• Title, Summary, Keyword: ultrafiltration

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Dialysis with ultrafiltration through countercurrently parallel-flow membrane modules

  • Yeh, Ho-Ming;Chen, Chien-Yu
    • Membrane Water Treatment
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.191-202
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    • 2013
  • The application of ultrafiltration operation to the dialysis in countercurrently parallel-flow rectangular membrane modules was investigated. The assumption of uniform ultrafiltration flux was made for operation with slight concentration polarization and declination of transmembrane pressure. Considerable improvement in mass transfer is achievable if the operation of ultrafiltration is applied, especially for the system with low mass transfer coefficient. The enhancement in separation efficiency is significantly increased with increasing ultrafiltration flux, as well as with increasing the volumetric flow rates. Furthermore, increasing the volumetric flow rate in retentate phase is more beneficial to mass transfer than increasing in dialysate phase.

Studies on the Separation of Taste Components from Sea Tangle (Laminaria japonica) Extract by Cross Flow Ultrafiltration (한외여과에 의한 다시마 정미성분 분리에 대한 연구)

  • Lee, Ho-Bong;Lee, Seung-Ryeol;Chang, Young-Sang;Shin, Zae-Ik
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.199-203
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    • 1992
  • This study was aimed to optimize the required condition for recovering the low soluble taste component obtained from sea tangle extract using ultrafiltration, and to investigate effects of membrane type, temperature, transmembrane pressure and flow rate respectively. We also compared relationship between the profile of permeate flux and the recovery yield of taste component under the selected optimal condition using ultrafiltration and diafiltration. Hydrophobic GR 51 PP membrane kept higher average permeate flux than hydrophilic FS membrane, and average permeate flux also had increasing tendency in relation to rising flow rate but it showed limit value of 3.7 l/min. Average permeate flux decreased as transmembrane pressure increased but it showed little change with rising temperature. Investigation upon average permeate flux, total dissolved solid and recovery yield of taste components using ultrafiltration and diafiltration resulted in relatively higher recovery yield in ultrafiltration. Compared ultrafiltration and diafiltration, average permeate flux was lower in ultrafiltration.

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Production of Functional Whey Protein Concentrate by Monitoring the Process of Ultrafilteration

  • Jayaprakasha, H.M.;Yoon, Y.C.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.433-438
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    • 2005
  • This investigation was undertaken in order to elicit the relationship between the extent of ultrafiltration processing of whey and its effect on composition and yield of resultant whey protein concentrate (WPC). Cheddar cheese whey was fractionated through ultrafiltration to an extent of 70, 80, 90, 95, 97.5% and 97.5% volume reduction followed by I stage and II stage diafiltration. After each level of ultrafiltration, the composition of WPC was monitored. Similarly, the initial whey was adjusted to 3.0, 6.2 and 7.0 pH levels and ultrafiltration was carried out to elicit the effect of pH of ultrafiltration on the composition. Further, initial whey was adjusted to different levels of whey protein content ranging from 0.5 to 1.0 per cent and subjected to ultrafiltration to different levels. The various range of retentate obtained were further condensed and spray dried in order to assess the yield of WPC per unit volume of whey used and the quantity of whey required to produce unit weight of product. With the progress of ultrafiltration, there was a progressive increase in protein content and decrease in lactose and ash content. The regression study led to good relationships with $R^2$ values of more than 0.95 between the extents of permeate removed and the resultant changes in composition of each of the constituents. Whey processed at pH 3.0 had significantly a very low ash content and high protein content as compared to processing at 6.2 and 7.0. The yield of WPC per unit volume of whey varied significantly with the initial protein content. Higher initial protein content led to higher yield of all ranges of WPC and the quantity of whey required per unit weight of spray dried WPC significantly reduced. Regression equations establishing the relationship between initial protein content of whey and the yield of various types of WPC have been derived with very high $R^2$ values of 0.99. This study revealed that, the yield and composition of whey can be monitored strictly by controlling the processing parameters and WPC can be produced depending on the food formulation requirement.

Membrane Ultrafiltration for Apparent Molecular Weight Distributions of Dissolved Organic Matter

  • Seo, Jun-Won;Sa, Tongmin;Kim, Jong-Soo
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.43 no.1
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    • pp.31-36
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    • 2000
  • Apparent MWDs of DOM in natural waters and swine wastewaters were determined through membrane ultrafiltration. The nominal MWCOs of ultrafiltration membranes by the manufacturer were confirmed to be similar with those obtained from the ultrafiltration procedures employed in this study using six MW standard compounds. Natural waters showed a wide range of MWOs, but 62.4~87.5% were in the range of MW<10K. High MW fractions were preferentially removed through water treatment processes. Swine wastewater showed two major ranges of MWDs, 49.0% in <1K and 36% in >50k while anaerobically treated swine wastewaters showed 17.5~18.0% in <1K and 53.0~58.8% in <50K. The overall DOM was reduced during anaerobic treatment by 76.8~80.0% as COD; however. the percentage of low MW fractions decreased and that of the high MW fractions increased.

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Simultaneous removal of nitrate and phosphate by micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration(MEUF) using PENTANOX 4X

  • 양지원;김보경;백기태;김호정
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment Conference
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    • pp.447-450
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    • 2003
  • The feasibility of PENTANOX 4X for the simultaneous removal of nitrate and phosphate was investigated using micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration. Because PENTANOX 4X has cationic property at low pH, anionic contaminants can be bound to PENTANOX 4X micelle by electrostatic interaction. At pH 3, 90% of nitrate and 72% of phosphate were removed by 27 mM of PENTANOX 4X, which were equivalent to 20 mM of CPC. PENTANOX 4X of > 80 % was rejected by ultrafiltration membrane and did not make any counter-ion such as chloride for CPC which might cause second-pollution.

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A Study on The Effectiveness of Watertreatment Using Activated Carbons and Membranes (활성탄과 Membrane을 이용한 수처리효과에 관한연구)

  • 김영진;김영규;정문호
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.67-72
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    • 1997
  • To evaluate the effectiveness of water treatment using nanofiltration, ultrafiltration, and microfiltration systems, tapwater contaminated by bacteria and nitrate nitrogen was filtered, and then the rates of removal for many kinds of contaminants were comp.ared and investigated. The rates of turbidity removal by these systems are around 80% all of them. However, nanofiltration system is the most effective as hardness removal is 80%, suspended solids 90%, total residual chlorine 90% and nitrate nitrogen 69%. Among nanofiltration, ultrafiltration and microfiltration systems, nanofiltration system is the most stable in flow rate of permeate. Comparing hollow and spiral type of ultrafiltration, microfiltration each, spiral type is more stable than hollow type owing to rinsing effect of brine. The values of pH in ultrafiltration and microfiltration systems are between 7, 0 and 7.5, and that of nanofiltration system is low to 6.2-7.0. The effectiveness of heterotrophic bacteria removal is the most excellent in the nanofiltration system.

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Binding of Methylene Blue to two types of water soluble polymer and its removal by polyelectrolyte enhanced ultrafiltration

  • Mansour, Nadia Cheickh;Ouni, Hedia;Hafiane, Amor
    • Membrane Water Treatment
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.87-94
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    • 2018
  • The interactions of water soluble polymers with dye are studied by ultrafiltration using a molecular weight cut off of 10 KDa regenerated cellulose ultrafiltration membrane. Two water-soluble polymers, namely Poly (Sodium-4 Styrenesulfonate) (PSS) and Poly (Vinyl Alcohol) (PVA) were selected for this study. The effects of process parameters, such as, polyelectrolyte concentrations, transmembrane pressure, ionic strength and pH of solution on dye retention and permeation flux were examined. PSS enhanced ultrafiltration achieved dye retention as high as 99% as a result of complexation between polyanion containing aromatic groups and cationic dye. This result was confirmed by the red shift. The retention of dye decreases as the salt concentration increases, a high retention was obtained at pH above 4. However, in case of PVA, relatively low retention (50%) was observed. Ionic strength and pH has no significant effect on the removal of MB. The permeate flux depended slightly on polyelectrolytes concentrations, transmembrane pressure, salt concentration and pH.

Enhancement of Ultrafiltration Performance Using Ultrasound (초음파를 이용한 한외여과의 성능 향상)

  • 염경호;육영재
    • Membrane Journal
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.283-290
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    • 2003
  • To improve membrane performance, the dead-end and Cross-flow ultrafiltration with or without ultrasound irradiation onto the membrane module were carried out using a BSA protein solution. Intermittent or continuous irradiation of ultrasound effectively suppressed the formation of fouling on membrane or removed the fouling layers from membrane. Effect of ultrasound irradiation on the enhancement of ultrafiltration performance was more increased at the operating conditions which form more membrane fouling (at the operating conditions of higher feed concentration and TMP, and lower flow rate). The permeate flukes were enhanced up to 1.9 times in case of the dead-end ultrafiltration and 1.5 times in case of the cross-flow ultrafiltration by ultrasound irradiation onto the membrane module.

Ultrafiltration Characteristics of Hot-Water Extracts from Siberian Larch Barks for Tannin-based Adhesives (타닌접착제를 위한 시베리아산 낙엽송 수피 온수추출물의 한외여과 특성)

  • Cho, Nam-Seok
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.37-41
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    • 1997
  • Hot-water soluble extracts were prepared from medium-sized barks of Siberian larch (Larix gmelineii). The extracts were fractionated by ultrafiltration method for producing uniform quality of adhesives. Molecular weight distribution of the extracts was ranged of 100 to 300.000. pH of the extracts affected amounts of flux, and the range of pH 6~pH 8 was proper for wood adhesives, because of easy concentration and fast gelation time. Removal of particles greater than $0.45{\mu}m$ from the extracts increased both filtration speed (flux) and yields of solids in the filtrates. In ultrafiltration process. operating pressure, filtrate temperature, and flow rate significantly increased with the increase of individual condition. Ultrafiltration using PM10 membrane was very effective to fractionate and concentrate the extracts. Removal of large particles greater than 0.45 m from the extracts increased filtration speed(flux) and yields of solids in the filtrates. A gelation time was accelerated with the increasing pH of the extracts and its concentration. The Stiasny precipitate(26%) from the filtrate obtained by PM 10 membrane was very lower than that(78%) of the retentates. This ultrafiltration method was efficient for obtaining high yield purified phenolic compounds.

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Cadmium and zinc removal from water by polyelectrolyte enhanced ultrafiltration

  • Ennigrou, Dorra Jellouli;Ali, Mourad Ben Sik;Dhahbi, Mahmoud;Mokhtar, Ferid
    • Membrane Water Treatment
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    • v.5 no.3
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    • pp.183-195
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    • 2014
  • The efficiency of two metal ions (cadmium, zinc) removal from aqueous solutions by ultrafiltration (UF) and Polymer Enhanced Ultrafiltration (PEUF) processes were investigated in this work. The UF and PEUF studies were carried out using an ultrafiltration tangential cell system equipped with 5.000 MWCO regenerated cellulose. A water-soluble polymer: the polyacrylic acid (PAA) was used as complexant for PEUF experiments. The effects of transmembrane pressure, pH, metal ions and loading ratio on permeate fluxes and metal ions removals were evaluated. In UF process, permeate fluxes increase linearly with increasing pH for different transmembrane pressure, which may be the consequence of the formation of soluble metal hydroxyl complexes in the aqueous phase. In PEUF process, above pH 5.0, the Cd(II) retention reaches a plateau at 90% and Zn(II) at 80% for L = 5. Also, cadmium retention at different L is greater than zinc retention at pH varying from 5.0 to 9.0. In a mixture solution, cadmium retention is higher than zinc for different loading ratio, this is due to interactions between carboxylic groups of PAA and metal ions and more important with cadmium ions.