• Title, Summary, Keyword: ultrasonication

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Induction of Resveratrol Biosynthesis in Grape Skins and Leaves by Ultrasonication Treatment

  • Hasan, Md. Mohidul;Baek, Kwang-Hyun
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.496-502
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    • 2013
  • Grapes (Vitis vinifera) are one of the most important fruits worldwide and are eaten raw or after conversion to jelly, jam, juice and wine. Grape skins are a major source of resveratrol (3,5,4'-trihydroxystilbene), which has the ability to reduce blood sugar as well as anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and other beneficial cardiovascular effects. In this study, we investigated the increased accumulation of resveratrol in grape skin and leaves following ultrasonication treatment, which has been shown to induce resveratrol accumulation in several plants. Various ultrasonication treatment times and incubation periods were employed to identify the optimum conditions for the maximum accumulation of resveratrol. Treatment and further incubation led to increased resveratrol in both grape skins and leaves, with the highest increases of 7.7-fold and 1.9-fold occurring in response to 5 min ultrasonication treatment followed by 6 hour incubation and 15 min ultrasonication treatment followed by 3 hour incubation, respectively. The underlying mechanism for the increased amounts of resveratrol were studied by employing a semi-quantitative RT-PCR to monitor the expression levels of the resveratrol synthase (RS) gene in response to ultrasonication treatment. The RS gene increased the expression in response to ultrasonication treatment, suggesting that up-regulation of the RS gene by ultrasonication treatment triggers increased amounts of resveratrol. Taken together, these data indicate that this simple ultrasonication treatment of grapes can be an efficient post-harvest technology for increasing resveratrol in grape skins in addition to cleaning the fruits.

Mechanism on Extraction of Heavy Metals from Soil by Ultrasonication (초음파 조사에 의한 토양내 중금속 추출 기작 연구)

  • Shin, Yeon-Jun;Lee, Cha-Dol;Yoo, Jong-Chan;Yan, Jung-Seok;Kim, Ho-Sub;Baek, Kitae
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.28-35
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    • 2015
  • In this study, the mechanisms on ultrasonication enhanced metals extraction were investigated compared with the conventional washing technique. We hypothesized the mechanisms on enhanced extraction of ultrasonication: ultrasonication increased the temperature of soil slurry and decreased average particle size of soil due to breakdown of soil aggregate. Actually, the ultrasonication increased the temperature of soil slurry to $60^{\circ}C$ in this study, and the increase in the temperature enhanced the metal extraction to 15-20% even in the conventional simple mixing. The conventional washing technique decreased average size of soil particles because of breakdown of soil aggregate, and the ultrasonication decreased the size more than that of washing. The breakdown of soil aggregate improved the contact between metals and washing agent, which enhanced the extraction of metals in the ultrasonication. Therefore, we concluded that the main mechanisms of ultrasonication are increase in the temperature and breakdown of the soil aggregate. Finally, the ultrasonicaiton increased the extractability of metals upto 40% compared to conventional washing technique.

Effects of Microwave and Ultrasonication on Chitin Extraction Time (마이크로파와 초음파가 키틴 추출시간에 미치는 영향)

  • Kwon, Ki-Nam;Choi, Hee-Sook;Cha, Bo-Sook
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.8-13
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    • 2009
  • Effects of microwave and ultrasonication on chitin extraction time were investigated in this study. Chitin was extracted from ground crab shell by demineralization in 1.0 N HCl solution at 25$^{\circ}C$ with or without ultrasonication and deproteinization in 1.0 NaOH solution at 100$^{\circ}C$ without ultrasonication and at 70$^{\circ}C$ with ultrasonication. Microwave treatment was also used for deproteinization with 5 min heating and 5 min standing without microwave. The changes in color difference, the contents of ash, calcium and nitrogen were measured during demineralization and deproteinization. Ultrasonication of 4 hr in 1.0 N HCl solution for removal of calcium and 1.5 hr of microwave heating in 1.0 N NaOH for deproteinization corresponded to 6 hr in 0.1 N HCl and 2 hr in 1.0 N NaOH of heating at 100$^{\circ}C$ without those treatments, respectively. The data obtained showed that these treatments were effective reduction of chitin extraction time by 25${\sim}$33% for chitin preparation. The chitin obtained from these ultrasonication and microwave treatments resulted 0.55% of ash, 0.25% of calcium, 2.47% of nitrogen and 20.64% of yield ratio. Those treatments selected were also reduced the darkness development time of the chitin solution during demineralization and deproteinization.

Ultrasonication-Induced Changes in Physicomechanical and Tribotechnical Properties of PTFE Composites

  • Argunova, Anastasiia G.;Petrova, Pavlina N.;Okhlopkova, Aitalina A.;Shadrinov, Nikolay V.;Gogoleva, Olga V.;Cho, Jin-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.59 no.3
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    • pp.233-237
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    • 2015
  • The effect of ultrasonication on PTFE and its composites with zeolite and fluoroplast F-4NTD-2 was studied. Ultrasonication was found to cause changes in the supramolecular structure, and consequently, the tensile strength, relative elongation, and mass wear rate. Changes in the topology of the materials following ultrasonication were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. The optimum enhancement of the desired properties was found in the PTFE composite containing 2% activated zeolite.

The Change of Ginsenoside Composition in Ginseng Berry Extract by the Ultrasonication Process (초음파 처리 인삼열매 엑스의 인삼사포닌 변화)

  • Hong, Jeong Tae;Nam, Yun Min;Kim, Shin Jung;Ko, Sung Kwon
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.60 no.2
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    • pp.58-63
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of this study is to develop a new preparation process of ginseng berry extracts having high concentrations of ginsenoside Rh1, Rg2, Rg5, F4, a special component of red and black ginseng. Chemical transformation from ginseng saponin glycosides to prosapogenin was analyzed by the HPLC. Extracts of ginseng (Panax ginseng) berry was processed under several treatment conditions including ultrasonication treatments. The content of total saponin reached their heights at 6 hr (UGB-6, 61.760%) of ultrasonication treatment, followed by 10 hr (UGB-10, 53.009%) and 9 hr (UGB-9, 50.652%) of ultrasonication treatment at $100^{\circ}C$. Results of those treatments showed that the quantity of ginsenoside Rh1 increased by over 15% at 10 hr of ultrasonication treatment at $100^{\circ}C$. The results of processing with UGB-10 indicate that the ultrasonication processed ginseng berry extracts that had gone through 10 hr treatments were found to contain the largest amount of ginsenoside Rh1 (15.358%), Rg2 (6.301%), Re (4.567%) and F4 (2.658%). In addition, UGB-6 contained ginsenoside Rg3 (13.632%) at high concentrations. It is thought that such results provide basic information in preparing ginseng berry extracts with functionality enhanced.

Comparison of Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Spirulina maxima Extract by Ultrasonication and Water Extraction Process (Spirulina maxima의 초음파 및 열수 추출 공정에 따른 항염증 효과 비교 탐색)

  • Sin, Jae Bin;Choi, Woon Yong;Kang, Do Hyung;Lee, Hyeon Yong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.43 no.12
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    • pp.1852-1857
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    • 2014
  • The aim of this study was to compare the anti-inflammatory activities of Spirulina maxima treated with ultrasonication and water extraction process. S. maxima extracted via ultrasonication showed low cytotoxicity (16.90%) in a normal human cell line, CCD-986sk. Especially, S. maxima ultrasonication extract showed the highest DPPH radical scavenging activities (46.82%) compared to water extract (31.30%) at $100^{\circ}C$. In addition, ultrasonication extract showed a high amount of flavonoids (21.60 mg/g) and total phenols ($8.36{\mu}g/mL$). Nitric oxide production by 1.0 mg/mL of S. maxima ultrasonication extract strongly inhibited ($1.3770{\mu}M$), whereas water extract showed lower inhibition ($1.5784{\mu}M$). TNF-${\alpha}$ and IL-6 cytokines were effectively inhibited by 1.0 mg/mL of S. maxima ultrasonication extract, which shows strong antioxidant activities. Based on these results, it can be concluded that the ultrasonication process increase anti-inflammatory activity of S. maxima extract.

Effect of Plating Conditions on Electroless Copper Plating on SiC Fabric (직조된 SiC 섬유에 무전해 구리도금 시 도금 조건의 영향)

  • Lee, Kee Hwan;Sohn, Youhan;Han, Taeyang;Lee, Kyung Jin;Kim, Hye Hung;Han, Jun Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering
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    • v.50 no.4
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    • pp.244-250
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    • 2017
  • Effects of plating conditions (dispersant concentration, plating time, and ultrasonication) on electroless Cu plating on SiC fabric woven by crossing of SiC continuous fibers vertically were studied. The ultrasonic dispersion treatment not only did not improve the dispersion of the SiC fibers, but also did not change the plating thickness. The ultrasonication in the pretreatment step of electroless plating did not improve the dispersion of the fibers, while the ultrasonication in the plating step enhanced the dispersion of the fibers and decreased the thickness of the Cu films. It was possible to control the thickness of the Cu coating layer as well as the dispersion of the fibers in the fabric by changing the plating conditions such as dispersant concentration, plating time, and ultrasonication, but it was very difficult to coat copper on the intersection of vertical fibers in the fabric.

Effects of ultrasonication on the analysis of sulforaphane content in vegetables (초음파 처리가 채소 중의 sulforaphane 분석에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, A-Reum;Lee, Gun-Soon;Chae, Hee-Jeong
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.794-799
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    • 2008
  • The effect of ultrasonication on the sulforaphane analysis in cruciferous vegetables was investigated by GC/MS. The ultrasonication of the analysis samples was carried out in dichloromethane as a solvent, which was followed by concentration in nitrogen gas, and the analysis of sulforaphane was performed using selective ion monitoring (SIM) at m/z 72, 160, 55 and 114. The content of sulforaphane was the highest in the extract of broccoli (149 ppm), and followed by cabbage (67.9 ppm) and radish (35.4 ppm). When the vegetable samples were shaked after ultrasonication, the extraction efficiency of sulforaphane was 2.7-fold enhanced, compared to the extraction by shaking. The result suggested that pretreatment including sonication can be used fer improving the extraction efficiency of sulforaphane.

Properties of Bleachability of Paper Mulberry Pulp by Hydrogen Peroxide and Ultrasonication Bleaching System (과산화수소와 초음파 표백 시스템에 따른 닥나무 펄프의 표백 효율 특성)

  • Seo, Jin-Ho;Kim, Hyoung-Jin
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.65-73
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    • 2012
  • Nowadays, the concern on the environmental load of bleaching process gave rise to the process of ECF(elemental chlorine free) and TCF(total clorine free). These sequences are based on oxygen-derived compounds such as oxygen, ozone, and hydrogen peroxide which is used as a typical eco-friendly bleaching agent. In this study, paper mulberry pulp was bleached with hydrogen peroxide and some bleaching process were accompanied with ultrasonication in order to increase the bleaching efficiency. The best bleaching efficiency of paper mulberry pulp was obtained in the condition of hydrogen peroxide and ultrasonication(20 kHz) bleaching system at $45^{\circ}C$ for 30 min. The brightness and kappa number of paper mulberry pulp were gained to 5.09% and 3.52 respectively. and yield was slightly loosed to 2%. Therefore, the efficiency of hydrogen peroxide and ultrasonication bleaching system of paper mulberry pulp was superior to the conventional hydrogen peroxide bleaching system. Magnesium sulfate acted as a bleaching stabilizer for the increasement of yield. As a result, the yield and viscosity were increased to 2.2% and 12% respectively.

Performance Evaluation of Hybrid SBR Aerobic Digestion combined with Ultrasonication by using a Mathematical Model (초음파 결합형 SBR 호기성 소화 모델과 영향 예측)

  • Kim, Sung Hong;Lee, Dong Woo;Kim, Dong Han
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.26 no.6
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    • pp.897-905
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    • 2012
  • Based on the activated sludge model, a simple aerobic digestion model which represents the aerobic sludge digestion by sequencing batch reactor(SBR) equipped with ultrasonicator was composed and performed in this study. The results are as follows. Aerobic digestion efficiency can be increased by adopting ultrasonic pretreatment. For the 5 days of SRT, 24 % of particulate component is predicted to be removed by ultrasonic pretreatment and aerobic digestion. This is 7 %p higher than that of conventional aerobic digestion. A Hybrid SBR aerobic digestion combined with ultrasonication shows higher digestion efficiency than aerobic digestion and ultrasonic pretreatment system. In case of this hybrid system, the digestion efficiency was predicted up to 49 % when the ultrasonication was performed every 2 hours, repeatedly. However, excessive treatment like every hours of ultrasonication in an aerobic digestion process results in adverse effect on TCOD removal because biomass disintegrated completely and the solubilized COD can not be used for the biomass synthesis again.