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Check4Urine: Smartphone-based Portable Urine-analysis System (Check4Urine: 스마트폰 기반 휴대용 소변검사 시스템)

  • Cho, Jungjae;Yoo, Joonhyuk
    • IEMEK Journal of Embedded Systems and Applications
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.13-23
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    • 2015
  • Recently, a few image-processing based mobile urine testers have actively been studied since the urine-analysis result can be available to the user in real time immediately after the test is done. However, the accuracy of test result can be severely degraded due to variable illumination environments and a variety of manners to capture the image with a camera embedded in the smartphone according to different users. This paper proposes the Check4Urine system, a novel smartphone-based portable urine-analysis tester and provides three techniques to improve such a performance degradation problem robust to various test environments and disturbances, which are the compensation algorithm to correct the varying illumination effect, an urine strip detection algorithm robust to edge loss of the object image, and the color decision algorithm based on the pre-processed reference table. Experimental results show that the proposed Check4Urine system increases the accuracy of urine-analysis by 20-50% at various test conditions, compared with the existing image-processing based mobile urine tester.

Comparison of the Bacterial Contamination Rates according to the Urine Collection Methods in Women (여성에서 소변채집방법에 따른 소변검체의 오염율 비교)

  • Jeong Ihn-Sook;Yang Man-Gil;Oh Hyang-Soon
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Fundamentals of Nursing
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    • v.6 no.3
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    • pp.359-368
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    • 1999
  • Background : The purpose of this study was to determine whether cleansing the perineum and urethral meatus and using midstream urine affect the rate of bacterial contamination of urine specimens, and to determine the optimum urine collection method. We studied 41 asymptomatic healthy nursing school students. Women who were menstruating were not excluded from this study. Method : The first and midstream urine samples were collected during consecutive urinationsby each woman. The first sample was not a clean-catch specimen, and the second one was a clean-catch specimen. Both specimens were studied by urinalysis and bacterial culture with standard methods. Results : 41 women met the study criteria and 39 successfully completed the study. None of the urine cultures were positive. 68.3% of the non clean-catch first urine cultures, 53.7% of the non clean-catch midstream cultures, 33.3% of the first clean-catch urine culteres and 30.8% of the midstream clean-catch urine were found to be contaminated. There was a significant difference in the bacterial contamination rates between the first and midstream urine, and the clean-catch and non clean-catch urine(p=0.035, p =0.001 respectively). On urinalysis, 7.3% of the non clean-catch first urine, 7.3% of the non clean-catch midstream urine, 2.6% of the clean-catch first urine and 2.6% of clean-catch midstream urine were found to be above grade 2. Conclusions : According to our results, the bacterial contamination rate was the lowest in midstream and clean catch urine specimens. Threrfore it is recommended that the midstream clean-catch technique is the standard practice for collecting urine specimens for bacterial culture in women.

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Urine Specific Gravity as a Useful Tool for Screening Proteinuria in Children (소아 단백뇨 검사에 있어서 요비중의 유용성)

  • Kim, Jong-Hwa;Yoo, Kee-Hwan;Hong, Young-Sook;Lee, Joo-Won;Kim, Soon-Kyum
    • Childhood Kidney Diseases
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.1-5
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    • 2000
  • Purpose: The plcr of spot urine has been uised to predict the timed urine protein excretion. Although this method reduces errors caused by variations in urine volume, it is relatively thconvenient and expensive. Recently, a more rapid and less expensive screening method with specific gravity(SG) has been reported, and we have examined whether estimated-creatinine(Cr-est) with urine 5G could be used in place of urine creatinine to predict 24-hour collected urine protein excretion in children. Methods: We had retrospectively analyzed protein, creatinine and urine SG in randomized spot urine samples of 147 patients from March 1998 till June 1998 in Korea university Guro hospital and compared the urinary protein creatinine ratio(P/Cr) with the protein estimated-creatinine ratio(P/Cr-est). We compared the correlation of urinary creatinine vs-urine 5G with the timed urine pretein excretion. Results: 1) urine SG accurately estimated urine creatinine concentration (r=0.407, P<0.001, Cr=SG x 4485.82-4482.87). 2) P/Cr correlated with urine protein excretion measured in a 24-hour urine collection (r=0.771, P<0.001, 24-hour collected urine protein : 0.338 x (P/Cr) 4+667.885). 3) P/Cr-est correlated with a 24-hour collected urine protein (r=0.723, P<0.001, 24-hour collected urine protein =0.354 x (P/Cr-est)+726.044), Conclusions: These results suggest that P/Cr-est with urine SG could be useful method for screening proteinuria in children.

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Color Correction in Portable-type Urine Analyzer

  • Kim, Jae-Hyung;Park, Chang-Hee;Lee, Seung-Jin;Jeon, Gye-Rok;Kim, Gi-Ryon
    • Transactions on Electrical and Electronic Materials
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    • v.3 no.4
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    • pp.21-26
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    • 2002
  • Color correction methods of chromaticity coordinates using Color Matching Function (CMF) were studied to develop a device-independent portable-type urine analyzer. The reflection spectra were measured for the degrees of 10 test items of the urine reagent strip (urine strip) to develop a portable-type urine analyzer. A computer simulation was performed to quantitatively distinguish the color reactions of the urine system, by using the spectral power distribution of Light Emitting Diode(LED), the reflection of a urine strip, and spectral sensitivity of a photodiode. To develop a device-independent system, chromaticity coordinates were modified to reduce the color deviations in the urine strip, by using the temperature compensation of LED and the color transformation by CMF. The experimental values obtained by developed urine system exhibited the accuracy above 95% for all color samples.

Development of Reagent for Cancer Diagnosis by Urine Color Reaction (I)-Comparative analysis of cancer and non-cancer urine by NMR, HPLC and Gift reagent

  • Park, Man-Ki;Yang, Jeong-Seon;Lee, Mi-Yung;Kim, Yong-Ki;Weon, Nam-Bee;Kim, Young-Do
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.134-138
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    • 1988
  • Urine measurements by MNR were made for 25 persons including cancer and non-cancer patients. The aromatic proton signals of NMR wer observed much more often in cancer patients' urine than non-cancer patients' one. To compare the amount of the phenolic compounds excreted in urine between cancer and non-cancer patient, urine analysis by HPLC with UV detector was performed. Total peak area and major peak areas of cancer patients' urine wer emuch greater than those of non-cancer patients' one. To check the phenolic compound excreted in urine, a new jellied reagent named Gift reagent which was based on Millon's reagent, was developed for urine color reaction. When the reagent was tested, the sensitivity and specificity for urine samples of 69 persons including cancer and non-cancer patients were measured by 85.3% and 91.4%, respectively, indicating that the Gift reagent afford a possibility of cancer diagnosis.

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Overview of the Formation, Components, Color, and Abnormal Findings of Urine (소변의 생성, 구성성분, 색깔, 그리고 이상소견)

  • Park, Se Jin;Shin, Jae Il
    • Childhood Kidney Diseases
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.29-34
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    • 2013
  • Urine production is vital for the removal of certain waste products produced by metabolism in the body and for the maintenance of homeostasis in the body. The kidneys produce urine by the following three precisely regulated processes: filtration, reabsorption, and secretion. Urine is composed of water, certain electrolytes, and various waste products that are filtered out of the blood through the glomeruli. The physical features of urine are evaluated carefully to detect any abnormal findings that may indicate underlying diseases in the genitourinary system. A change in urine color may indicate an underlying pathological condition, although many of the causes of abnormal urine color are benign effects of medications and foods. A characteristic and specific odor may be the result of a metabolic disease rather than a concentrated specimen or a simple urinary tract infection. Although transient changes in urine output and nocturia are usually benign conditions, persistent abnormal findings require further workup, with a thorough medical history taking. This article presents many of the conditions that physicians may encounter and will help them in the diagnosis and in establishing a treatment plan.

Studies on Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric Analysis of Chromium in Urine by Trioctylamine (Trioctylamine을 이용한 뇨중 크롬의 원자흡수 분광분석에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Suk Won
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.214-220
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    • 1991
  • As chromium in urine remains as oxychromic acid ions, chromium was extracted by using ion pair formed by anion exchanger trioctylamine. then after it is noted whether this TOA-MIBK method is effective or not for the chromium analysis by using flame method of Atomic absorption Spectrophotometric Analysis. The result is as following. 1. Effects of various acids on the extraction of Cr with MIBK including TOA are good in order $NHO_3$, $H_2SO_4$, HCl in distilled water sample and its proper concentration of HCl is 0.2 N. 2. For the analysis of urine sample, the best result can be achieved by following condition. After finished pretreatment adjusted to pH 6.5-7.5 by NaOH and again controlled pH 0.5-0.6 by HCl. 3. Though TOA concentration slightly affects the analytic value, best result is noted in 1-3% concentration. 4. Recovery rates of urine samples made by $0.3mg/l{\cdot}urine$, $0.6mg/l{\cdot}urine$, $0.9mg/l{\cdot}urine$ are shown from 96.7% to 104.8%. 5. Recovery rates of urine samples made by $0.01mg/l{\cdot}urine$, $10.03mg/{\cdot}urine$, $0.05mg/l{\cdot}urine$ are shown from 89.3% to 98.6%.

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A study on the urinary metabolites of styrene exposed workers (직업적으로 스티렌에 노출된 근로자의 뇨중 대사산물에 관한 연구)

  • 오세욱;원정일
    • Journal of environmental and Sanitary engineering
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 1996
  • Mandelic acid is the major metabolite and phenylglyoxylic acid is the minor metabolite of styrene in human. This study was conducted to investigate the correlation between exposure concentrations of styrene and concentration of the metabolites in urine The concentrations of metabolites in urine and exposure concentrations were measured in 60 workers who were occupationally exposed to styrene in FRP industry as well as paint industry and musical instrument manufacturing industry and the concentrations of metabolites in urine ware measured in 90 workers not occupationally exposed to styrene for review the background level in the unexposed population. The results obtained were as follows; 1. The mean exposure concentration is 16.6 $\pm $12.2 ppm (range 0.4-49.9ppm) in the styrene exposed workers. 2. The concentration of mandelic acid in urine collected at the end of shift from worker exposed 8 hours to 50ppm of styrene, based on extrapolation from correlation equations was 578.5 mg/g creatinine and 176.8 mg/g creatinine for next morning urine, the concentration of phenylglyoxylic acid in urine collected at the end of shift was 291.1 mg/g creatinine, 177.9 mg/g creatinine in next morning urine. In the sum of mandelic acid and phenylglyoxylic acid in the urine 870.2 mg/g creatinine in urine sampled at the end of shift corresponds to an exposure of 50ppm of styrene and 366.0 mg/g creatinine for next morning sample corresponds to 50ppm. 3. The correlation of the degree of exposed with sum concentration of mandeliacid and phenylglyoxylic acid in the urine was better(r=0.079 for end of shift, r=0.78 for next morning) than the correlation with single determinant measurement in urine(r=0.75 for mandelic acid at end of shift, r=0.73 for mandelic acid at next morning, r=0.69 for phenylglyoxylic acid at end of shift, r=0.62 for phenylglyoxylic acid at next morning). The monitoring of sum concentration of mandelic acid and phenylglyoxylic acid in urine is a valuable indicator of time weighted average daily exposure ti styrene. And the exposure standard of urinary metabolites produced by styrene should be set, in distinction urine at the end of shift from urine at next morning.

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Patterns of Mercury Concentrations in Blood and Urine After High Mercury Exposure (고농도 수은 노출자의 혈 중 및 뇨 중 수은 농도 변화에 관한 연구)

  • 윤충식;임상혁;하권철
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.71-80
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    • 2001
  • Blood and urine mercury level of three workers were monitored during 60~80 days after high exposure to mercury at the silver refining plant. Mercury was used to form silver-mercury amalgam from plating sludge. Workers were exposed to mercury about 70 days at the several processes, such as hand held weaving, vibration table, and heating from the furnace. mercury was analysed by atomic absorption spectroscopy-vapor generation technique. Recovery from the biological sample was 95.51% and pooled standard deviation was 0.033. At the time of study, there was no work at the workplace. So, airborne mercury concentration was measured with area sampling 5 days after the work, ranged from 0.1459 to 1.2351 mg/㎥(Arithmatic mean 0.4711 mg/㎥, Geometric mean 0.3566 mg/㎥) at the inside of the plant, that is far above the ACGIH's TLV(0.025 mg/㎥) and ranged from 0.0073 to 0.0330 mg/㎥ at the outdoor. Blood mercury levels at the beginning of the monitoring were 4~14 times greater than the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists Biological Exposure Index(ACGIH BEI, 15 ug/L). Blood mercury levels were decreased logarithmically, that is, rapidly at the high level and slowly at the low level but sustained above the level of the ACGIH BEI 60~80 days after the work. Urine mercury levels at the beginning of the monitoring were 8~16 times greater than the ACGIH BEI(35 ug/g creatinine). Urine mercury levels were decreased logarithmically, but correlation between urine level and off-days were lower than those of blood. Decreasing pattern of blood mercury levels were little affected than that of urine levels when the chelating agent, D-penicillamine, was administered. There was correlation between blood mercury level and urine mercury level(0.81~0.83) but it didn\`t mean that the highest blood mercury level corresponded the highest urine mercury level. In our study, Case 1 always shows the highest level in urine but case 3 always shows the highest level in blood. Creatinine correction represented better correlations between urine mercury levels and blood levels, and between urine levels and off-days rather than by urine volume. Spot urine sampling had a wide variation than that of whole day urine sampling. So, We recommend spot urine sampling for screening and whole day urine sampling for exact diagnosis.

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Development of objective indicators for quantitative analysis of sodium intake: the sodium to potassium ratio of second-void urine is correlated with 24-hour urinary sodium excretion

  • Kim, Jung Gon;Han, Sang-Woong;Yi, Joo Hark;Park, Hyeong Cheon;Han, Sang Youb
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.25-31
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    • 2020
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To date, sodium intake has been evaluated based on spot urine instead of 24-hour (hr) urine collection. Nevertheless, the optimal method for assessing daily sodium intake remains unclear. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Fifteen male (age 32.7 ± 6.5 years) participants were offered 3 meals with a total of 9-10 g salt over 24 hours, and 24-hr urine was collected from the second-void urine of the first day to the first-void urine of the second day. Twenty-four-hr urinary sodium (24UNa) was estimated using Tanaka's equation and the Korean formula, and spot urine Na, potassium (K), chloride (Cl), urea nitrogen (UN), creatinine (Cr), specific gravity (SG) and osmolality (Osm) were measured. The ratios of urinary Na to other parameters were calculated, and correlations with total measured 24UNa were identified. RESULTS: Average 24-hr urine volume was 1,403 ± 475 mL, and measured 24UNa was 143.9 ± 42.1 mEq (range, 87.1-239.4 mEq). Measured 24UNa was significantly correlated with urinary Na/UN (r = 0.560, P < 0.01), urinary Na/Osm (r = 0.510, P < 0.01), urinary Na/Cr (r = 0.392, P < 0.01), urinary Na/K (r = 0.290, P < 0.01), 24UNa estimated using Tanaka's equation (r = 0.452, P < 0.01) and the Korean formula (r = 0.414, P < 0.01), age (r = 0.548, P < 0.01), weight (r = 0.497, P < 0.01), and height (r = 0.393, P < 0.01) in all spot urine samples. Estimated 24UNa based on the second-void spot urine of the first day tended to be more closely correlated with measured 24UNa than were estimates from the other spot urine samples. The significant parameters correlated with the second-void urine of the first day were urinary Na/K (r = 0.647, P < 0.01), urinary Na/Cr (r = 0.558, P < 0.05), and estimated 24UNa using Tanaka's equation (r = 0.616, P < 0.05) and the Korean formula (r = 0.588, P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Second-void urine is more reliable than first-void urine for estimating 24UNa. Urinary Na/K in the second-void urine on the first day is significantly correlated with 24UNa. Further studies are needed to establish the most reliable index and the optimal time of urine sampling for predicting 24UNa.