• Title, Summary, Keyword: tuberculosis

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Korean Guidelines for Diagnosis and Treatment of Tuberculosis in Children and Adolescents (소아청소년 결핵의 진료 지침)

  • Choi, Kyong Min;Kim, Nam Hee;Kim, Dong-Ho;Kim, Yae Jean;Kim, Jong-Hyun;Oh, Sung Hee;Eun, Byung Wook;Lee, Soo-Young;Lee, Taek Jin;Chun, Jin-Kyong;Hong, Jung Yun
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.1-14
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    • 2011
  • Tuberculosis is a disease with high morbidity and mortality in children worldwide. Despite the decrease in the incidence of tuberculosis in Korea, more than 30,000 new patients are diagnosed each year. Active tuberculosis is less frequent in children compared to adults but the risk of miliary tuberculosis and CNS tuberculosis is much higher. The diagnosis of tuberculosis in children and adolescents is difficult due to the nonspecific symptoms upon presentation. Diagnostic work up is based on the confirmation of tuberculosis infection by tuberculin skin test, abnormal radiologic findings, and contact with an adult with active tuberculosis. Anti-tuberculosis medications are prescribed according to the drug susceptibility of the index patient. Latent tuberculosis infection plays an important role in adult tuberculosis by reactivation. Thus, it is critical to accurately diagnose latent tuberculosis in children to prevent reactivation in adulthood. Korean guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of tuberculosis in children and adolescents provide evidence based recommendations in the optimal diagnosis and treatment for active and latent tuberculosis in children and adolescents based on the current Korean situation.

Tuberculosis Management of Private Health Care Institution : Current Situation and Task (민간 의료기관 결핵관리의 오늘과 내일)

  • Park, Ki-Dong
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.52 no.6
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    • pp.579-589
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    • 2002
  • Since the inception of the National Tuberculosis Control Program in 1962, the incidence of tuberculosis and its associated mortality has declined dramatically due to effective anti-tuberculosis drugs and a systematic control program. The prevalence of radiographically active tuberculosis has fallen from 5.1% in 1965 to 1.0% in 1995. However, tuberculosis is still a major problem, as the mortality rate is still higher compared to other developed countries. Furthermore, tuberculosis is currently re-emerging in HIV/AIDS epidemic countries. In order to lower the tuberculosis death rate to the levels of developed countries, the tuberculosis control efforts in private healthcare institutions and the national tuberculosis control program in the public sector, need to work together more effectively and efficiently. In this paper, the quthor reviewed the current situation regarding tuberculosis management in private healthcare institutions of Korea based on the literature and the National Health Insurance Claim data, and the future tasks of tuberculosis management are suggested.

Oral tuberculosis - a brief review - (임상가를 위한 특집 1 - 구강 결핵 감염 - a brief review -)

  • Ryu, Mi-Heon
    • The Journal of the Korean dental association
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    • v.48 no.5
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    • pp.350-354
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    • 2010
  • Tuberculosis has re-emerged as serious infectious diseases, and oral tuberculosis, though uncommon, can be seen in both the primary and secondary tuberculosis. The aim of the present review is to describe the pathogenesis of tuberculosis and the characteristics of oral tuberculosis. The oral tuberculosis lesion may present as a diagnostic challenge for the clinician. In particular, the risk of tuberculosis transmission in dental practises is potentially increasing, the dentists and dental providers must exercise strict tuberculosis prevention.

Five Rare Non-Tuberculous Mycobacteria Species Isolated from Clinical Specimens (임상에서 분리된 희귀 비결핵 마이코박테리아 5종)

  • Park, Young-Kil;Lee, Young-Ju;Yu, Hee-Kyung;Jeong, Mi-Young;Ryoo, Sung-Weon;Kim, Chang-Ki;Kim, Hee-Jin
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.69 no.5
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    • pp.331-336
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    • 2010
  • Background: Recently, the rate of infections with non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) has been increasing in Korea. Precise identification of NTM is critical to determination of the pathogen and to target treatment of NTM patients. Methods: Sixty-eight unclassified mycobacteria isolates by rpoB PCR-RFLP assay (PRA) collected in 2008 were analyzed by National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) search after sequencing of 16S rRNA, hsp65, rpoB genes. Results: Nineteen strains of 68 isolates were specified as species after sequencing analysis of 3 gene types. We found 3 M. lentifulavum, 5 M. arupense, 4 M. triviale, 4 M. parascrofulaceum, and one M. obuense. One M. tuberculosis and another M. peregrinum were mutated at the Msp I recognition site needed for rpoB PRA. The remaining 49 isolates did not coincide with identical species at the 3 kinds genes. Conclusion: Sequencing analysis of 16S rRNA, hsp65, rpoB was useful for identification of NTM unclassified by rpoB PRA.

Clinical Finding of MDR Tuberculosis and Frequency of MOTT (다제내성결핵의 임상적 특성과 비결핵항산균증의 빈도)

  • Bae, Mi-Hee;Kim, Hwa-Jung;Kwon, Eun-Soo;Kim, Cheol-Min;Kim, Cheon-Tae;Song, Sun-Dae
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.45 no.6
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    • pp.1123-1142
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    • 1998
  • Background : The frequency of MOTT has risen as the prevalence of tuberculosis has been declining. Our country has been also. The most of MOTT was resistant to the major anti-tuberculous drugs. Method : To compare clinical characteristics and frequencies of MDR tuberculosis with MOTT, the author studied 65 patients showing AFB culture positive with sputum. The data were collected from 176 patients who had been admitted at the National Masan Tuberculosis Hospital from May to June, 1997 to April, 1998. Result : The frequency of MDR tuberculosis was 43.1% and that of MOTT was 9.2%. Among 65 isolated mycobacteria, 3 cases were M. intracellulare. 2 cases were M. fortuitum, and 1 case was unidentified MOTT. The most frequent age group in 65 culture positive patients was 4th decade and the mean age was 44. The mean age was 61 in MOTT and 42 in M. tuberculosis and had significant difference(p<0.01). The numbers with past history of treatment were 2.3 in MDR tuberculosis and 1.7 in non-MDR tuberculosis and had significant difference(p<0.05). At the time of admission, the most frequent regimen for the treatment of MDR tuberculosis was 24 months regimen(85.7%) with the 2nd line anti-tuberculosis drugs. For non-MDR tuberculosis, 9 or 12 months regimen (72.9%) with the 1st line anti-tuberculosis drugs and had significant difference (p<0.01). At the time of admission, the symptom of weight loss was shown in 84.7% of M. tuberculosis and 50.0% in MOTT and there was significant difference(p<0.05) between them. All of the MOTT were identified to be resistant against INH and PAS. Drug resistance rates to INH, OFX(p<0.01) and PAS(p<0.05) in MOTT were higher than in MDR. All of three M. intracellulare strains were resistant to INH, RFP, PAS and OFX. All of two M. fortuitum strains were resistant to most anti-tuberculosis drugs. And the other MOTT was resistant to INH, EMB and PAS. Conclusion : MOTT was more common in elderly patients than M. tuberculosis. MOTT cases should be considered to be the probability of multiple drug resistance and treatment failure during the 1st treatment because they showed more resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs than M. tuberculosis cases. Therefore, there should be more careful investigations for clinical characteristics, natural history of disease, and efficient management for MOTT.

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Immunotherapy of Tuberculosis (결핵의 면역요법)

  • Kwon, Dong-Won
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.209-218
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    • 1992
  • Despite the availability of drugs effective in producing a bacteriological cure, tuberculosis presents continuing problems in its control, especially in the developing world. An effective immunotherapy to be used with chemotherapy is urgently required. Intradermal injection of a suspenison of killed Mycobacterium vaccae switches off the tissue-necrotizing component of the Koch phenomenon, and promotes cell-mediated responses to the common, putative protective, mycobacterial antigens. These properties led to the empolyment of the suspension in immunotherapy as an adjunct to chemotherapy in the treatment of both tuberculosis and leprosy. The evidence leading to these conclusions is reviewed.

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Optimal Combination of VNTR Typing for Discrimination of Isolated Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Korea

  • Lee, Jihye;Kang, Heeyoon;Kim, Sarang;Yoo, Heekyung;Kim, Hee Jin;Park, Young Kil
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.76 no.2
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    • pp.59-65
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    • 2014
  • Background: Variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) typing is a promising method to discriminate the Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in molecular epidemiology. The purpose of this study is to determine the optimal VNTR combinations for discriminating isolated M. tuberculosis strains in Korea. Methods: A total of 317 clinical isolates collected throughout Korea were genotyped by using the IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), and then analysed for the number of VNTR copies from 32 VNTR loci. Results: The results of discriminatory power according to diverse combinations were as follows: 25 clusters in 83 strains were yielded from the internationally standardized 15 VNTR loci (Hunter-Gaston discriminatory index [HGDI], 0.9958), 25 clusters in 65 strains by using IS6110 RFLP (HGDI, 0.9977), 14 clusters in 32 strains in 12 hyper-variable VNTR loci (HGDI, 0.9995), 6 clusters in 13 strains in 32 VNTR loci (HDGI, 0.9998), and 7 clusters in 14 strains of both the 12 hyper-variable VNTR and IS6110 RFLP (HDGI, 0.9999). Conclusion: The combination of 12 hyper-variable VNTR typing can be an effective tool for genotyping Korean M. tuberculosis isolates where the Beijing strains are predominant.

A Case of Miliary Tuberculosis Mimicking ARDS due to Bilateral Severe Pneumonia (양측성 중증 폐렴으로 인한 ARDS로 오진된 속립성 결핵)

  • Han, Koon Hee;Jung, Bock Hyun;Kim, Young Don;Hwang, Jung Won;Hong, Hyun Il;Yoon, Sung Kyu;Kim, Mi Hye;Ryu, Dae Sik;Kang, Gil Hyun
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.59 no.1
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    • pp.109-113
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    • 2005
  • Miliary tuberculosis is the most serious form of tuberculous disease, but is rarely complicated with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). When a patient with miliary tuberculosis initially presents with ARDS, the mortality is much higher. Therefore, the early detection of miliary tuberculosis as the underlying cause of ARDS is very important for the prognosis and survival of the patient. The diagnosis of miliary tuberculosis may be easy if the patient presents typical clinical manifestations associated with the characteristic pattern of miliary nodules on chest radiology. However, the diagnosis of miliary tuberculosis when complicated with ARDS can be difficult due to the nonspecific radiologic patterns, such as diffuse bilateral consolidation and ground glass opacity, without miliary nodular infiltration. However, these nonspecific patterns are known as less likely findings of miliary tuberculosis. We experienced a pregnant woman with miliary tuberculosis, mimicking ARDS due to bilateral severe pneumonia. She was admitted, via the emergency room, with sudden onset of fever, chill, cough and dyspnea. The initial chest PA and HRCT showed diffuse bilateral consolidation and ground glass opacity, without miliary nodular infiltration. All bacteriological studies, including blood and sputum cultures, tuberculosis-PCR and serologic study for infectious disease were negative. However, the definite diagnosis of unusual miliary tuberculosis as the underlying cause of ARDS was confirmed from the radiological finding and transbronchial fiberoptic lung biopsy. We report this case, with a review of the literature.