind. However, TL-SCM results on Sr adsorption show a discrepancy between batch data and fitting data in alkaline condition. This may be due to precipitation of SrCO3 and complexation such as SrOH+. Intrinsic reaction constants of ions obtained from model fit are as follows: Kintcs=10-2.10, KintSr=10-2.30, KintK=10-2.80, KintCa=10-3.10 and KintNa=10-3.32. The results are in the agreement with competition order among groundwater ions (K+>Ca2+>Na+) and sorption reference of nuclides (Cs-137>Sr-90) at kaolinite-water interface showed in batch test.

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Dislocation Density Estimation and mosaic Model for GaN/SiC(0001) by High Resolution x-ray Diffraction

  • Yang, Quankui;Li, Aizhen
    • Journal of the Korean Vacuum Society
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    • v.6 no.S1
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    • pp.43-46
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    • 1997
  • High resolution x-ray diffraction and two dimensional triple axis mapping were used to characterize a group of GaN layers of about 1.1$\mu$m grown by direct current plasma molecular beam epitaxy technique on 6H-SiC(0001). A FWHM of 11.9 arcmins for an $\omega$ scan and 1.2 arcmins for an $\omega$/2$\theta$ scan were observed. A careful study of the rocking curves showed there were some large mosaics in the GaN layer and a tilt of $0.029^{\circ}$ between the GaN layer and the SIC substrate was detected. The two dimensional triple axis mapping showed that the GaN mosaica were disoriented in the (0001) plane but rather uniformed in direction perpendicular to the plane. A mosaics were disoriented in the (0001) plane but rather uniformed in direction perpendicular to the plane. A mosaic model was deduced to explain the phenomenon and the dislocation density was estimated to be about~$10^9\;\textrm{cm}^{-2}$ acc ding to the model.

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A Numerical Study on the Lean-Rich Interaction of Methane/Air Flames (희박-과농 메탄 화염의 상호작용에 관한 수치해석적 연구)

  • Lee, Seung-Dong;Jeong, Seok-Ho
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.377-383
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    • 1996
  • Interaction of flames in a lean-rich concentration field is studied numerically adopting a counterflow as a model problem. Detailed kinetic mechanism is adopted in analyzing the structure of various type of flames which can be found in lean-rich interaction. Flow field is simplified to quasi one-dimensional by using boundary layer approximation and similarity formulation. Triple flames are identified and its structure shows that a diffusion flame is located in the middle of two premixed flames. Such a diffusion flame is formed by $H_2$ and CO generated from the rich premixed flame and $O_2$ leaked from the lean premixed flame. The flame position can be identified either from the hydrogen production rate or the heat release rate. Transition from single diffusion flame to triple flame is observed as degree of premixing is increased.

EVALUATION OF TURBULENCE MODELS FOR ANALYSIS OF THERMAL STRIPING (Thermal Striping 해석 난류모델 평가)

  • Cho, Seok-Ki;Kim, Se-Yun;Kim, Seong-O
    • Journal of computational fluids engineering
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 2005
  • A numerical study of the evaluation of turbulence models for thermal striping phenomenon is performed. The turbulence models chosen in the present study are the two-layer model, the shear stress transport (SST) model and the V2-f model. These three models are applied to the analysis of the triple-jet flow with the same velocity but different temperatures. The unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) equation method is used together with the SIMPLEC algorithm. The results of the present study show that the temporal oscillation of temperature is predicted by the SST and V2-f models, and the accuracy of the mean velocity, the turbulent shear stress and the mean temperature is a little dependent on the turbulence model used. In addition, it is shown that both the two-layer and SST models have nearly the same capability predicting the thermal striping, and the amplitude of the temperature fluctuation is predicted best by the V2-f model.

A Design of Ontology Parser for Semantic Web (시맨틱 웹을 위한 온톨로지 파서의 설계)

  • Lee, Mi-Kyoung;Park, Shu-Cheon;Sohn, Ju-Chan
    • Proceedings of the Korea Information Processing Society Conference
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    • pp.1109-1112
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    • 2003
  • 시맨틱 웹은 웹 상의 정보에 의미를 부여하여 컴퓨터가 문서의 의미를 해석할 수 있도록 하기 위한 목적으로 제안된 것이다. 시맨틱 웹의 잘 정의된 의미를 다루기 위해서 RDF/RDFS, DAML+OIL, OWL 등의 웹 온톨로지 언어가 필요하다. 본 논문에서는 시맨틱 웹에서 사용되는 온톨로지 문서들을 이용하는 온톨로지 기반 지식 엔진 시스템에서 코어 엔진의 Ontology Access Layer에 해당되는 부분으로 웹 온톨로지 문서를 읽어서 Ontology Object Model로 생성해주는 기능을 하는 온톨로지 파서를 설계하였다. 논문에서 설계한 온톨로지 파서는 RDF, DAML+OIL, OWL 웹 온톨로지 문서들을 파싱하여 Ontology Object Model 을 생성한다. 그리고 파싱에 필요한 API를 제공해주며 문서를 읽고 저장해준다. 온톨로지 문서들의 Triple 값을 필요로 하는 시스템을 위해서 문서들의 Triple 형태의 결과 값도 제공해준다.

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Development of Red Pepper Dryer -Simulation and Optimization- (고추 건조기(乾燥機)의 개발(開發)에 관한 연구(硏究) -시뮬레이션 및 최적화-)

  • Keum, D.H.;Choi, C.H.;Kim, S.Y.
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.248-262
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    • 1991
  • Simulation model was developed to analyze drying process for tray type red pepper dryer and validated by experiments. This model could predict satisfactorily temperatures and moisture contents of red pepper and temperatures of drying air during drying. Optimize algorithm was developed to search control valiables (drying air temperature, air recycle ratio and air flow rate) of red pepper dryer based on a criterion of minimizing energy consumption under the constraint conditions that statisfied carotenoid retension of at least 210mg per 100g dry matter, the moisture content of bottom layer of 15% (d.b) and drying time of less than 35 hours. Step changes in drying air temperature and air recycle ratio were considered in the optimization. In single step in control variables, the difference of the moisture content between top layer and bottom layer was great and more fan power was required. As the drying trays were exchanged when the moisture content of bottom layer reached to 100% (d.b), fifty percent of energy was saved and the difference of moisture content was little. In double step changes in control variables, optimal conditions were found by changing the step when the moisture content of bottom layer reached to 100% (d.b) (about 19.8 hours from starting drying). Optimum air flow rate was $18.1cmm/m^2$. Optimum drying air temperature and air recycle ratio in the first step was $55.8^{\circ}C$ and 0.80, and in the second step $65.6^{\circ}C$ and 0.88, respectively. In triple step changes in control variables, the optimal conditions were found by changing the steps when the moisture content of bottom layer reached to 250% (d.b) and 150% (d.b). Optimal air temperatures were $66.2^{\circ}C$, $58.4^{\circ}C$ and $66.9^{\circ}C$, and optimal air recycle ratios were 0.778, 0.785, 0.862 at each step, respectively. Optimal air flow rate was $18.9cmm/m^2$. The best operating mode was triple step mode considering energy consumption, drying time, fan power, and quality of dried red pepper. When the triple step mode was used to dry the red pepper, the energy consumption was about 16.5%~57.2% less than that of the single step mode and the drying time was 6.6 hours shorter than that of the double step mode.

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