• Title, Summary, Keyword: urine

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Lead Levels in Blood and Urine of a Normal Male Person in Korea (일부 남자 정상인의 혈액 및 뇨중 연함량)

  • Park, Jong-An;Choi, Joo-Sub;Lee, Jong-Wha;Lee, Seok-Ki
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.224-230
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    • 1998
  • In order to provide a basic data for the prevention of the adverse effect of lead on health, We examined lead level in the blood and urine of 371 healthy men living in Choongchung-do from May to June, 1997. The results were as follows ; 1. Average lead level of all the subjects was $3.98{\pm}1.02{\mu}g/dl$ in blood, and $3.94{\pm}2.09{\mu}g/L$ in urine, respectively. Lead contents examined in this study were significantly lower than those of other investigators. 2. The lead levels of all the subjects in blood and urine had almost normal distribution. 3. Relation between lead content in blood and urine was a simple linear regression; its equation was "Lead level in blood=36.76+0.77 lead level in urine".

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Detection and Characterization of Novel Extracellular Phospholipase $A_2$ in Urine of Patients with Acute Pyelonephritis

  • Park, Jae-Hyeun;Lee, Jee-Hye;Baek, Suk-Hwan;Moon, Tae-Chul;Lee, Jong-Myung;Kim, Nung-Soo;Nam, Kyung-Soo;Chang, Hyeun-Wook
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.101-105
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    • 1997
  • Extracellular phospholipase $A_2$ activity has been detected in urine of patients with acute pyelonephritis (APN). This enzyme required micromolar $Ca^{2+}$ ion for its maximum activity and showed a broad range of pH (4.5~10) optimum. Urine enzyme hydrolyzed phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylserine (PS) more effectively than phosphatidylcholine (PC). $PLA_2$ activity in the urine of patients with APN was about 5-fold higher than that of healthy individuals. When urine was subjected to heparinSepharose column chromatography, phospholipase $A_2$ activity was detected in both heparin-non-binding and binding fractions. Both phospholipase $A_2$ activities were sensitive less than a micromolar calcium concentration and did not react with anti-human 14-kDa group II phospholipase $A_2$ monoclonal antibody, HP-l. These findings suggest that two kinds of novel extracellular phospholipase $A_2$. which may not belong to the 14-kDa group II phospholipase $A_2$ family, exist in the urine of patients with APN.

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Real-time urine monitoring system for intensive care patient using optical sensor (광센서를 이용한 실시간 중환자 요량감시 장치)

  • Kim, Jong-Myoung;Lee, Jin-Young;Hong, Joo-Hyun;Lim, Seung-Woon;Cha, Eun-Jong;Lee, Tae-Soo
    • Journal of Sensor Science and Technology
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.81-85
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    • 2008
  • This paper addressed real-time urine monitoring device for intensive care patients. The device was developed to detect and count each urine drop using optical sensor and calculate the current urine output volume and its hourly rate. In experiment, the water volume scale of drainage bottle was observed and compared with the count of the device so that the volume of each drop was found to vary with the dropping rate per minute. From this measurement, the relationship equation was derived to estimate the total water volume from the drop rate (correlation coefficient : r= 0.99). The developed device could be applied to count patient's urine drop successfully. Therefore, this device can be used to monitor intensive care patient's urine status in real-time.

Development of Analytical Technology Using the HS-SPME-GC/FID for Monitoring Aromatic Solvents in Urine

  • Lee, Mi-Young;Chung, Yun Kyung;Shin, Kyong-Sok
    • Mass Spectrometry Letters
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.18-20
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    • 2013
  • Headspace solid phase micro-extraction gas chromatography/flame ionization detection (HS-SPME-GC/FID) method was compared with headspace gas chromatography/mass selective detection (HS-GC/MS). Organic solvent-spiked urine as well as urine samples from workspace was analyzed under optimal condition of each method. Detection limit of each compound by HS-SPME-GC/FID was $3.4-9.5{\mu}g/L$, which enabled trace analysis of organic solvents in urine. Linear range of each organic solvent was $10-400{\mu}g/L$, with fair correlation coefficient between 0.992 and 0.999. The detection sensitivity was 4 times better than HS-GC/MS in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. Accuracy and precision was confirmed using commercial reference material, with accuracy around 90% and precision less than 4.6% of coefficient of variance. Among 48 urine samples from workplace, toluene was detected from 45 samples in the range of $20-324{\mu}g/L$, but no other solvents were found. As a method for trace analysis, SPME HS GC/FID showed high sensitivity for biological monitoring of organic solvent in urine.

The Study on the Prevalence and Significance of Urinary HBsAg. Detection (요중(尿中) B형(型) 간염항원(肝炎抗原) 발현(發現)의 의의(意義)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Han, Jin-Suk;Pyo, Heui-Jung;Shin, Young-Tae;Park, Jeong-Sik;Kim, Suhng-Gwon;Choe, Kang-Won;Lee, Jung-Sang;Lee, Mun-Ho
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.27-32
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    • 1981
  • HBsAg. was identified in the urine of the patients positive for serum HBsAg. by Tripatzis in 1970. In 1977, Hourani et al reported the incidence of HBsAg. in urine was about 52% in the patients positive for serum HBsAg. with hemodialysis treatment due to chronic renal failure. A series of studies on the HBsAg. in urine has revealed the urine of the patients positive for serum HBsAg. to be important source of infection. But there's much room to debate on the relationship of HBsAg. in urine with infectivity and the exact mechanism of urinary emergence of HBsAg. The authors detected HBsAg. in serum and urine by employing sandwitch solid-phase rad ioimmunoassay, and performed urinalysis, liver function test and renal function evaluation. Percutanous liver and/or kidney biopsis were done. Among 38 renal disease patients, 9 cases (23.4%) were shown to be positive for serum HBsAg. and 5 cases (55.5%) among above 9 patients positive for urine HBsAg.. 56 cases (67.4%) of 83 liver disease patients revealed positive for serum HBsAg. but only 11 cases (13.2%) among the 56 cases positive fo urine HBsAg. All 10 renal and liver disease patients revealed positive serum HBsAg., and among the 9 cases (90%) positive for urine HBsAg.. In the 25 patients positive for urine HBsAg. all of 5 renal patients and 9 renal and liver patients had hematuria or/and proteinuria above 2 positive for albumin. But in the 11 liver patients 6 cases (55.1%) were normal findings. And there's no significant difference in cpm of urine HBsAg. between the patient positive for serum HBsAg. and negative, and in cpm of serum HBsAg. between liver and renal disease patients. But there's statistical significance in cm of urine HBsAg. between renal and liver diseases.

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The Relationship Between Airborne Trichloroetnylene Concentrations and Total Trichloro-compounds and Trichloroacetic Acid in Urine (근로자의 트리클로로에틸렌 폭로 농도와 요중 총삼염화물 및 삼염화초산 농도와의 관계)

  • Jeon, Hasub;KIm, Hyunwook
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.7-16
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    • 1994
  • This study was designed to establish the relationship between airborne trichloroethylene concentrations and total trichloro-compounds and trichloroacetic acid in urine samples of the trichloroethylene exposed workers, to examine if the biological screening value for trichloroacetic acid in urine set by the Ministry of Labor is appropriate, and to suggest a suitable biological screening value for total trichloro-compounds in urine. Seventy male workers from the cleaning, the packing, and the inspcetion areas were selected as the study group and eighty male office workers were chosen as the control group. The results were as follows: 1. The mean values of total trichloro-compounds and trichloroacetic acid in the exposed group ($48.1{\pm}1.5mg/{\ell}$, $19.7{\pm}1.9mg/{\ell}$) were significantly higher than those in the control group($4.3{\pm}1.5mg/{\ell}$, $1.8{\pm}1.2mg/{\ell}$). 2. The airborne tichloroethylene concentrations were significantly related with the concentrations of total trichloro-compounds in urine(r=0.8212) and the concentrations of trichloroacetic acid in urine(r=0.7216). 3. The average trichloroethylene concentrations in the manual cleaning plants and that in the automatic cleaning plants were 40.1 ppm and 7.7 ppm, respectively. The difference between two groups was statistically significant. 4. The geometric mean of 49.6 ppm trichloroethylene concentration was resulted in the $185.4mg/{\ell}$ total trichloro-compounds in urine, and the 50 ppm trichloroethylene concentration was expected to produce $170.4{\pm}28.5mg/{\ell}$ total trichloro-compounds in urine. 5. With the geometric mean of 49.6 ppm trichloroethylene concentration, the corresponding geometric mean concentration of trichloroacetic acid in urine was $74.7mg/{\ell}$. In conclusion, the level of personal exposure to trichloroethylene concentration was significantly correlated with the concentrations of total trichloro-compounds and trichloroacetic acid in urine. Current biological screening value of $75mg/{\ell}$ for trichloroacetic acid in urine set by the Ministry of Labor was thought to be appropriate, and a biological screening value for total trichloro-compounds in urine should be set in the range of $170.4{\pm}28.5mg/{\ell}$ as a reference value for trichoroethylene exposure.

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Effect of storage time and temperature on levels of phthalate metabolites and bisphenol A in urine

  • Guo, Ying;Wang, Lei;Kannan, Kurunthachalam
    • Advances in environmental research
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.9-17
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    • 2013
  • Urine is a widely used matrix in biomonitoring studies on the assessment of human exposure to environmental chemicals such as phthalate esters and bisphenol A (BPA). In addition to the need to apply valid analytical techniques, assurance of specimen integrity during collection and storage is an important prerequisite for the presentation of accurate and precise analytical data. One of the common issues encountered in the analysis of non-persistent contaminants is whether shipping and storage temperature and time since collection have an effect on sample integrity. In this study, we investigated the stability of phthalate metabolites and BPA in spiked and unspiked urine samples stored at room temperature ($20^{\circ}C$) or at $-80^{\circ}C$ for up to 8 weeks. Concentrations of phthalate metabolites declined, on average, by 3% to 15%, depending on the compounds, and BPA declined by ~30% after 4 weeks of storage of spiked urine samples at $20^{\circ}C$. In a test of 30 unspiked urine samples stored at $20^{\circ}C$ and at $-80^{\circ}C$ for 8 weeks, the concentrations of phthalate metabolites and BPA decreased by up to 15% to 44%, depending on the compound and on the samples. It was found that the small reduction in phthalate concentrations observed in urine, varied depending on the samples. In a few urine samples, concentrations of phthalate metabolites and BPA did not decline even after storage at $20^{\circ}C$ for 8 weeks. We found a significant relationship between concentrations of target analytes in urine stored at $20^{\circ}C$ and at $-80^{\circ}C$ for 8 weeks. We estimated the half-lives of phthalate metabolites and BPA in urine stored at $20^{\circ}C$. The estimated half-life of monoethyl phthalate (mEP) and mono (2-ethyl-5-carboxyphentyl) phthalate (mECPP) in urine stored at $20^{\circ}C$ was over two years, of mono (2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (mEOHP) and monobenzyl phthalate (mBzP) was approximately one year, and of other phthalate metabolites was approximately 6 months. The estimated half-life of BPA in urine stored at $20^{\circ}C$ was approximately 3 months, which is much longer than that reported for aquatic ecosystems.

The effect of Corni Fructus on renal function

  • Jeong, Myung-Kum;Yang, Ki-Sook
    • Proceedings of the PSK Conference
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    • pp.385.2-385
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    • 2002
  • Cornus officinalis has been used as protective drug for liver and kidney function. In order to evaluate the effect on renal function of Corni Fructus. We measured urine volume, chemical parameters(urea nitrogen. creatinine, uric acid). electrolytes($Na^{+}$, $K^{+}$, $Cl^{-}$) in serum and urine. Furosemide showed significant urine volume. serum and urine parameters, but Corni Fructus showed normal level parameters by dose increasing in rats.

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A Study on Acid-fast Bacteria in Urine (尿中 抗酸菌에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Chung-Oh;Lee, Hyeong-Choon
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.63-65
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    • 1987
  • A study on detection rates of acid-fast bacteria in urine by three sampling methods was performed on 898 cases randomly sampled from peoples who visited Dr. Chung's Health Lab. from January to December, 1983. Positive rate by 5 times sampling of motring urine was 7.0% and 12.5% higher than that of 24 hours sampling. Therefore, 5 times sampling of morning urine method was considered to be desirable method for the test of ambulatory cases.

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Factors affecting the contamination of bag urine culture in febrile children under two years (2세 미만의 열성 환아에서 소변 주머니를 이용한 소변 배양 검사의 오염률에 영향을 미치는 인자)

  • Choi, Wook Hyun;Lim, In Seok
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.52 no.3
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    • pp.346-350
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    • 2009
  • Purpose : Since children under two years with suspected urinary tract infections (UTIs) cannot control urination, urine cultures in such children are usually performed via urine bags. This method is noninvasive but has a high contamination rate. We studied the contamination rate of bag urine culture in diagnosing UTI in infants under two years and the factors responsible for contamination. Methods : We examined patients under 2 years in whom urine culture through the urine bag method yielded over 105 colonies of a single pathogen. We defined UTI by referring to the guidelines of The Korean Society of Pediatric Nephrology, 2005. We examined the factors responsible for contamination according to sex, duration of urine collection, and whether diarrhea took place with contamination rate. Results : We examined 717 patients (412 males and 305 females). The contamination rate of one bag urine culture was 37.9%. Gender was not related to the contamination rate (P>0.05). Duration of urine collection showed an association with the contamination rate. The longer the duration of collecting urine, the higher was the contamination rate. Duration of urine collection was divided into three groups: first group, <2 hours; second group, 24 hours; and third group, ${\geq}4$ hours. Contamination rates were 30.0%, 42.2%, and 43.7% for the first, second, and third groups, respectively, with statistical significance (P=0.001). Diarrhea at admission had no impact on the contamination rate (P>0.05). Conclusion : The contamination rate of urine culture in the examined patients was 37.9%. Gender and diarrhea symptoms were not responsible for contamination. In infants with a suspected UTI, urine should be collected within 2 hours through the urine bag method. If urine collection takes >2 hours, the urine bag should be resterilized and reattached to the patient.