• Title, Summary, Keyword: type 2 diabetes

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Determination of the type-2 diabetes risk status of the individuals who applied to the internal diseases outpatient clinic

  • Emine, Kiyak;Nermin, Olgun;Cigdem, Inan
    • CELLMED
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.21.1-21.5
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    • 2014
  • The purpose of this study is to determine the type-2 diabetes risk status of the individuals applying to the internal diseases outpatient clinic and the affecting factors. This descriptive study was conducted on 500 individuals who applied to the internal diseases department of a hospital in Ordu Turkey, between May and June 2010 without diabetes diagnosis. The questionnaire form and Type 2 Diabetes Risk Assessment Form are used to collect the data. For the evaluation of data; independent samples t-test and One-Way Anova are used to evaluate the data. It is determined that the type-2 diabetes risk an score of the individuals participating in the study is $10.4{\pm}5.5$ and 32.4% of them have low type-2 diabetes risk score, 26.6% have slightly elevated score, 18% have moderate score, 16.6% have high and 6.4% have very high type-2 diabetes risk score. It is found that the type-2 diabetes risk mean score of the women participating in the study who are adults, are married, have low education level, are unemployed, are non-smoker, do not drink alcohol and do not have any information about type-2 diabetes is statistically significantly high (p < 0.05). It is determined that 16.6% of the individuals participating in the study have high type-2 diabetes risk and 6.4% have very high type-2 diabetes risk.

Childhood diabetes in India

  • Kalra, Sanjay;Dhingra, Mudita
    • Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.126-130
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    • 2018
  • This review describes the epidemiology of childhood diabetes in India. It focuses on the incidence and prevalence of type 1 diabetes and its complications and comorbid conditions. The review also covers data related to type 2 diabetes, glucose intolerance, and monogenic diabetes from India. A brief discussion regarding unique contributions from India to the world literature is included. The topics discussed include use of camel milk as adjuvant therapy in type 1 diabetes, relevance of the A1/A2 hypothesis, and comprehensive clinico-etiopathological classification of type 1 diabetes.

Peripheral Nerve Abnormalities in Patients with Newly Diagnosed Type I and II Diabetes Mellitus (새로 진단된 제1형 및 제2형 당뇨병 환자에서 말초신경이상)

  • Lee, Sang-Soo;Han, Heon-Seok;Kim, Heon
    • Annals of Clinical Neurophysiology
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.8-14
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    • 2014
  • Background: Early detection of neuropathy may prevent further progression of this complication in the diabetic patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of early neuropathic complication in patients with newly diagnosed type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Methods: Nerve conduction studies (median, ulnar, posterior tibial, peroneal, and sural nerves) were performed for 49 type 1 (27 males, mean $14.1{\pm}7.5$ years) and 40 type 2 (27 males, $42.0{\pm}14.1$ years) diabetic patients at onset of diabetes. Children with age at onset under 4 years and adults over 55 years were excluded to eliminate the aging effect and the influence of obstructive arteriosclerosis. Neuropathy was defined as abnormal nerve conduction findings in two or more nerves including the sural nerve. Results: Mean HbA1c level was $12.6{\pm}3.3%$ for type 1 and $10.5{\pm}2.9%$ for type 2 diabetes. The prevalence of neuropathy was 12.2% for type 1, and 35.0% for type 2 diabetes, respectively. There were significant trends in the prevalence of neuropathy with increasing age (p<0.05). The effect of the mean level of glycosylated hemoglobin on the prevalence of polyneuropathy at onset of diabetes was borderline (p=0.0532). Neither sex of the patients nor the type of diabetes affected the neurophysiologic abnormalities at the diagnosis. Conclusions: Even in a population with diabetes at the diagnosis, the prevalence of subclinical neuropathy was not low. Neuropathy has been significantly associated with increasing age indicating the possibility of longer duration of undetected diabetes among them, especially in type 2 diabetes.

Lower serum extracellular superoxide dismutase levels are associated with polyneuropathy in recent-onset diabetes

  • Strom, Alexander;Kaul, Kirti;Bruggemann, Jutta;Ziegler, Iris;Rokitta, Ilka;Puttgen, Sonja;Szendroedi, Julia;Mussig, Karsten;Roden, Michael;Ziegler, Dan;GDS Group
    • Experimental and Molecular Medicine
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    • v.49 no.11
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    • pp.1.1-1.6
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    • 2017
  • Increased oxidative stress is implicated in the pathogenesis of experimental diabetic neuropathy, but translational evidence in recent-onset diabetes is scarce. We aimed to determine whether markers of systemic oxidative stress are associated with diabetic sensorimotor polyneuropathy (DSPN) in recent-onset diabetes. In this cross-sectional study, we measured serum concentrations of extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and reduced glutathione (GSH) in 107 type 1 and 215 type 2 diabetes patients from the German Diabetes Study baseline cohort and 37 glucose-tolerant individuals (controls). DSPN was defined by electrophysiological and clinical criteria (Toronto Consensus, 2011). SOD3 and GSH concentrations were lower in individuals with type 1 and type 2 diabetes compared with concentrations in controls (P<0.0001). In contrast, the TBARS concentration was higher in participants with type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes compared with levels in controls (P<0.0001). In addition, the SOD3 concentration was higher in participants with type 1 diabetes compared to concentrations in those with type 2 diabetes (P<0.0001). A low SOD3 concentration was associated with DSPN in individuals with type 1 diabetes (${\beta}=-0.306$, P = 0.002), type 2 diabetes (${\beta}=-0.164$, P = 0.017), and in both groups combined (${\beta}=-0.206$, P = 0.0003). Lower SOD3 concentrations were associated with decreased motor nerve conduction velocity (NCV) in men and, to a lesser degree, with reduced sensory NCV in women with diabetes. In conclusion, several biomarkers of oxidative stress are altered in recent-onset diabetes, with only a lower SOD3 concentration being linked to the presence of DSPN, suggesting a role for reduced extracellular antioxidative defense against superoxide in the early development of DSPN.

Clinical characteristics in Japanese children with nonobese type 2 diabetes

  • Urakami, Tatsuhiko
    • Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.113-118
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    • 2018
  • It is well known that the incidence of youth-onset type 2 diabetes is increasing worldwide. On the other hand, most studies have shown that the majority of youth-onset type 2 diabetes occurs in obese individuals, generally with a body mass index (BMI) greater than the 90th or 95th centile for sex- and age-matched children and adolescents. However, we identified some Japanese children with nonobese type 2 diabetes and BMI less than 90th centile by a urine glucose screening program at schools in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area. According to the results obtained from the screening, clinical characteristics of patients with nonobese type 2 diabetes seemed to be different from those in obese type 2 diabetes. Nonobese patients tended to show lower insulin secretion abilities and milder, but evident, insulin resistance from the time of diagnosis. Female, low birth weight (small for gestational age), and genetic background, not related to ${\beta}-cell-associated$ autoimmunity, may play a role in development of nonobese type 2 diabetes. In addition, nonobese patients tend to progress earlier to pharmacological treatment including oral hypoglycemic drugs and insulin. Further studies are needed to confirm to these findings and clarify the pathophysiology of children with nonobese type 2 diabetes.

Patterns of Diagnosis and Risk Factors for Type 2 Diabetes in Women with a History of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (임신성 당뇨 과거력을 가진 여성의 2형 당뇨진단 양상과 관련요인)

  • Choi, Mi Jin;Chung, Chae Weon
    • Perspectives in Nursing Science
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.17-28
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: This study aimed to identify patterns of diagnosis and to explore risk factors for type 2 diabetes beyond the postpartum period in women with a previous history of gestational diabetes, and to identify differences in such risk factors between early and late-onset (aged <45 and ${\geq}45$). Methods: Using epidemiological data from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study, a retrospective analysis of 175 women with various timings of type 2 diabetes diagnosis was performed. Results: The average age ($42.6{\pm}10.6$) at type 2 diabetes diagnosis was earlier than the general population, and obesity was prevalent with marked weight gains around 35 years old. Longer duration of breastfeeding was observed in women with late-onset of type 2 diabetes. Conclusion: For prevention of type 2 diabetes, early intervention is required, and modifiable factors such as weight control and breastfeeding should be taken into consideration for intervention strategies.

Egg consumption is associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes in middle-aged and older men

  • Lee, Jieul;Kim, Jihye
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.12 no.5
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    • pp.396-405
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    • 2018
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: This prospective study examined gender-specific associations between egg intake and the risk of developing type 2 diabetes using data from a large-scale cohort study. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A total of 7,002 Korean adults (40-69 years) without type 2 diabetes at baseline were analyzed. Dietary intake was evaluated by a food frequency questionnaire administered at baseline (2001-2002) and the second follow-up examination (2005-2006). Type 2 diabetes was diagnosed as a fasting glucose concentration ${\geq}126mg/dL$ or current use of glucose-lowering medications or insulin injection. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for incident type 2 diabetes according to egg consumption or cholesterol intake. RESULTS: During a 14-year follow up period, 857 subjects developed type 2 diabetes. In men, frequent egg intake (2- < 4 servings/week) was associated with a 40% lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes than infrequent egg intake (0- < 1 serving/week) (HR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.37-0.97), whereas no association between egg intake and incidence of type 2 diabetes was observed in women (HR = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.27-1.37). There was no association between cholesterol intake and risk of incident type 2 diabetes in either men or women. CONCLUSIONS: Egg consumption was inversely related to the risk of incident type 2 diabetes in men, but not in women, suggesting gender differences in the relationship between diet and disease risk.

Ratio of fat to energy intake independently associated with the duration of diabetes and total cholesterol levels in type 2 diabetes

  • Yim, Jung-Eun;Kim, Young-Seol;Cho, Mi-Ran;Choue, Ryo-Won
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.157-162
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    • 2011
  • The importance of dietary intake in the treatment of type 2 diabetes was emphasized. This study was performed to investigate the dietary intakes of Korean type 2 diabetes patients according to the treatment and duration of diabetes and to examine the relationships between their diet and serum lipid profiles. The subjects were 111 type 2 diabetic patients who were treated by medical nutrition therapy only, oral hypoglycemic agents (OHA), or insulin with medical nutrition therapy. Dietary intake was assessed by a registered dietitian using semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires Comparisons according to treatment type were made using covariance analyses. General linear models identified the independent effects of the different treatments after covarying for age, duration of diabetes, and 2-way interactions. There were no significant differences in age and BMI but was in duration of diabetes according to treatment type in these subjects. Carbohydrate to energy ratio was higher in the OHA group (P < 0.05), whereas the fat to energy ratio was higher in the insulin group for males (P < 0.05). Carbohydrate ($R^2$ = 0.24, P = 0.005) and fat ($R^2$ = 0.26, P = 0.02) to energy ratios were independently associated with the duration of diabetes after covarying for age, sex, treatment, and 2-way interactions. The levels of triglyceride (TG; $R^2$ = 0.32, P = 0.02) and total cholesterol (TC) were associated independently with energy intake and the carbohydrate ($R^2$ = 0.15, P = 0.02) and fat ($R^2$ = 0.15, P = 0.01) to energy ratios, respectively. The concern that the independent association of dietary intake with either duration of diabetes or dietary factors affects blood lipid levels could suggest that specific dietary recommendations may work better for identifiable groups of diabetes patients.

Rearranging Everyday Lives among People with Type 2 Diabetes in Korea

  • Yi, Myungsun;Koh, Moonhee;Son, Haeng-Mi
    • Korean Journal of Adult Nursing
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    • v.26 no.6
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    • pp.703-711
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: The purpose of the study was to understand what are the experiences and management of type 2 diabetes in everyday lives among Korean people. Methods: A grounded theory method was utilized to explore how people with type 2 diabetes to experience and manage their disease under the Korean socio-cultural context. The data were collected via narrative in-depth interviews with 21 people with type 2 diabetes during 2010-2011 and all interviews were transcribed for verbatim analysis. Results: The core category was 'Rearranging everyday lives by accepting diabetes as lifelong annoying companion.' Four stages were identified: ignoring; struggling compromising and conciliating. Each stage illustrates major problems and/or strategies that the participants face in dealing with diabetes. The process illustrates the transference from their ordinary life, in which diabetes or health was ignored, to the health-oriented life, within which diabetes is integrated into their lives. The most difficult barriers they faced in everyday lives include social stigma of diabetes and collectivistic culture in Korea. Within the culture, the group goals are concerned over individual ones, making it harder for the participants to take care of their own health. Conclusion: The findings of the study imply that health care professionals may consider the influence of social stigma in caring diabetic patients. Also, the intervention study is warranted to educate Korean people with diabetes to get aware of the sociocultural context and stigma as well as personal difficulties in self-caring diabetes.

Exercise and Mitochondrial Remodeling in Skeletal Muscle in Type 2 Diabetes

  • Lee, Hojun;Song, Wook
    • Journal of Obesity & Metabolic Syndrome
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.150-157
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    • 2018
  • Exercise is regarded as a potent stimulus in modulation of glucose utility and mitochondrial adaptations in skeletal muscle, leading to enhanced metabolic health. As mitochondria play a crucial role in sustaining metabolic homeostasis, and disturbances in mitochondrial function are highly linked with development of metabolic diseases, a comprehensive understanding of exercise-mediated mitochondrial remodeling under the pathophysiological condition of type 2 diabetes is warranted to develop an efficient therapeutic strategy. Although it is evident that the primary etiology of type 2 diabetes is insulin resistance, there is accumulating evidence linking abnormal mitochondrial functional and morphological properties to development of type 2 diabetes. Despite this, the precise molecular and cellular events that underline these phenomena remain uncertain. Mitochondria are highly dynamic subcellular organelles that can change mass and shape as necessary via coordinated processes such as mitochondrial fusion, fission, and biogenesis. Mitochondrial fusion is controlled by proteins, including mitofusin-1, mitofusin-2, and optic atrophy protein 1, while the fission process is mainly modulated by control of fission protein 1 and dynamin-related protein 1. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma $coactivator-1{\alpha}$ acts as a master controller of mitochondrial biogenesis. The present review's primary aims were to briefly discuss the cellular mechanisms of muscle fiber type-dependent glucose uptake and to highlight emerging evidence linking disturbances in mitochondrial dynamics to development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. The potential for exercise to normalize type 2 diabetes-induced aberrant mitochondrial integrity is also addressed.