• Title, Summary, Keyword: tylose

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Freezing Time Prediction of Foods by Multiple Regression Analysis (다중회귀분석에 의한 식품의 동결시간 예측)

  • Jeong, Jin-Woong;Kim, Jong-Hoon;Park, Noh-Hyun;Lee, Seung-Hyun;Kim, Young-Dong
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.341-347
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    • 1998
  • To develop simple and accurate analytical method for freezing time prediction of beef and tylose under various freezing conditions, freezing time (Y) was regressed against the reciprocal $(X_3)$ of difference of initial freezing point and freezing medium temperature, reciprocal $(X_4)$ of surface heat transfer coefficient, the initial temperature $(X_1)$ and thickness $(X_2)$ of samples which should cover most situations arising in frozen food industry. As results of the multiple regression analysis, equations were obtained as follows. $Y_{tylose}=3.45X_1+7642.84X_2+4642.67X_3+2946.89X_4-431.33\;(R^2=0.9568)$ and $Y_{beef}=0.68X_1+7568.98X_2+2430.78X_3+3293.26X_4-299.00\;(R^2=0.9897)$. These equations offered better results than Plank, Nagaoka and Pham's models, shown in satisfactory agreement with models of Cleland & Earle and Hung & Thompson when were compared to previous models, and the accuracy of its was very high as average absolute difference of about 10% in the difference between the fitted and experimental results. Also, thermal diffusivities of beef and tylose were measured as $4.43{\times}10^{-4}m^2/hr$ and $4.39{\times}10^{-4}m^2/hr$ at $6{\sim}7^{\circ}C$, $2.42{\times}10^{-3}m^2/hr$ and $3.32{\times}10^{-3}m^2/hr$ at $-10{\sim}-12^{\circ}C$. Initial freezing points of beef and tylose were $-1.2^{\circ}C\;and\;-0.6^{\circ}C$, respectively. Surface heat transfer coefficients were estimated $20.57\;W/m^2^{\circ}C$ with no-packing, $16.11\;W/m^2^{\circ}C$ with wrap packing and $13.07\;W/m^2^{\circ}C$ with Al-foil packing, and the cooling rate of immersion freezing method was about 10 times faster than that of air blast freezing method.

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Comparative Anatomy of the Secondary Xylem in the stem of Araliaceous Plants in Korea (한국산 두릅나무과 식물 줄기에서 2기목부의 비교 해부)

  • 박동옥
    • Journal of Plant Biology
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.345-355
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    • 1993
  • Anatomical study of the secondary xylem in Araliaceous plants, induding 7 genera and 11 species grown in Korea, was carried out to elucidate the relationship among genera in the family. Wood of Hedera has difbse porous and shows ulmiform pattern of angular vessels, simple perforation plate, and alternate pitting. In addition, its ray is homogeneous type II with only procumbent ray cell. Ring porous wood of Dendropanax shows ulmiform of angular vessels, simple perforation plate, alternate pitting, and heterogeneous type II ray, which has sometimes horizontal secretory cavity. Fatsia has diffuse porous wood, which shows ulmiform of angular vessels, scalariform perforation plate (3-9 bars), scalariform pitting, spiral thickening in the lateral wall of vessel, and heterogeneous type II ray with sheath cells. Kalopanax has ring porous wood, which shows ulmiform of circular vessels, simple perforation plate and alternate pitting, and heterogeneous type II ray. While K pictum appears tylose with septum, K pictum var. maximowczii appears tylose without septum. Echinopanax shows ring porous wood, ulmiform of angular vessels, simple perforation plate, scalariform pitting, and tylose with septum. And the ray of Echinopanax is paedomorphic type I composed of only upright cells. Acanthopanax genus is composed of diffuse porous wood, ulmiform of angular vessels, simple perforation plate and alternate pitting. In this genus, A. sessiliflorus has heterogeneous type II ray, apotracheal axial parenchyma and tylose with septum. A. senticosus appears paedomorphic type I with only upright cells, and tylose with septum. A. koreanum and A. sieboldianum have heterogeneous type II ray but have not tylose. Aralia is composed of ring porous wood, ulmiform of circular vessels, simple perforation plate, alternate pitting, heterogeneous type II ray, and tylose contained both septum and reticulate. On the basis of arrangement, shape, length and diameter of vessel element, the angle of end wall to vessel axis, and ray type, the line of specialization in these genera is as follow: from Fatsia, the most primitive, to the most highly specialized Aralia, throughout Hedera, Acanthopanax, Echinopanax, Dendropanax, and Kalopanax by turns. turns.

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Analysis of Some Korean Terminologies on the Structures of Vascular Tissues in Plant Morphology (대학의 식물형태학 분야에서 사용하는 유관속조직의 구조에 관한 용어의 분석)

  • Lee, Kyu-Bae
    • Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
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    • v.27 no.9
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    • pp.919-929
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    • 2007
  • Some Korean terminologies related to the structures of vascular tissues in plant morphology, written differently depending upon textbooks and dictionaries, were analysed to propose properly expressed Korean terminologies. A total of 14 university textbooks such as general biology, plant biology, and plant morphology were selected and investigated. The terminologies on the xylem structures, i.e., apotracheal parenchyma, paratracheal parenchyma, tylose, and tangential (longitudinal) section; and on the pit structures i.e., simple pit, bordered pit, aspirated bordered pit, and pit aperture; and on the stelar structures, i.e., haplostele, actinostele, plectostele, and solenostele were examined. The definition and etymology of the terminologies were traced in 4 textbooks of plant anatomy and 2 dictionaries of biology and botany written in English. And then reasonably expressed Korean terminologies, mostly written in Chinese characters, were suggested. The terminologies were compared with those that appeared in the Iwanami dictionary of biology published in Japan. It was expected that the results would contribute to promote mutual understanding between teachers and students in learning plant biology.

Utilization and Development of Major Wood Resources in Kangwon-do -Permeability system of monomer in wood polymer composites- (강원도(江原道) 지역(地域)의 침활엽수재(針闊葉樹材) 목재자원(木材資源)의 이용개발(利用開發)을 위한 기초적(基礎的) 연구(硏究) -복합목재 제조를 위한 단량체의 침투기구-)

  • Lee, Won-Yong;Lee, Sung-Jae
    • Journal of Forest and Environmental Science
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.1-13
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    • 1998
  • In this paper, it has been discussed on the relation between the anatomical features of woods and the penetration of methyl methacrylate monomer system into major Korean tree species, especially the Pinus koraiensis, Larix leptolepis, Quercus mongolica and Tilia amurensis. 1. There was some differences in penetration of polymers among different tree species, but generally the penetration of ring porous woods seems to be larger than that of diffuse porous woods and it was very difficult to penetrate to Larix leptolepis, especially to the that of heart wood. 2. The penetration on transeverse surface was relatively easy but radial and tangential impregnation were somewhat hard and differences between them were negligible. 3. The penetration of sapwood was larger than that of heartwood and its differences varied according to the existence of tyloses or contents in vessel. 4. Generally the polymer penetration of earlywood was larger than that of latewood in ring porous woods, but on the contrary, penetration of earlywood was small than that of latewood on diffuse porous woods. 5. Vessel diameter of wood had nearly no relation to polymers penetration. This seems to come from the reason that effective vessel diameter varies with the existence of tyloses or contents in vessel. 6. The penetration of ray tracheids was larger than that of ray parenchyma cells in softwoods, but penetration of hardwood rays seems to be small in comparison with softwood ray parenchyma cells. 7. Specific gravity and annual ring width had no relation to the penetration of polymer.

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Studies on the Freezing Time Prediction of Foodstuffs by Plank's Equation of Modification (Plank's Equation의 변형에 의한 식품의 동결시간 예측)

  • Cheong, Jin-Woo;Kong, Jai-Yul
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.280-286
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    • 1988
  • Freezing is becoming incressingly important in the food industry as a means of food preservation since the turn of the century. For quality, processing and economic reasons, it is important to predict the freezing time for foods. A number of models have been proposed to predict freezing time. However, most analytical freezing time prediction techniques apply only to specific freezing conditions. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an improved analytical method for freezing time prediction under various conditions. The objectives of this study, by reviewing previous experimental data obtained by uncertain freezing condition and thermo-physical data, were to develop simple and accurate analytical method for prediction freezing time, and to obtain the freezing time of various foodstuffs by still air freezing and immersion freezing method. The result of this study showed that the proposed method offered better results than the other complex method compared.

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