• Title, Summary, Keyword: urine

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GC-FID Analysis of Tranylcypromine in Rat Urine (GC-FID에 의한 Rat 뇨중 Tranylcypromine의 분석)

  • 강건일;전순영
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.260-267
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    • 1985
  • A gas chromatography with flame ionization detection was developed to measure tranylcypromine in rat urine. The method involves extraction of the drug and the internal standard, phenylpropylamine from the urine using ethyl acetate and back extraction into 0.5N $H_{2}SO_{4}$. Following final extraction using dichloromethane, both the drug and the internal standard were converted to trifluoroacetyl derivatives and analyzed using a column of 3% SE-30 on 80/100 mesh Chromosorb W(HP). A calibration curve was constructed in the range of $5~50{\mu}g$tranylcypromine sulfate in 0.5ml urine and found to be linear. The detection limit was $2{\mu}g$. The tranylcypromine could be analyzed with the percent recovery of $100.81{\pm}8.13$ (SD) ina concentration range of $8-40{\mu}g$ in 0.5ml urine. When 0.4mmol/kg dose of the drug was administered through, an oral route, excretion percent of tranylcypromine in rat urine over 36hr was found to be $11.90{\pm}6.04$ (SD) for tranyleypromine sulfate and $2.23{\pm}0.63$ (SD) for benzyl trans-2-phenylcyclopropanecarbamate.

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Determination of Trace Elements in Urine Samples by Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (흑연로 원자흡수분광광도법에 의한 뇨시료 중 흔적량 원소의 정량)

  • Choi, Chong-Moon;Choi, Hee-Seon;Park, Chang Joon;Kim, Young-Sang
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.555-561
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    • 1994
  • A method was described for the graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometric determination of trace cadmium, copper, chromium and lead in urine samples. The elements were directly determined without any other treatments. The ash temperature was intensively optimized to improve the large background by the removal of organic materials and alkali and alkali earth metals in urine samples. Two kinds of standard solutions were used to plot calibration curves. From the recovery data, it could be confirmed that the analytical results with the synthetic urine matrix similar to real urine were more accurate than with a deionized water matrix.

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Serum and Urine Potassium Changes during, and after Extracorporeal Circulation in Open Heart Surgery (체외순환 전후의 혈청및 소변 칼륨의 변화)

  • 조창훈
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.17-22
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    • 1992
  • The alterations in serum and urine potassium were studied in twenty two patients who underwent open heart surgery using extracorporeal circulation from June 1990 to August 1990 at the Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, School of Medicine, Kei-myung University. There were fifteen cases congenital heart disease and seven acquired heart disease. The serum and urine potassium levels were measured pre-, intra- and postoperatively until seventh postoperative day using ionic selective electrode measuring method. After general anesthesia, the serum potassium level decreased significantly but slowly increased during.cardiopulmonary bypass and returned preoperative level after operation. The urine potassium level decreased slowly from general anesthesia to cardiopulmonary bypass weaning but returned preoperative level following operation. During cardiopulmonary bypass, serum and urine potassium levels in diuretic group were lower than that of non diuretic group. There was no remarkable difference in the serum potassium level between single RA cannulation group and bicaval cannulation group preoperatively, but the serum potassium level in single RA cannulation group was much higher than that of bicaval cannulation group. There was no significant difference in the urine potassium level between single RA can-nulation group and bicaval cannulation group postoperatively.

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The Changes of Serum and Urine Potassium after Extracorporeal Circulation in Open Heart Surgery (개심술환자에서 체외순환후 혈중 및 요중 포타시움의 변화)

  • Ju, Hong-Don;Im, Seung-Pyeong
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.24 no.10
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    • pp.951-959
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    • 1991
  • The level of serum potassium concentration is very important aspect in postoperative cardiac patients The postoperative cardiac arrhythmia and digitalis intoxication are known to be closely related with hypokalemia and also to cause the irreversible cardiac dysfunction. In this study, the changes of the level in serum and urine concentrations during, after extracorporeal circulation[EGG], Predict and Postdict periods are analyzed and compared statistically with postoperative cardiac patients 46 persons according to divided 8 groups. 1. There was no difference significantly in concentrations of serum and urine potassium in each period according to age, sex and disease types. 2. There was no difference significantly in concentrations of serum and urine potassium in each period according to the use of normothermia and hypothermia. 3. There was no difference significantly in concentrations of serum and urine potassium in each period according to the length of extracorporeal circulation time and aortic cross clamping time. 4. There was no difference significantly in concentrations of serum and urine potassium in each period according to the amount of the infused cardioplegic solution and level of Hct.

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The Development of Ultrasonic Transducer for Measurement of Urine Volume in Incontinence Preventive System (뇨실금 방지 시스템에서의 뇨량 측정을 위한 초음파 변환기의 개발)

  • Choi, Heung-Ho
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics Engineers of Korea SC
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    • v.42 no.5
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    • pp.35-42
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    • 2005
  • In this study, we designed and developed an ultrasonic transducer which can measure urine volume based on the estimation of distance between the interior-wall and posterior-wall of bladder. Measurement of urine volume is a way to help patients with urinary incontinence by detecting the amount of urine before the urine is released from the bladder. With the results of this experiment, we can measure the urine volume more accurately and also develop an incontinence preventive system. This study can help patients with urinary incontinence and enuresis to live longer, healthier lives.

Effects of Ammonia, Urea Plus Calcium Hydroxide and Animal Urine Treatments on Chemical Composition and In sacco Degradability of Rice Straw

  • Fadel Elseed, A.M.A.;Sekine, J.;Hishinuma, M.;Hamana, K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.368-373
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    • 2003
  • This experiment was conducted to examine the effects on the composition and rumen degradation in sacco of rice straw treated with animal urine (1 l of 2.9 g N/kg DM straw) and urea plus calcium hydroxide (2% urea plus 0.5% $Ca(OH)_2$/kg DM straw) as a cheap and relatively safe alternative for ammonia (3% ammonia solution/kg DM straw). Mold occurred in urine treated straw, but other treatments were apparently mold-free. All treatments significantly (p<0.05) increased CP content in the straw compared with untreated one. Ammonia-treated straw contained CP at about twice that in urine or urea-calcium hydroxide treated straw. NDF and hemicellulose contents decreased significantly (p<0.05) in all treatments, while ADF and cellulose showed no differences compared with untreated straw. The degradable fraction of DM, CP, NDF, hemicellulose and cellulose was significantly (p<0.05) increased for ammonia and urea-calcium hydroxide treatments than for urine treated or untreated straw except for CP of urine treated straw. Chemical treatment of rice straw increased the readily degradable fraction of CP, while it decreased the slowly degradable fraction for urine or urea-calcium hydroxide treated rice straw. The degradation rate of hemicellulose was significantly (p<0.05) increased for ammonia and urea-calcium hydroxide treatments compared to urine treated or untreated straw. However, no effect on cellulose degradation rate was found by any of the treatments. There was no improvement in the degradation kinetics caused by the urine treatment despite the improvement of the chemical composition. Although the improvement in rumen degradability was less in the urea-calcium hydroxide treatment than in the ammonia treatment, its use may be more desirable because it is less expensive to obtain, less hazardous nature, and readily available. For further improvement it is necessary to investigate the supplementation of slowly degradable nitrogen to ureacalcium hydroxide treated rice straw diet.

Influence of Level of Feed Intake on Concentration of Purine Derivatives in Urinary Spot Samples and Microbial Nitrogen Supply in Crossbred Bulls

  • George, S.K.;Dipu, M.T.;Mehra, U.R.;Verma, A.K.;Singh, P.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.9
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    • pp.1291-1297
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    • 2006
  • The potential of the spot urine sampling technique as an alternative to performing a total urine collection to predict the microbial nitrogen supply was evaluated in crossbred bulls. In a completely randomized design, 20 growing crossbred bulls were assigned four levels of feed intake (120, 100, 80 and 60% of voluntary dry matter intake) on diets comprised of wheat straw and concentrate mixture (50:50). After three months of experimental feeding, a metabolism trial was conducted for ten days, during which spot urine collections were performed every 6 h post feeding on days 9 and 10. The daily urinary excretion of allantoin (A) and purine derivatives (PD) decreased with the reduction in feed intake while creatinine (C) excretion remained similar in animals fed at different levels. The microbial nitrogen (MN) supply calculated from the PD excreted in total urine (35.08 to 72.08 g/d) was higher at increased levels of feed intake. PD concentration in spot urine samples had poor correlation with feed intake except at 12 h post feeding. A/C ratio and PD/C ratio in spot urine samples remained similar irrespective of sampling time and significantly (p<0.01) correlated with daily urinary PD excretion, digestible organic matter intake and dry matter (DM) intake. However, no significant differences were evident in these ratios among animals fed at levels 120, 100 and 80% of voluntary dry matter intake (VDMI) at different times post feeding. These results suggests that the spot urine sampling technique to predict the microbial protein supply is not suitable for detecting small differences in MN supply and hence, estimation of PD excreted in total urine (mmol/d) is necessary to assess precisely the MN supply in crossbred bulls.

Role of urine osmolality as a predictor of the effectiveness of combined imipramine and desmopressin in the treatment of monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis

  • Lee, Kwon Soo;Chang, Jun Bo;Jang, Jae Yoon;Ko, Young Hwii;Park, Yong Hoon;Song, Phil Hyun
    • Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.85-89
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    • 2015
  • Background: We examined the usefulness of urine osmolality, as a predictive factor in the treatment of monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (NE) with combination therapy of imipramine and desmopressin. Methods: From May 2014 to April 2015, 59 monosymptomatic NE patients participated in this study. Early morning urine osmolality was measured at 1 week and 1 day before combination therapy of imipramine and desmopressin, and at 1 week and 2 weeks after therapy. The response to combination therapy was evaluated at 3 months after treatment. The mean period of combination therapy was $6.4{\pm}4.2weeks$. Therapeutic response was classified as complete (0-1 wet night/week), partial (over 50% reduction of night) and non-responders (less than 50% reduction of night). Results: The cumulative rate of the complete and partial responders was 76.3%. Among the 3 groups, the statistically lowest value of pre-treatment urine osmolality was observed in the complete responder group (p<0.001). Urine osmolality increased in all groups after treatment, however, statistically the greatest difference between pre and post-treatment urine osmolality was observed in the complete responder group (p=0.024). No serious side effects were observed. Conclusion: Early morning urine osmolality and change of urine osmolality between pre and post-treatment have predictive values in the response to combined imipramine and desmopressin for treatment of monosymptomatic NE.

Chemical enhancement of footwear impressions in urine on the surface of tiles

  • Kim, Sung Jin;Hong, Sungwook
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.113-119
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    • 2019
  • Enhancement of footwear impressions in urine on the surface of tiles by using p-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde (DMAC), which react with urea, and ninhydrin, 1,8-diazafluoren-9-one (DFO), 1,2-indanedione/zinc (1,2-IND/Zn), which react with amino acid, was studied. As a result of comparing the application methods of reagents, the ninhydrin and the 1,2-IND/Zn were suitable for application with spray method, which is spray directly on footwear impression, DFO and DMAC were suitable for application with dry contact method, which is applying heat with press to DMAC impregnated paper on footwear impression. In addition, DMAC applied with dry contact method showed best contrast and enhancement result in both white and black colored tiles by comparing of the sensitivity by different dilution ratio of urine and the aging time of footwear impressions in urine. And the result of applied with DMAC (with dry contact method) on the floor tiles collected at various places in a building's men's and women's bathrooms, it can be successfully enhanced that footwear impressions in urine. So it is believed that the method can be used to recover footwear impressions in urine from real crime scenes.

Lead Levels in Blood and Urine of a Normal Male Person in Korea (일부 남자 정상인의 혈액 및 뇨중 연함량)

  • Park, Jong-An;Choi, Joo-Sub;Lee, Jong-Wha;Lee, Seok-Ki
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.224-230
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    • 1998
  • In order to provide a basic data for the prevention of the adverse effect of lead on health, We examined lead level in the blood and urine of 371 healthy men living in Choongchung-do from May to June, 1997. The results were as follows ; 1. Average lead level of all the subjects was $3.98{\pm}1.02{\mu}g/dl$ in blood, and $3.94{\pm}2.09{\mu}g/L$ in urine, respectively. Lead contents examined in this study were significantly lower than those of other investigators. 2. The lead levels of all the subjects in blood and urine had almost normal distribution. 3. Relation between lead content in blood and urine was a simple linear regression; its equation was "Lead level in blood=36.76+0.77 lead level in urine".

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