• Title, Summary, Keyword: ultrasonic irradiation

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A Study on Relationship between Fuel Characteristics and Combustion Characteristics of Reformed Diesel Fuels by Ultrasonic Irradiation (I) - Relationship between Chemical Structure and Higher Heating Value (초음파 개질 경유의 연료특성과 연소특성의 상관관계에 관한 연구 (I) -화학구조와 발열량과의 상관성)

  • 이병오;류정인
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
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    • v.10 no.6
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    • pp.72-79
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    • 2002
  • The main objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between chemical structure and higher heating value of reformed diesel fuels by ultrasonic irradiation. In order to analyze the chemical structure changes of the reformed diesel fuels by ultrasonic irradiation, Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometer(1H-NMR) was used and to analyze the effect of higher heating values of these diesel fuels, the bomb calorimeter was used. From the study, following conclusive remarks can be made. 1) The aromatic carbon percentages and higher heating values of the reformed diesel fuels by ultrasonic irradiation increased more than the conventional diesel ones. 2) The aromatics percentages and Branch Index(BI) of the reformed diesel fuels by ultrasonic irradiation decreased more than the conventional diesel ones. 3) The higher heating values on both for conventional fuel and reformed diesel fuels by ultrasonic energy irradiation is directly proportional to aromatic carbon percentages and inversely proportional to aromatic percentages and BI for these fuels.

Viscosity Characteristics of Waste Cooking Oil with Ultrasonic Energy Irradiation

  • Kim, Tae Han;Han, Jung Keun
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.37 no.6
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    • pp.429-433
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    • 2012
  • Purpose: While rapeseed oil, soy bean oil, palm oil and waste cooking oil are being used for biodiesel, the viscosity of them should be lowered for fuel. The most widely used method of decreasing the viscosity of vegetable oil is to convert the vegetable oil into fatty acid methyl ester but is too expensive. This experiment uses ultrasonic energy, instead of converting the vegetable oil into fatty acid methyl ester, to lower the viscosity of the waste cooking oil. Methods: For irradiation treatment, the sample in a beaker was irradiated with ultrasonic energy and the viscosity and temperature were measured with a viscometer. For heating treatment, the sample in a beaker was heated and the viscosity and temperature were measured with a viscometer. Kinematic viscosity was calculated by dividing absolute viscosity with density. Results: The kinematic viscosity of waste cooking oil and cooking oil are up to ten times as high as that of light oil at room temperature. However, the difference of two types of oil decreased by four times as the temperature increased over $83^{\circ}C$. When the viscosity by the treatment of ultrasonic energy irradiation was compared to one by the heating treatment to the waste cooking oil, the viscosity by the treatment of ultrasonic energy irradiation was lower by maximum of 22% and minimum of 12%, than one by the heating treatment. Conclusions: Ultrasonic energy irradiation lowered the viscosity more than the heating treatment did, and ultrasonic energy irradiation has an enormous effect on fuel reforming.

Determination the optimum extraction method for saponin lancemasides in Codonopsis lanceolata (더덕 사포닌인 lancemasides의 최적 추출 방법 구명)

  • Lee, Min Ju;Nam, Ju Hee;Um, In Eeok;Kang, Chang Keun;Rho, Il Rae
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.51 no.2
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    • pp.103-108
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    • 2019
  • This study was conducted to select the optimal extraction method of codonopsis lanceolata saponin. To investigate the lancemasides content depending on each extraction method, various extractions were performed: reflux (methanol and butanol), hot water, as well as ultrasonic bath (40 kHz; continuous irradiation/interval irradiation) and ultrasonicator (20 kHz) extractions. From the result, the overall lancemasides content were the highest in ultrasonic bath (MeOH; continuous irradiation) extraction, followed by ultrasonic bath (water; continuous irradiation)>ultrasonic bath (MeOH; interval irradiation)>ultrasonicator (MeOH)>hot water>MeOH reflux>BuOH reflux extractions in that order. Sample drying method prior to ultrasonic bath extraction was more effective shade drying than freeze drying. Effective duration and temperature of extraction was 2 hr at $64^{\circ}C$. And ingredient change diverted from aster saponin Hb to lancemasides was identified by extraction condition such as extraction time and temperature.

A Study on the Treatment of Nondegradable Pollutants by Ultrasonic Irradiation (초음파에 의한 난분해성물질 처리에 관한 연구)

  • 손종열;모세영;문경환
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.102-106
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    • 1995
  • This study was performed to examine factors affecting the decompostion of nondegradable polluants(trichloroethylene(TCE), phenol) using ultrasonic irradiation. The TCE and phenol, which are major hazard compounds causing environmental pollution, were not decomposable pollutants by conventional treatment. The results show that the oxidation and reduction reaction of ultrasound produced $H_2O_2$, $H^+$ and $OH^-$ radical, which decomposed pollutants of TCE and phenol in water. It was confirmed that the ultrasonic irradiation showed an excellent removal efficiency for the nondegradable pollutants than any other processes, utilized in the treatment of organic compounds in the industrial wastewater. Conclusively, these results suggest that ultrasonic irradiation may be highly useful for the treatment of wastewaters contaminated organic pollutants, which is difficult to treat economically by conventional process.

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Treatment of non-degrable Organic Pollutants in Aqueous by ultrasonic irradiation (초음파에 의한 수중의 난분해성 오염물질 처리)

  • 손종열;모세영;손진석
    • Journal of environmental and Sanitary engineering
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.76-84
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    • 1995
  • This study was performed to examine the factors influenced on the decomposition of nondegradable organic pollutants( Tricholoroethylene,Benzene ) in aqueous by ultrasonic irradiation. The TCE( Tricholoroethylene ) and Benzene are major hazard compounds causing environmental Pollution and not decomposable substances by conventional treatment. The results shows that the oxidation and reduction reaction of ultrasonic Irradiation was formed the H$_{2}$O$_{2}$ , H$^{+}$ and OH$^{-}$ radical, and then theses was decomposed pollutants of TCE and Benzene in aqueous. We were conformed that the ultrasonic irradiation was excellent in removal efficiency of the nondegradable organic substances any other than processes and utilized the treatment of organic compounds in the industrial wastewater. Conclusively, these results suggest that ultrasonic irradiation may be extremely useful for the treatment of wastewater contaminated organic pollutants, which is difficult to treat economically by conventional treatment.

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Characteristics of the sonolytic reaction of refractory aromatic compounds in aqueous solution by ultrasound (초음파에 의한 수중의 난분해성 방향족화합물의 반응특성)

  • Sohn, Jong-Ryueul;Mo, Se-Young
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.411-419
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    • 2002
  • In this study, the series of ultrasonic irradiation for removal of refractory aromatic compounds has been selected as a model reaction in the batch reactor system in order to obtain the reaction kinetics. The products obtained from the ultrasonic irradiation were analysed by GC and GC/MSD. The decomposition of benzene produced toluene, phenol, and C1-C4 compounds, while the intermediates during the ultrasonic irradiation of 2,4-Dichlorophenol(DCP) were phenol, HCl, catechol, hydroquinone, and benzoquinone. It was found that more than 80% of benzene, and 2,4-DCP solutions were removed within 2 hours in all reaction conditions. The reaction order in the degradation of these three compounds was verified as pseudo-zero or first order. From the fore-mentioned results, it can be concluded that the refractory organic compounds could be removed by the ultrasonic irradiation with radicals, such as $H{\cdot}$ and $OH{\cdot}$ radical causing the high increase of pressure and temperature. Finally, it appeared that the technology using ultrasonic irradiation can be applied to the treatment of refractory compounds which are difficult to be decomposed by the conventional methods.

Characteristics of Bio-diesel according to Irradiation for Ultrasonic Energy (초음파 에너지 조사에 따른 바이오 디젤 특성)

  • Park, Chungyeol;Choi, Dooseuk
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.214-220
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    • 2015
  • Since resources of fossil fuels are limited, development of alternative energies is emphasized and research on new-regenerative energy is actively in progress worldwide. In present research, physical and chemical characteristics of mixed fuel are analyzed in detail for the different mixture rate of conventional and bio-diesel and ultrasonic irradiation time. Experimental setup consists of ultrasonic generator, vibrator, horn, and reflector. Various physical and chemical characteristics of fuel are investigated for volumetric mixture rate of bio-diesel from 0 to 100%. As results, viscosity and surface tension is increased as mixture rate of bio-diesel is increased. Also, molecular splits and reunions are increased and decreased repeatedly after some period of time as ultrasonic energy irradiation time is increased. As conclusion of experiments, Olefin rate, Branch index, and Aromatic rate are influenced by ultrasonic irradiation time.

Effects of Ultrasonic Irradiation and Prepreg Heat Treatment on the Physical Properties of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Hybrid Composites (초음파 조사 및 프리프레그 열처리가 탄소섬유강화 하이브리드 복합재료의 물성에 미치는 영향)

  • Oh, Do Hyang;Baek, Young Mee;An, Seung Kook
    • Textile Science and Engineering
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    • v.49 no.6
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    • pp.429-434
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    • 2012
  • The purpose of this study is to improve interfacial adhesion strength of carbon fiber reinforced hybrid composites by physical and chemical treatment. Ultrasonic irradiation was used as physical and chemical treatment relatively. The morphologies of fracture-section and surface of carbon fiber fabric/CNT reinforced hybrid composites were observed by SEM. The morphologies of specimens treated with ultrasonic showed rougher and more compact surfaces than those of untreated specimens. The specimens treated with ultrasonic showed higher impact strength compared with untreated specimens. This result showed ultrasonic irradiation is one of the effective method to improve interfacial adhesion strength between carbon fiber and matrix.

Effects of Ultrasonic Waves on Filtration Performance and Fermentation in an Internal Membrane-Filtration Bioreactor

  • PARK, BYUNG GEON;WOO GI LEE;WEI ZHANG;YONG KEUN CHANG;HO NAM CHANG
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.243-248
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    • 1999
  • Ultrasonic wave technology was employed to improve filtration performance and ethanol production in a bioreactor equipped with an internal ceramic-membrane filter module. The filtration performance was found to depend on the power and the pattern of ultrasonic wave irradiation. Under the optimized conditions (irradiation time: 25 see, period: 5 min, and ultrasonic power: 60 W), the flux was improved with the periodic-pause method by 200-700% compared with the control (with no irradiation), while the improvement was only 30 to 90% without the periodic-pause method. The final ethanol concentration also increased slightly. However, in a more severe condition (irradiation time: 2.5 min, period: 5 min, and ultrasonic power: 110 W), the irradiation of ultrasonic waves was observed to disturb cell integrity and viability, and thus to decrease ethanol production.

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Fabrication and Microstructures of Al-Pb Alloy in the Ultrasonic Vibration (초음파진동 조사장 내에서 Al-Pb계 합금의 제조 및 조직)

  • Park, Hun-Berm
    • Journal of Korea Foundry Society
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    • v.22 no.5
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    • pp.238-244
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    • 2002
  • Water and oil were completely synthesised with ultrasonic vibration energy irradiation. Pure Pb were added into Al melt during irradiated the ultrasonic vibration energy in 750. And the ultrasonic vibration energy was applied to Al-Pb melt to enhance the miscibility. Microstructural analysis, thermal analysis and X-ray diffraction analysis were carried out to evaluate the effect of the ultrasonic vibration energy on the castability and microstructural reliability. (1) Using the ultrasonic vibration energy irradiation, the complete mixing of water and oil was obtained. (2) The microstructure was refined by the application of ultrasonic vibration energy in Al-Pb alloys. (3) Relatively large Pb particles, $5{\mu}m$ were most distributed alone the grain boundaries with fine Pb particles evenly distributed in the matrix. (4) The solubility of Ph in Al-Pb alloys was increases up to 5% with the application of ultrasonic vibration energy.