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A Study on the Economical Nutrition Supplement of Cereal Food for Improvement in our National Eating Habits (국민식생활(國民食生活) 향상(向上)을 위(爲)한 곡류제품(穀類製品)의 경제적( 經濟的) 영향강화(營養强化)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Ju, Jin-Soon;Yu, Jong-Yull;Kim, Sook-He;Lee, Ki-Yull;Han, In-Kyu
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 1973
  • I. Subject of the Study: Studies on the economical nutrition supplement of cereal foods for the improvement in our notional eating habits. II. Purpose and Importance of the Study: 1. Our nation is confronted with the situation that the rice, a principal food, short of some essential amino acids, lysine and threonine, leads to imbalanced meals insufficient in the nutrient of protein, to bring many difficulties in the elevation of our national physique. 2. The shortage of even the rice imperfect in the nutrient of protein makes the import of lots of foreign rice inevitable. It is considered that the protein supplement and decrease in the consumption amount, of rice, is a serious key to the solution of our food difficulty, and then a way of the proetin supplement of rice through the addition of essential amino acid is to be rarely applied in the view of the our present finance and situation. 3. In the present experiment, therefore, it aims to the suggestion of an aspect of the improvement in our national eating habits guiding in the nutrition elevation which our nation can afford economically through the development of first, a way of the protein supplement by the mixture of cereals producted plentifully in our country, and second, a way of the decrease in the consumption amount and the improvement in the nutrition of rice through the substitution of the other cereals for rice. III. Contents of Scope of the Study: 1. Objects of the study: Objects of the study are the following three items; a) The nutrition supplement of rice through the mixture of cereals. Our nation makes mainly rice as a principal food, but practically many kinds of cereal are produced in our country. They contain different levels and qualities of each nutrient and they are different from one another in the kinds of essential amino acid consisting protein. For that reason, the mutual complement efficeincy of insufficient nutrients is observed through the mixture of cereals. b) The nutrition supplement of rice through the addition of superior protein sources to rice, a principal food. The development of rice as superior foods in the sense of nutrition is conducted through the risement in protein quality by the addition of protein sources in good quality, for example, fish flour (anchovy flour), egg powder, milk powder, and so on, and through the supplement of vitamins and minerals. c) The decrease in the consumption amount of rice through the substitution of the other cereals for rice, as a principal food. The compensation for the short amount of rice is made by the reduction in the consumption of rice through the discovery of a way of substitution of the other cereals for rice, as a principal food and of the settlement of problems in nutrition and finance subsequent to this. 2. Contents of the study: a) An ideal mixture-ratio of cereals is established for rats by feeding mixed foods(rice-barely or rice-wheat) containing 5%, 15%, 25%, 35% and 45% level of either barely or wheat. b) The nutritive value is determined in the whole subsititution of other foods for rice, and then, a way of the complement of over and under nutrients is devised. c) The ideal combination is investigated for rats through feeding mixed foods of main food, rice and supplement foods of protein sources, soy bean, fish flour, egg powder and milk Powder. d) According to results from the above three experiments, the concise functional test for men and the examination of economical property are made. 3. Scope of the study: a) The observation of the effect of each diet on the growth rate for rats. The growth rate of rats was observed for 15 groups of mixed foods of a main food, rice, and wheat flour, barley powder or soy bean powder, respectively, and 12 groups of wheat flour diets supplemented with $1{\sim}3%$ milk powder, and rice or wheat flour diets supplemented with 5% of milk powder, egg powder, fish flour or soy bean powder, respectively. b) The determination of food consumption. The food consumption was determined at weekly intervals for 27 kinds of diet described in a) item. c) The determination of food efficiency rate. The food efficiency rate for each diet was determined by calculation from the gained body weight and the food consumption amount at the same intervals described in b) item. d) The determination of protein efficiency rate. The protein efficiency rate for each diet was determined by calculation form gained body weight and the protein amount of the food consumption amount at the same intervals described c) item. e) The determination of the body component. The hematocrite and hemoglobin levels in the blood, total nitrogen in the serum, blood sugar, and lipids and glycogen in the liver were determined. f) The observation of nitrogen balance. As a means of the observation of nitrogen balance, the total nitrogen in the urine was determined. g) The analysis of economical property. The economical property was analyzed as the gained body weight to the amount equivalent to one won through the conversion of the food consumption amount into money. h) The functional test for men. The concise functional test for men was made in order to establish if the best diet for experimental animals can be applied to men. IV. Results of the Study: The national food product plan, nationwide nutritive enlightment and the improvement activities in our country eating habits, especially, mixed and powder food problems are to be significantly referred, and the following results must be applied. a) In the mixed foods of cereals, the mixed food of the rice-barley containing $5{\sim}15%$ level of barley is best in terms of nutrition. b) The addition of superior protein sources, egg, Bilk, soy bean, or fish, respectively to either rice or wheat flour makes a great risement in the nutritive value. c) The animal protein is more effective in the elevation of nutritive value of cereals. d) Rice takes the most nutritive operation and has the highest preference, among rice, wheat flour and barley. e) Wheat flour is more economical than rice in evaluation of the gained body weight to the regular money, and the addition of fish or soy bean is more economical than that of any other supplement food. But the above results are true of the range of nutrition and economical property. f) The study on the nutrition composition and barley will lead to the improvement in our national eating habits as mixed food of the rice-barley containing $5{\sim}15%$ level of barley is more nutritive. g) This study on the nutrition only for the growing animal can not be considered as a perfect and entire evaluation. Consequently, the perfect data for our national nutrition can be obtained from the experiment similar to this for the much longer period examining, in details, the growth rate, change of physical strength, mental and bodily change, average life span, and resistance ability to infectious diseases.

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A Study on the Nutritive Value and Utilization of Powdered Seaweeds (해조의 식용분말화에 관한 연구)

  • Yu, Jong-Yull;Lee, Ki-Yull;Kim, Sook-Hee
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.15-37
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    • 1975
  • I. Subject of the study A study on the nutritive value and utilization of powdered seaweeds. II. Purpose and Importance of the study A. In Korea the shortage of food will be inevitable by the rapidly growing population. It will be very important study to develop a new food from the seaweeds which were not used hitherto for human consumption. B. The several kinds of seaweeds have been used by man in Korea mainly as side-dishes. However, a properly powdered seaweed will enable itself to be a good supplement or mixture to certain cereal flours. C. By adding the powdered seaweed to any cereals which have long been staple foods in this country the two fold benefits; saving of cereals and change of dietary pattern, will be secured. III. Objects and scope of the study A. Objects of the study The objects will come under four items. 1. To develop a powdered seaweed as a new food from the seaweeds which have been not used for human consumption. 2. To evaluate the nutritional quality of the products the analysis for chemical composition and animal feeding experiment will be conducted. 3. Experimental cocking and accepability test will be conducted for the powdered products to evaluate the value as food stuff. 4. Sanitary test and also economical analysis will be conducted for the powdered products. B. Scope of the study 1. Production of seaweed powders Sargassum fulvellum growing in eastern coast and Sargassum patens C.A. in southern coast were used as the material for the powders. These algae, which have been not used for human consumption, were pulverized through the processes of washing, drying, pulverization, etc. 2. Nutritional experiments a. Chemical composition Proximate components (water, protein, fat, cellulose, sugar, ash, salt), minerals (calcium, phosphorus, iron, iodine), vitamins (A, $B_1,\;B_2$ niacin, C) and amino acids were analyzed for the seaweed powders. b. Animal feeding experiment Weaning 160 rats (80 male and 80 female rats) were used as experimental animals, dividing them into 16 groups, 10 rats each group. Each group was fed for 12 weeks on cereal diet (Wheat flour, rice powder, barley powder, potato powder, corn flour) with the supplementary levels of 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 30% of the seaweed powder. After the feeding the growth, feed efficiency ratio, protain efficiency ratio and ,organs weights were checked and urine analysis, feces analysis and serum analysis were also conducted. 3. Experimental cooking and acceptability test a. Several basic studies were conducted to find the characteristics of the seaweed powder. b. 17 kinds of Korean dishes and 9 kinds of foreign dishes were prepared with cereal flours (wheat, rice, barley, potato, corn) with the supplementary levels of 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 30% of the seaweed powder. c. Acceptability test for the dishes was conducted according to plank's Form. 4. Sanitary test The heavy metals (Cd, Pb, As, Hg) in the seaweed powders were determined. 5. Economical analysis The retail price of the seaweed powder was compared with those of other cereals in the market. And also economical analysis was made from the nutritional point of view, calculating the body weight gained in grams per unit price of each feeding diet. IV. Results of the study and the suggestion for application A. Chemical composition 1. There is no any big difference in proximate components between powders of Sargassum fulvellum in eastern coast and Sargassum patens C.A. in southern coast. Seasonal difference is also not significant. Higher levels of protein, cellulose, ash and salt were found in the powders compared with common cereal foods. 2. The levels of calcium (Ca) and iron (Fe) in the powders were significantly higher than common cereal foods and also rich in iodine (I). Existence of vitamin A and vitamin C in the Powders is different point from cereal foods. Vitamin $B_1\;and\;B_2$ are also relatively rich in the powders.'Vitamin A in ·Sargassum fulvellum is high and the levels of some minerals and vitamins are seemed4 to be some influenced by seasons. 3. In the amino acid composition methionine, isoleucine, Iysine and valine are limiting amino acids. The protein qualities of Sargassum fulvellum and Sargassum patens C.A. are seemed to be .almost same and generally ·good. Seasonal difference in amino acid composition was found. B. Animal feeding experiment 1. The best growth was found at.10% supplemental level of the seaweed Powder and lower growth rate was shown at 30% level. 2. It was shown that 15% supplemental level of the Seaweed powder seems to fulfil, to some extent the mineral requirement of the animals. 3. No any changes were found in organs development except that, in kidney, there found decreasing in weight by increasing the supplemental level of the seaweed powder. 4. There is no any significant changes in nitrogen retention, serum cholesterol, serum calcium and urinary calcium in each supplemental level of the seaweed powder. 5. In animal feeding experiment it was concluded that $5%{\sim}15%$ levels supplementation of the seaweed powder are possible. C. Experimental cooking and acceptability test 1. The seaweed powder showed to be utilized more excellently in foreign cookings than in Korean cookings. Higher supplemental level of seaweed was passible in foreign cookings. 2. Hae-Jo-Kang and Jeon-Byung were more excellent than Song-Pyun, wheat cake, Soo-Je-Bee and wheat noodle. Hae-Je-Kang was excellent in its quality even as high as 5% supplemental level. 3. The higher levels of supplementation were used the more sticky cooking products were obtained. Song-Pyun and wheat cake were palatable and lustrous in 2% supplementation level. 4. In drop cookie the higher levels of supplementation, the more crisp product was obtained, compared with other cookies. 5. Corn cake, thin rice gruel, rice gruel and potato Jeon-Byung were more excellent in their quality than potato Man-Doo and potato noodle. Corn cake, thin rice gruel and rice gruel were excellent even as high as 5% supplementation level. 6. In several cooking Porducts some seaweed-oder was perceived in case of 3% or more levels of supplementation. This may be much diminished by the use of proper condiments. D. Sanitary test It seems that there is no any heavy metals (Cd, Pb, As, Hg) problem in these seaweed Powders in case these Powders are used as supplements to any cereal flours E. Economical analysis The price of the seaweed powder is lower than those of other cereals and that may be more lowered when mass production of the seaweed powder is made in future. The supplement of the seaweed powder to any cereals is also economical with the criterion of animal growth rate. F. It is recommended that these seaweed powders should be developed and used as supplement to any cereal flours or used as other food material. By doing so, both saving of cereals and improvement of individual's nutrition will greatly be achieved. It is also recommended that the feeding experiment for men would be conducted in future.

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The Significance of Hyperlipidemia as a Predictive Factor of Relapse in Corticosensitive Nephrotic Syndrome (스테로이드에 반응을 보인 신증후군 환아에서 재발 예측인자로서 고지혈증의 중요성)

  • Jung, Soon-Pil;Hong, Soon-Cheul;Lim, Seong-Joon;Lim, In-Seok;Choi, Eung-Sang
    • Childhood Kidney Diseases
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.136-146
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    • 2001
  • Purpose : One of the most difficult problems in the care of children with nephrotic syndrome remains the occurrence of relapses, despite initial response to steroids. Constantinescu reported that rapidity of initial response to steroid therapy could predict fewer relapses in the first year. So we evaluated the changes in serum lipid abnormalities in children with corticosensitive nephrotic syndrome before steroid treatment and the correlation between serum lipid levels and renal function, days to remission. Methods . We analyzed the Medical records of children who were managed by us between October 1994 and August 2000. In 33 patients with corticosensitive nephrotic syndrome, we evaluated the correlation between serum lipid levels and renal function [Creatinine clearance(Ccr)] and proteinuria before steroid treatment, and days to remission defined as the third day when the patient's urine becomes protein free. Results : There were 21 males and 12 females. Median age at presentation was 6.4 years (range: 1.8-17.3 years). Median days to remission were 15.4 days (range 4-42 days) on Prednisolone $60mg/m^2$ daily. The increased levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol, Lipoprotein(a) were observed. But the level of HDL cholesterol was not increased. Serum albumin was decreased a]id proteinuria was increased before steroid treatment. But Ccr was not decreased. There were negative correlation between serum albumin and total cholesterol (r = -0.5157, P<0.005), LDL cholesterol (r = -0.5543, P<0.005), total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol (r = -0.4506, P<0.01), lipoprotein(a) (r = -0.4570, P<0.025), apolipoprotein B (r = -0.5297, P<0.025), apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein Al (r = -0.5851, P<0.01), apolipoprotein B/HDL cholesterol (r = -0.4961, P<0.05) before steroid treatment. There was no correlation between proteinuria and serum lipid profiles. Also Ccr and serum lipid profiles were not correlated. There was positive correlation between days to remission and HDL cholesterol (r = +0.4511, P<0.05), apolipoprotein B (r = +0.5190, P<0.05), apolipoprotein B/HDL cholesterol (r = +0.7169, P<0.005). Conclusions : This results reveal that HDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein B and apolipoprotein B/HDL cholesterol can be used as a predictive factor in corticosensitive nephrotic syndrome. We could not determine the significant level of these lipids for insufficient patients number, but these level may predict future relapses of corticosensitive nephrotic syndrome patients and thus may allow to better management and treatment protocols. More data and long term follow up studies should be needed. (J Korean Soc Pediatr Nephrol 2001;5 : 136-46)

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The Correlation between Acholic Stool and the Result of $Tc^{99m}$ DISIDA Hepatobiliary Scintigraphy and Biochemical Test in Neonatal Cholestasis (신생아 담즙 정체증에서 무담즙변의 유무와 $Tc^{99m}$ DISIDA 간담도 주사 결과간의 상관성과 생화학적 검사의 차이에 관한 연구)

  • Joo, Eun-Young;Ahn, Yeon-Mo;Kim, Yong-Joo;Moon, Soo-Ji;Choi, Yun-Young
    • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.51-61
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    • 2002
  • Purpose: The most common causes of neonatal cholestasis are neonatal hepatitis (NH) and extrahepatic biliary atresia (EHBA). Since neonatal cholestasis presents with variable expression of same pathologic process and has similar clinical, biochemical, and histologic features between EHBA and idiopathic neonatal hepatitis (NH), differential diagnosis is often difficult. We reviewed the differences of clinical characteristics and laboratory data to find out any correlation between the results of $Tc^{99m}$ DISIDA scan and presence of acholic stool. Methods: Between June 1993 and January 2001, total 29 infants younger than 4 month-old underwent $Tc^{99m}$ DISIDA scan. Their biochemical tests and clinical course were reviewed retrospectively. Results: Patients who had negative intestinal activity on $Tc^{99m}$ DISIDA scan showed acholic stool and revealed higher serum direct bilirubin and urine bilirubin level. 18.2% of patients with acholic stool showed intestinal activity on $Tc^{99m}$ DISIDA scan and 81.8% of them did not. All the patients without acholic stool showed positive intestinal activity on $Tc^{99m}$ DISIDA scan. The result of $Tc^{99m}$ DISIDA scan and the presence of acholic stool showed high negative correlation (r :-0.858). Patients with acholic stool and negative intestinal activity on $Tc^{99m}$ DISIDA scan showed higher serum total bilirubin level. Patients without acholic stool and positive intestinal activity on $Tc^{99m}$ DISIDA scan showed higher serum level of ALT. Conclusion: Patients with acholic stool and negative intestinal activity showed high correlation, but 18.2% of patients with acholic stool showed positive intestinal activity. So operative cholangiogram or transcutaneous liver biopsy should be performed for confirmation.

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The National Survey of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Korea (급성호흡곤란증후군의 전국 실태조사 보고)

  • Scientific Subcommittee for National Survey of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Disease
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.25-43
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    • 1997
  • Introduction : The outcome and incidence of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) could be variable related to the varied definitions used for ARDS by researchers. The purpose of the national survey was to define the risk factors of ARDS and investigate the prognostic indicies related to mortality of ARDS in Korea according to the definition of ARDS determined by the American-European Concensus Conference on 1992 year. Methods : A Multicenter registry of 48 University or University-affliated hospital and 18 general hospital s equipped with more than 400 patient's beds conducted over 13 months of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome using the same registry protocol. Results : 1. In the 12 months of the registry, 167 patients were enrolled at the 24 hospitals. 2. The mean age was 56.5 years (${\pm}17.2$ years) and there was a 1.9:1 ratio of males to females. 3. Sepsis was the most common risk factors (78.1%), followed by aspiration (16.6%), trauma (11.6%), and shock (8.5%). 4 The overall mortality rate was 71.9%. The mean duration was 11 days (${\pm}13.1$ days) from the diagnosis of ARDS to the death. Respiratory insufficiency appeared to be a major cause in 43.7% of the deaths followed by sepsis (36.1%), heart failure (7.6%) and hepatic failure (6.7%). 5. There were no significant differences in mortality based on sex or age. No significant difference in mortality in infectious versus noninfectious causes of ARDS was found. 6. There were significant differences in the pulse rate, platelet numbers, serum albumin and glucose levels, the amounts of 24 hour urine, arterial pH, $Pa0_2$, $PaCO_2$, $Sa0_2$, alveolar-arterial oxygen differences, $PaO_2/FIO_2$, and PEEP/$FI0_2$ between the survivors and the deaths on study days 1 through 6 of the first week after enrollment. 7. The survivors had significantly less organ failure and lower APACHE III scores at the time of diagnosis of ARDS (P<0.05). 8. The numbers of organ failure (odd ratio 1.95, 95% confidence intervals:1.05-3.61, P=0.03) and the score of APACHE III (odd ratio 1.59, 95% confidence interval:1.01-2.50, P=0.04) appeared to be independent risk factors of the mortality in the patients with ARDS. Conclusions : The mortality was 71.9% of total 167 patients in this investigation using the definition of American-European Consensus Conference on 1992 year, and the respiratory insufficiency was the leading cause of the death. In addition, the numbers of organ failure and the score of APACHE III at the time of diagnosis of ARDS appeared to be independent risk factors of the mortality in the patients with ARDS.

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Epidemiological Changes and Clinical Features of Hepatitis A in Children, Living in Kyung-gi Province, Since 1988 to 1998 (최근 10년간(1988~1998) 경기지역 소아에서 A형 간염의 역학적 변화 및 임상에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Hyun;Kim, Jong Hyun;Kim, Dong Un;Hur, Je Kyun;Lee, Won Bae;Seo, Byung Kyeu;Kang, Jin-Han
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.230-238
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    • 1998
  • Purpose : Worldwidely, the incidence of the hepatitis A has been markedly decreased in the past years. Also in Korea, there has been only a few sporadic cases without evidence of epidemics since the mid 1980s. However, the incidence of the hepatitis A in young adults and childen has been in trends of increasing since 1996. So, we retrospectively performed the study on the epidemiolgical changes and the clinical feature of hepatitis A in childen, living in Kyung-gi province, since 1988 to 1998. Methods : The four affiliated hospitals of the Catholic University of Korea, Our lady of Mercy's hospital, Holy family hospital, Eui-Jung-bu St. Mary's hospital, and St. Vincent hospital, were enrolled in this study. We conducted statistical analysis on the incidence of hepatitis A since 1988 to 1998, concerning with the period (monthly, annually), age, sex and related epidemiological property, by reviewing the hospital records of the patients with hepatitis A. We simultaneously performed the study concerning with the clinical characteristics of hepatitis A. Results : 1) During the study period, 46 children was diagnosed as hepatitis A, and among them 28 children (60.1%) developed sporadically in the 1998. And sex ratio was 1.2(male):1(female). 2) Most of the patients developed between March and July, and hepatitits A were mainly developed in the patients above the 10 year old ages(37 patients; 80.4%). 3) The socioeconomic and educational status of the patient's parents was almostly below the middle and low class. Although, we could not find the etiological factors in most cases, but we found the evidence of interfamilial transmission in one family. 4) The patients complained the symptoms of nausea and vomiting, jaundice, poor appetite, mild fever, fatigueness, abdominal pain, URI symptom, dyspepsia, dark urine, headache and diarrhea in order, and findings of jaundice, hepatomegaly, RUQ tenderness, splenomegaly and LLQ tenderness in order were seen. 5) All patients showed abnormal findings of the liver function tests, and the pattern of cholestatic hepatitis were seen in most cases, but these findings were normalized within the 2~4 weeks. The findings of the gall bladder wall thickening, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly and ascites were seen on abodominal sonogram. 6) The prognosis of all patients were good without complications, except in one case who had the episode of transient recuurence. And the mean hospitalization dates were 11.1 days. Conclusion : We found that the incidence of hepatitis A showed the increasing trend, and peaked in the 1998 in Kyung-gi province children. And hepatitis A mainly developed in children above the 10 year old ages. The scioeconomic and educational status of patient's family was almostly below the middle class. All of them showed abnormal liver function, and clinically cholestatic hepatitis features were seen in most cases. But, the prognosis was excellent without complication in all cases.

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The Comparative Study of on Pump CABG during Pulsatile $(T-PLS^{TM})$ and Nonpulsatile $(Bio-pump^{TM})$ Perfusion (관상동맥우회술 시 사용된 박동성펌프$(T-PLS^{TM})$와 비박동성펌프$(Bio-pump^{TM})$의 비교연구)

  • Park Young-Woo;Her Keun;Lim Jae-Ung;Shin Hwa-Kyun;Won Yong-Soon
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.39 no.5
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    • pp.354-358
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    • 2006
  • Background: Pulsatile pumps for extracorporeal circulation have been known to be better for tissue perfusion than non-pulsatile pumps but be detrimental to blood corpuscles. This study is intended to examine the risks and benefits of $T-PLS^{TM}$ through the comparison of clinical effects of $T-PLS^{TM}$ (pulsatile pump) and $Bio-pump^{TM}$ (non-pulsatile pump) used for coronary bypass surgery. Material and Method: The comparison was made on 40 patients who had coronary bypass using $T-PLS^{TM}\;and\;Bio-pump^{TM}$ (20 patients for each) from April 2003 to June 2005. All of the surgeries were operated on pump beating coronary artery bypass graft using cardiopulmonary extra-corporeal circulation. Risk factors before surgery and the condition during surgery and the results were compared. Result: There was no significant difference in age, gender ratio, and risk factors before surgery such as history of diabetes, hypertension, smoking, obstructive pulmonary disease, coronary infarction, and renal failure between the two groups. Surgery duration, hours of heart-lung machine operation, used shunt and grafted coronary branch were little different between the two groups. The two groups had a similar level of systolic arterial pressure, diastolic arterial pressure and mean arterial pressure, but pulse pressure was measured higher in the group with $T-PLS^{TM}\;(46{\pm}15\;mmHg\;in\;T-PLS^{TM}\;vs\;35{\pm}13\;mmHg\;in\;Bio-pump^{TM},\;p<0.05)$. The $T-PLS^{TM}$-operated patients tended to produce more urine volume during surgery, but the difference was not statistically significant $(9.7{\pm}3.9\;cc/min\;in\;T-PLS^{TM}\;vs\;8.9{\pm}3.6\;cc/min\;in\;Bio-pump^{TM},\;p=0.20)$. There was no significant difference in mean duration of respirator usage and 24-hour blood loss after surgery between the two groups. Plasma free Hb was measured lower in the group with $T-PLS^{TM}\;(24.5{\pm}21.7\;mg/dL\;in\;T-PLS^{TM}\;versus\;46.8{\pm}23.0mg/dL\;in\;Bio-pump^{TM},\;p<0.05)$. There was no significant difference in coronary infarction, arrhythmia, renal failure and morbidity rate of cerebrovascular disease. There was a case of death after surgery (death rate of 5%) in the group tested with $T-PLS^{TM}$, but the death rate was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Coronary bypass was operated with $T-PLS^{TM}$ (Pulsatile flow pump) using a heart-lung machine. There was no unexpected event caused by mechanical error during surgery, and the clinical process of the surgery was the same as the surgery for which $Bio-pump^{TM}$ was used. In addition, $T-PLS^{TM}$ used surgery was found to be less detrimental to blood corpuscles than the pulsatile flow has been known to be. Authors of this study could confirm the safety of $T-PLS^{TM}$.

Effect of Agaricus blazei β-Glucan and Egg Shell Calcium Complex on Bone Metabolism in Ovariectomized Rats (난소절제 흰쥐에서 신령버섯의 β-Glucan과 난각 Ca 복합체가 골 대사에 미치는 효과)

  • Noh, Kyung-Hee;Jang, Ji-Hyun;Kim, Jin-Ju;Park, Cherl-Woo;Kim, Jeong-Ok;Kim, Jae-Cherl;Song, Young-Sun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.35 no.10
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    • pp.1363-1370
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    • 2006
  • This study was designed to evaluate the effect of Agaricus blazei $\beta-glucan$ and egg shell calcium complex on bone metabolism in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Forty Sprague-Dewley female rats, 10 weeks of age $(248{\pm}1.7g)$, were divided into 4 groups and fed on the experimental diets for 6 weeks: sham operated control treated with normal diet containing 0.5% calcium (Sham-C), OVX-control treated with normal diet containing 0.5% calcium (OVX-C), $OVX-\beta-glucan$ group treated with $\beta-glucan$ diet containing 0.5% calcium (OVX-G), and $OVX-\beta-glucan$ egg shell calcium complex treated with $OVX-\beta-glucan$ egg shell calcium complex containing 0.5% calcium (OVX-GE). Bone weight of femur was higher in the OVX-GE group than in the other OVX groups. Bone mineral density of femur was significantly different (p<0.05) among the experimental groups and showed the highest level in the OVX-GE group. Calcium absorption rate and retention were higher in the $\beta-glucan$ supplement groups than in the other groups (p<0.05). Alkaline phosphatase activities and osteocalcin levels of serum showed lower in the $\beta-glucan$ supplement groups than in the OVX-C group. Deoxypyridinoline crosslink values of urine, indicator of bone absorption, showed the lowest in the OVX-GE group. The $\beta-glucan$ supplemented groups had a lower bone resorption ratio than in the OVX-C group. We concluded that bioavailability of calcium is higher in $\beta-glucan$ supplement groups compared to those in OVX rats. From the above results, these findings suggest the possibility of using $\beta-glucan$ egg shell calcium complex as a functional food material related to bone metabolism, even though there is no significant difference between the groups of $\beta-glucan$ and $\beta-glucan-egg$ shell calcium complex supplementation.

A Clinical Study of Acute Poststreptococcal Glomerulonephritis with Nephrotic Syndrome (신증후군을 동반한 연쇄상구균 감염후 급성사구체신염의 임상적 고찰)

  • Moon Sang-Ae;Yook Jin-Won;Kim Ji-Hong;Lee Jae-Seung;Jeong Hyun-Joo;Kim Pyung-Kil
    • Childhood Kidney Diseases
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.123-129
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    • 1999
  • Purpose: Acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis(APSGN) is a renal disease which is characterized by glomerular proliferation and inflammatory changes due to immune reaction. Although the 95% of patients with APSGN seems to recover fully and present as benign course, the remaining patients show poor prognosis. Therefore comparative retrograde study between APSGN with and without nephrotic syndrome was done to find out the any prognostic indicator to predict the outcome in patients with APSGN. Methods: We had retrospectively analyzed seventy-one patients who were diagnosed as APSGN clinically from Mar.1989 to Feb.1999 in Yonsei university medical center. Sixty-four of the patients was APSGN without nephrotic syndrome(Group A) and seven patients were in APSGN with nephrotic syndrome(Group B). Results: Patients who were diagnosed as APSGN with nephrotic syndrome were seven(9.9%) out of seventy-one. In the comparative study, sex ratio was 1:1 in group A and 1.9: 1 in group B, onset mean age was $8.9{\pm}2.6$ in group A and $8.8{\pm}2.6$ in group B. Following clinical profiles were compared but there were no significant difference between these two groups: WBC count($9413{\pm}2964\;vs\;9368{\pm}2650(/mm^3)$), hemoglobin($10.6{\pm}1.2\;vs\;10.0{\pm}0.9(gm/dL)$), ASO($746.1{\pm}640.7\;vs\;614.9{\pm}475.9(IU/ml)$), $C_3(20.1{\pm}17.0\;vs\;16.9{\pm}13.1(mg/dL)$), $C_4(22.8{\pm}9.5\;vs\;22.6{\pm}6.9(mg/dL)$), BUN($25.8{\pm}26.1\;vs\;28.1{\pm}14.5(mg/dL)$), creatinin($0.8{\pm}0.3\;vs\;0.8{\pm}0.3(mg/dL)$), $C_{cr}(80.6{\pm}28.8{\pm}62.4{\pm}31.4(ml/min/1.73\;m^2$)), the duration of edma, gross hematuria, and hypertension. However, we found that there were a significant difference in the duration of proteinuria($1.95{\pm}2.27\;vs\;13.3{\pm}21.1(months)$)(P<0.05), decreased $C_3$ duration($1.9{\pm}2.9\;vs\;7.3{\pm}5.0(weeks)$)(P<0.05) and especially it was proloned according to the amount of early urine protein excretion. Conclusion: Our study showed markedly prolonged duration of proteinuria and decreased $C_3$ duration in patients with APSGN with nephrotic syndrome. We were not able to find the definite prognostic factor that will guide the outcome of patients with APSGN accompaning nephrotic syndrome, but above findings seemed to represent as a relative indication of the outcome of the disease. All patients recovered completely and we did not experience any cases that progressed into the renal failure.

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Comparison of Adolescent Minimal Change Nephrotic Syndrome with Childhood Minimal Change Nephrotic Syndrome (청소년기와 소아기 미세변화형 신증후군의 임상양상에 대한 비교연구)

  • Choi, Chung-Yun;Kim, Ji-Hong;Kim, Pyung-Kil
    • Childhood Kidney Diseases
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.11-19
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    • 1999
  • Purpose: MCNS is found in approximately $85\%$ of the idiopathic nephrotic syndrome in children and shows good prognosis with initial steroid therapy. MCNS most commonly appears between the ages of 2 and 10 yr. But the incidence and prognosis in adolescent MCNS are different from those found in young children; the prognosis and the response to therapy is unfavorable with increasing ages. So we compared the prevalence and the clinical manifestations of adolescent MCNS with that of childhood MCNS for management of adolescent MCNS. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study with a review of histopathologic findings and clinical manifestations of the 216 cases with MCNS which were divided into children group and adolescent group by their age of onset; under 12 years(childhood) and between 12-18 years(adolescent). Results: 1) The number of childhood idiopathic nephrotic syndrome was 245 cases, and that of adolescent idiopathic nephrotic syndrome was 55 cases. 188 cases($77\%$) showed MCNS, 30 cases($12\%$) FSGS, 4 cases($1.6\%$) MSPCN in childhood idiopathic nephrotic syndrome; 28 cases($51\%$) showed MCNS, 12 cases($22\%$) FSGS in adolescent idiopathic nephrotic syndrome. 2) The mean onset age was $7.53{\pm}5.5$ years, and the male to female ratio was 3.8:1 in childhood onset and 2.5:1 in adolescent onset with male predominance. 3) Hematuria was associated with $17\%$ of childhood onset and $39.3\%$ of adolescent onset disease(P=0.005). Hypertension appeared in $0.5\%\;and\;7\%$ in each group without significant difference between the groups. 4) 24 hour urine protein, SPI, albumin, BUN, cholesterol level showed no significant difference. 5) The response of childhood onset and adolescent onset MCNS to steroid therapy showed complete remission in $11.7\%\;&\;14.7\%$, infrequent relapsing in $29.2\%\;&\;28.5\%$, frequent relapsing in $23.9\%\;&\;14.7\%$, steroid dependent in $21.8\%\;&\;28.6\%$ each. Steroid resistant showed $13.3\%\;&\;14.7\%$ with no significance. 6) Immunosuppresant therapy was performed $57\%$ in childhood onset and $65\%$ in adolescent onset. 7) Mean number of relapse and duration from onset to first relapse showed no significance between two groups. Conclusion : Our results indicate that the incidence of hematuria, the rate of steroid dependent and frequent relapsing, and the recurrence rate were higher in adolescent MCNS; showed poorer steroid responsiveness and prognosis. Our data also point to the need for a more aggressive therapy to treat and make recommendations for the adolescent population as a whole.

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