• Title, Summary, Keyword: uniaxial stress state

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Evaluation of Residual Strength in Damaged Brittle Materials (취성재료의 손상후 잔류강도 평가)

  • Sin, Hyeong-Seop;O, Sang-Yeop;Seo, Chang-Min
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.932-938
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    • 2002
  • In structural applications, brittle materials such as soda-lime glasses and ceramics are usually subjected to multiaxial stress state. Brittle materials with cracks or damage by foreign object impacts are apt to fracture abruptly from cracks, because of their properities of very high strength and low fracture toughness. But in most cases, the residual strength of structural members with damage has been tested under uniaxial stress condition such as the 4-point bend test. Depending upon the crack pattern developed, the strength under multiaxial stress state might be different from the one under uniaxial. A comparative study was carried out to investigate the influence of stress state on the residual strength evaluation. In comparable tests, the residual strength under biaxial stress state by the ball-on-ring test was greater than that under the uniaxial one by the 4-point bend test, when a small size indendation crack was introduced. In the case that crack having an angle of 90deg. to the applied stress direction, the ratio of biaxial to uniaxial flexure strength was about 1.12. The residual strength was different from crack angles to loading direction when it was evaluated by the 4-point bend test. The ratio of residual strength of 45deg. crack to 90deg. one was about 1.20. In the case of specimen cracked by a spherical impact, it was shown that an overall decrease in flexure strength with increasing impact velocity, and the critical impact velocity for formation of a radial and/or cone crack was about 30m/s. In those cases that relatively large cracks were developed as compared with the case of indented cracks, the ratio of residual strength under biaxial stress state to one uniaxial became small.

A Study on Uniaxial Tensile Stress of Tensioned Membrane (인장막구조물의 단축인장응력에 관한 연구)

  • Kang, Joo-Won;Kim, Jae-Yeol
    • Journal of the Korean Association for Spatial Structures
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.85-93
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    • 2011
  • Membrane materials are very flexible, thus wrinkling, uniaxial state, can be occurred. The wrinkling are due to lots of various factors as eccentric force, construction errors, and fabrication errors. These wrinkled membrane elements are in status of uniaxial stress. In the paper, a method which be able to check the wrinkling is proposed. The stress-deformation analysis of membrane structures for given external load will be carried out, and here the membrane elements are regarded as wrinkled state if the principal stress 2 is smaller than 0. With proposed method, two existed construction examples, Suwon auditorium and Okinawa 75 Expo, are analyzed.

Prediction of the Stress-Strain Curve of Materials under Uniaxial Compression by Using LSTM Recurrent Neural Network (LSTM 순환 신경망을 이용한 재료의 단축하중 하에서의 응력-변형률 곡선 예측 연구)

  • Byun, Hoon;Song, Jae-Joon
    • Tunnel and Underground Space
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.277-291
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    • 2018
  • LSTM (Long Short-Term Memory) algorithm which is a kind of recurrent neural network was used to establish a model to predict the stress-strain curve of an material under uniaxial compression. The model was established from the stress-strain data from uniaxial compression tests of silica-gypsum specimens. After training the model, it can predict the behavior of the material up to the failure state by using an early stage of stress-strain curve whose stress is very low. Because the LSTM neural network predict a value by using the previous state of data and proceed forward step by step, a higher error was found at the prediction of higher stress state due to the accumulation of error. However, this model generally predict the stress-strain curve with high accuracy. The accuracy of both LSTM and tangential prediction models increased with increased length of input data, while a difference in performance between them decreased as the amount of input data increased. LSTM model showed relatively superior performance to the tangential prediction when only few input data was given, which enhanced the necessity for application of the model.

A Study on the Equi-biaxial Tension Test of Rubber Material (고무재료의 등 이축 인장시험에 관한 연구)

  • 김완두;김동진;김완수;이영신
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Automotive Engineers
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    • v.11 no.5
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    • pp.95-104
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    • 2003
  • The material properties of rubber was determined by the experiments of uniaxial tension, uniaxial compression, planer tension, equi-biaxial tension and volumetric compression. In compression test, it is difficult to obtain the pure state of compression stress and strain due to friction force between the specimen and compression platen. In this study, the stress and strain data from the equi-biaxial tension test were converted to compression stress and strain and compared to a pure state of simple compression data when friction was zero. The compression test device with the tapered platen was proposed to overcome the effect of friction. It was fumed out that the relationship of the stress and strain using the tapered platen was in close agreement with the pure compressive state.

A Study on the Equi-biaxial Tension Test of Rubber Material (고무재료의 이축 인장시험에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Dong-Jin;Kim, Wan-Doo;Kim, Wan-Soo;Lee, Young-Shin
    • Proceedings of the KSME Conference
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    • pp.425-430
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    • 2003
  • The material properties of rubber was determined by the experiments of uniaxial tension, uniaxial compression, planer tension, equi-biaxial tension and volumetric compression. In compression test, it is difficult to obtain the pure state of compression stress and strain due to friction force between the specimen and compression platen. In this study, the stress and strain data from the equi-biaxial tension test were converted to compression stress and strain and compared to a perfect state of simple compression data when friction was zero. The compression test device with the tapered platen was proposed to overcome the effect of friction. It was turned out that the relationship of the stress and strain using the tapered platen was in close agreement with the pure compressive state.

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Viscoelastic constitutive modeling of asphalt concrete with growing damage

  • Lee, Hyun-Jong;Kim, Y. Richard;Kim, Sun-Hoon
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.225-240
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    • 1999
  • This paper presents a mechanistic approach to uniaxial viscoelastic constitutive modeling of asphalt concrete that accounts for damage evolution under cyclic loading conditions. An elasticviscoelastic correspondence principle in terms of pseudo variables is applied to separately evaluate viscoelasticity and time-dependent damage growth in asphalt concrete. The time-dependent damage growth in asphalt concrete is modeled by using a damage parameter based on a generalization of microcrack growth law. Internal state variables that describe the hysteretic behavior of asphalt concrete are determined. A constitutive equation in terms of stress and pseudo strain is first established for controlled-strain mode and then transformed to a controlled-stress constitutive equation by simply replacing physical stress and pseudo strain with pseudo stress and physical strain. Tensile uniaxial fatigue tests are performed under the controlled-strain mode to determine model parameters. The constitutive equations in terms of pseudo strain and pseudo stress satisfactorily predict the constitutive behavior of asphalt concrete all the way up to failure under controlled-strain and -stress modes, respectively.

A Study on Nonlinear Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Structures (철근(鐵筋)콘크리트 구조물(構造物)의 비선형(非線型) 해석(解析)에 관한 연구(硏究))

  • Chang, Dong Il;Kwak, Kae Hwan
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.69-77
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    • 1987
  • A finite element method has been developed to study the material nonlinear analysis of reinforced concrte structures. Concrete behavior under the biaxial state of stress is represented by a nonlinear constitutive relationship which incorporates tensile cracking, tensile stiffening effect between cracks and the strain-softening phenomenon beyond the maximum compressive strength. The concrete model used is based upon nonlinear elasticity by assuming concrete to be an orthotropic material and modeled as equivalent uniaxial stress-strain constitutive relationship using equivalent uniaxial strain. The streel reinforcement is assumed to be in a uniaxial stress state and is modeled as a bilinear, elasto-plastic material with strain hardening approximating the Bauschinger effect. In plane stress state, R.C. beams is modeled as a quadratic element that has two degrees of freedom in each node. And this results of finite element analysis are compared with the experimential results of midspan deflection, stresses and strains.

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Characterization of the brittleness of hard rock at different temperatures using uniaxial compression tests

  • Chen, Guoqing;Li, Tianbin;Wang, Wei;Guo, Fan;Yin, Hongyu
    • Geomechanics and Engineering
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.63-77
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    • 2017
  • The failure mechanism of a deep hard rock tunnel under high geostress and high geothermalactivity is extremely complex. Uniaxial compression tests of granite at different temperatures were conducted. The complete stress-strain curves, mechanical parameters and macroscopic failure types of the rock were analyzed in detail. The brittleness index, which represents the possibility of a severe brittleness hazard, is proposed in this paperby comparing the peak stress and the expansion stress. The results show that the temperature range from 20 to $60^{\circ}C$ is able to aggravate the brittle failure of hard rock based on the brittleness index. The closure of internal micro cracks by thermal stress can improve the strength of hard rock and the storage capacity of elastic strain energy. The failure mode ofthe samples changes from shear failure to tensile failure as the temperature increases. In conclusion, the brittle failure mechanism of hard rock under the action of thermal coupling is revealed, and the analysis result offers significant guidance for deep buried tunnels at high temperatures and under high geostress.

An Experimental Study on Strength Properties, Size Effect, and Fatigue Behaviour of Concrete under Biaxial Flexural Stress State (이방향 휨응력상태의 콘크리트 강도 특성, 크기효과 및 피로거동에 관한 실험적 연구)

  • Zi, Goangseup;Kim, Jihwan
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.901-907
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    • 2013
  • In this study, flexural strength properties of concrete under biaxial stress state were experimentally investigated. Tests for size effect and fatigue behaviour of concrete under biaxial stress were carried out by the ASTM C 1550 and the biaxial flexure test(BFT). The results given by the biaxial tests were compared to those by the third-point bending test. Test results showed that biaxial flexural strengths obtained from the ASTM C 1550 and the biaxial flexure test are greater than the strength by the third-point bending test. As the size increases, the uniaxial and biaxial flexural strength decreases. However, the slope of the size effect of the biaxial strength was greater than that of the uniaxial strength. Finally, the fatigue response of concrete under the biaxial stress state was similar with that for uniaxial stress state.

Uniaxial and Biaxial Flexural Strength of Plain Concrete using Optimum Specimen Configuration (최적실험체 제원에 의한 콘크리트의 일축 및 이축 휨인장강도)

  • Oh, Hongseob;Zi, Goangseup
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.30 no.2A
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    • pp.185-191
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    • 2010
  • Because the concrete crack that is the reason of the serviceability and durability degradation of concrete structure can be arisen from either the stress magnitude and gradient or other structural and material defects, the crack strength of concrete is hard to accurately evaluate. Especially, stress-state in concrete plate components such as rigid pavement and long span slab is biaxial flexure stress, and the flexural strength of those component may be different than the traditional rupture modulus of concrete subjected to uniaxial stress. In this study, an experimental investigation to assess of mechanical behavior under uniaxial and biaxial flexure stress is conducted and the proposed optimum specimen configuration is adopted. From the test, the modulus of rupture under uniaxial and biaxial stress are decreased as the size of aggregate or specimen is larger. And biaxial flexure strength of concrete specimens is varied from 39.5 to 99.2% as compared with that of uniaxial strength, and the biaxial strength of specimen with 20mm aggregate size is only 76% of uniaxial strength.